B Larsson

AlbaNova University Center, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (75)181.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context: The dusty debris disk around the ~20 Myr old main-sequence A-star beta Pic is known to contain gas. Evidence points towards a secondary origin of the gas as opposed to being a direct remnant from the initial protoplanetary disk, although the dominant gas production mechanism is so far no identified. The origin of the observed overabundance of C and O compared to e.g. Na and Fe is also unclear. Aims: Our goal is to constrain the spatial distribution of C in the disk, and thereby the gas origin and its abundance pattern. Methods: We used the HIFI instrument aboard Herschel to observe and spectrally resolve C II 158 micron emission from the beta Pic debris disk. Assuming Keplerian rotation and a model for the line emission from the disk, we used the spectrally line profile to constrain the spatial distribution of the gas. Results: We detect the C II 158 micron emission. Modelling the shape of the emission line shows that most of the gas is located around ~100 AU or beyond. We estimate a total C gas mass of 0.013 Earth masses. The data suggest that more gas is located on the southwest side of the disk. The shape of the emission line in consistent with the hypothesis of a well-mixed gas. Assuming instead a spatial profile expected from a simplified accretion disk model, we found it to give a significantly worse fit to the observations. Conclusions: Since the bulk of the gas is found outside 30 AU, we argue that the cometary objects known as "falling evaporating bodies" are unlikely to be the dominant source of gas; production from grain-grain collisions or photodesorption seems more likely. The incompatibility of the observations with a simplified accretion disk model could favour a preferential depletion explanation for the overabundance of C and O. More stringent constraints on the spatial distributions will be available from ALMA observations of C I emission at 609 microns.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OH is a key species in the water chemistry of star-forming regions, because its presence is tightly related to the formation and destruction of water. This paper presents OH observations from 23 low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects obtained with the PACS integral field spectrometer on-board Herschel in the context of the Water In Star-forming Regions with Herschel (WISH) key program. Most low-mass sources have compact OH emission (< 5000 AU scale), whereas the OH lines in most intermediate-mass sources are extended over the whole PACS detector field-of-view (> 20000 AU). The strength of the OH emission is correlated with various source properties such as the bolometric luminosity and the envelope mass, but also with the OI and H2O emission. Rotational diagrams for sources with many OH lines show that the level populations of OH can be approximated by a Boltzmann distribution with an excitation temperature at around 70 K. Radiative transfer models of spherically symmetric envelopes cannot reproduce the OH emission fluxes nor their broad line widths, strongly suggesting an outflow origin. Slab excitation models indicate that the observed excitation temperature can either be reached if the OH molecules are exposed to a strong far-infrared continuum radiation field or if the gas temperature and density are sufficiently high. Using realistic source parameters and radiation fields, it is shown for the case of Ser SMM1 that radiative pumping plays an important role in transitions arising from upper level energies higher than 300 K. The compact emission in the low-mass sources and the required presence of a strong radiation field and/or a high density to excite the OH molecules points towards an origin in shocks in the inner envelope close to the protostar.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apart from being an important coolant, H2O is known to be a tracer of high-velocity molecular gas. Recent models predict relatively high abundances behind interstellar shockwaves. The dynamical and physical conditions of the H2O emitting gas, however, are not fully understood yet. We aim to determine the abundance and distribution of H2O, its kinematics and the physical conditions of the gas responsible for the H2O emission. The observed line profile shapes help us understand the dynamics in molecular outflows. We mapped the VLA1623 outflow, in the ground-state transitions of o-H2O, with the HIFI and PACS instruments. We also present observations of higher energy transitions of o-H2O and p-H2O obtained with HIFI and PACS towards selected outflow positions. From comparison with non-LTE radiative transfer calculations, we estimate the physical parameters of the water emitting regions. The observed water emission line profiles vary over the mapped area. Spectral features and components, tracing gas in different excitation conditions, allow us to constrain the density and temperature of the gas. The H2O emission originates in a region where temperatures are comparable to that of the warm H2 gas (T\gtrsim200K). Thus, the H2O emission traces a gas component significantly warmer than the gas responsible for the low-J CO emission. The H2O column densities at the CO peak positions are low, i.e. N(H2O) \simeq (0.03-10)x10e14 cm-2. The H2O abundance with respect to H2 in the extended outflow is estimated at X(H2O)<1x10e-6, significantly lower than what would be expected from most recent shock models. The H2O emission traces a gas component moving at relatively high velocity compared to the low-J CO emitting gas. However, other dynamical quantities such as the momentum rate, energy and mechanical luminosity are estimated to be the same, independent of the molecular tracer used, CO or H2O.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H2Cl+) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s–1 cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H35 2Cl+ and para-H37 2Cl+ isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 111-000 transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for ~4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of ~2 × 1013 cm–2 and ~1.2 × 1013 cm–2, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H35 2Cl+ line strengths toward H2 Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor ~10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 748(1):37. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Models of pure gas-phase chemistry in well-shielded regions of molecular clouds predict relatively high levels of molecular oxygen, O2, and water, H2O. Contrary to expectation, the space missions SWAS and Odin found only very small amounts of water vapour and essentially no O2 in the dense star-forming interstellar medium. Only toward rho Oph A did Odin detect a weak line of O2 at 119 GHz in a beam size of 10 arcmin. A larger telescope aperture such as that of the Herschel Space Observatory is required to resolve the O2 emission and to pinpoint its origin. We use the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared aboard Herschel to obtain high resolution O2 spectra toward selected positions in rho Oph A. These data are analysed using standard techniques for O2 excitation and compared to recent PDR-like chemical cloud models. The 487.2GHz line was clearly detected toward all three observed positions in rho Oph A. In addition, an oversampled map of the 773.8GHz transition revealed the detection of the line in only half of the observed area. Based on their ratios, the temperature of the O2 emitting gas appears to vary quite substantially, with warm gas (> 50 K) adjacent to a much colder region, where temperatures are below 30 K. The exploited models predict O2 column densities to be sensitive to the prevailing dust temperatures, but rather insensitive to the temperatures of the gas. In agreement with these model, the observationally determined O2 column densities seem not to depend strongly on the derived gas temperatures, but fall into the range N(O2) = (3 to >6)e15/cm^2. Beam averaged O2 abundances are about 5e-8 relative to H2. Combining the HIFI data with earlier Odin observations yields a source size at 119 GHz of about 4 - 5 arcmin, encompassing the entire rho Oph A core.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2012; 541:73. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    åp. 01/2012; 537:A17.
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    ABSTRACT: We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O2) in emission from the H2 Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s-1 to 12 km s-1 and widths of 3 km s-1. The beam-averaged column density is N(O2) = 6.5\times1016 cm-2, and assuming that the source has an equal beam filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19"), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O2 relative to H2 is 0.3 - 7.3\times10-6. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a ~ 5" diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is ~ 10 M\odot and the dust temperature is \geq 150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O2 abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T \geq 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O2. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature \geq 180 K. The inferred O2 column density \simeq 5\times1018 cm-2 can be produced in Peak A, having N(H2) \simeq 4\times1024 cm-2. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10 to 15 km s-1) C-shock, which can produce N(O2) up to 1017 cm-2.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2011; 737(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are aiming at the observational estimation of the relative contribution to the cooling by CO and H2O, as this provides decisive information for the understanding of the oxygen chemistry behind interstellar shock waves. Methods. The high sensitivity of HIFI, in combination with its high spectral resolution capability, allows us to trace the H2O outflow wings at unprecedented signal-to-noise. From the observation of spectrally resolved H2O and CO lines in the HH52-54 system, both from space and from ground, we arrive at the spatial and velocity distribution of the molecular outflow gas. Solving the statistical equilibrium and non-LTE radiative transfer equations provides us with estimates of the physical parameters of this gas, including the cooling rate ratios of the species. The radiative transfer is based on an ALI code, where we use the fact that variable shock strengths, distributed along the front, are naturally implied by a curved surface. Based on observations of CO and H2O spectral lines, we conclude that the emission is confined to the HH54 region. The quantitative analysis of our observations favours a ratio of the CO-to-H2O-cooling-rate >> 1. From the best-fit model to the CO emission, we arrive at an H2O abundance close to 1e-5. The line profiles exhibit two components, one of which is triangular and another, which is a superposed, additional feature. This additional feature likely originates from a region smaller than the beam where the ortho-water abundance is smaller than in the quiescent gas. Comparison with recent shock models indicate that a planar shock can not easily explain the observed line strengths and triangular line profiles.We conclude that the geometry can play an important role. Although abundances support a scenario where J-type shocks are present, higher cooling rate ratios than predicted by these type of shocks are derived.
    06/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular species hydrogen peroxide, HOOH, is likely to be a key ingredient in the oxygen and water chemistry in the interstellar medium. Our aim with this investigation is to determine how abundant HOOH is in the cloud core {\rho} Oph A. By observing several transitions of HOOH in the (sub)millimeter regime we seek to identify the molecule and also to determine the excitation conditions through a multilevel excitation analysis. We have detected three spectral lines toward the SM1 position of {\rho} Oph A at velocity-corrected frequencies that coincide very closely with those measured from laboratory spectroscopy of HOOH. A fourth line was detected at the 4{\sigma} level. We also found through mapping observations that the HOOH emission extends (about 0.05 pc) over the densest part of the {\rho} Oph A cloud core. We derive an abundance of HOOH relative to that of H_2 in the SM1 core of about 1\times10^(-10). To our knowledge, this is the first reported detection of HOOH in the interstellar medium.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2011; 531. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reactive molecular ions, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+, key probes of the oxygen chemistry of the interstellar gas, have been observed toward Orion KL with the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory. All three N = 1 - 0 fine-structure transitions of OH+ at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz and both fine-structure components of the doublet ortho-H2O+ 111 - 000 transition at 1115 and 1139 GHz were detected, and an upper limit was obtained for H3O+. OH+ and H2O+ are observed purely in absorption, showing a narrow component at the source velocity of 9 km s-1, and a broad blue shifted absorption similar to that reported recently for HF and para-H218O, and attributed to the low velocity outflow of Orion KL. We estimate column densities of OH+ and H2O+ for the 9 km s-1 component of 9 ± 3 x 1012 cm-2 and 7 ± 2 x 1012 cm-2, and those in the outflow of 1.9 ± 0.7 x 1013 cm-2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 x 1013 cm-2. Upper limits of 2.4 x 1012 cm-2 and 8.7 ± 1012 cm-2 were derived for the column densities of ortho and para-H3O+ from transitions near 985 and 1657 GHz. The column densities of the three ions are up to an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from recent observations of W31C and W49N. A higher gas density, despite the assumption of a large ionization rate, may explain the comparatively low column densities of the ions. A part of this work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2010© California Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.521 (2010). 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The emission from Herbig-Haro objects and supersonic molecular outflows is understood as cooling radiation behind shocks, which are initiated by a (proto-)stellar wind or jet. Within a given object, one often observes both dissociative (J-type) and non-dissociative (C-type) shocks, owing to the collective effects of internally varying shock velocities. Aims: We aim at the observational estimation of the relative contribution to the cooling by CO and H2O, as this provides decisive information for understanding the oxygen chemistry behind interstellar shock waves. Methods: The high sensitivity of HIFI, in combination with its high spectral resolution capability, allowed us to trace the H2O outflow wings at an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio. From the observation of spectrally resolved H2O and CO lines in the HH52-54 system, both from space and from the ground, we arrived at the spatial and velocity distribution of the molecular outflow gas. Solving the statistical equilibrium and non-LTE radiative transfer equations provides us with estimates of the physical parameters of this gas, including the cooling rate ratios of the species. The radiative transfer is based on an accelerated lambda iteration code, where we use the fact that variable shock strengths, distributed along the front, are naturally implied by a curved surface. Results: Based on observations of CO and H2O spectral lines, we conclude that the emission is confined to the HH54 region. The quantitative analysis of our observations favours a ratio of the CO-to-H2O-cooling-rate &Gt;1. Formally, we derived the ratio Lambda(CO)/Lambda(o-H2O) = 10, which is in good agreement with earlier determination of 7 based on ISO-LWS observations. From the best-fit model to the CO emission, we arrive at an H2O abundance close to 1 × 10-5. The line profiles exhibit two components, one that is triangular and another that is a superposed, additional feature. This additional feature is likely to find its origin in a region that is smaller than the beam where the ortho-water abundance is smaller than in the quiescent gas. Conclusions: Comparison with recent shock models indicate that a planar shock cannot easily explain the observed line strengths and triangular line profiles. We conclude that the geometry can play an important role. Although abundances support a scenario where J-type shocks are present, higher cooling rate ratios are derived than predicted by these types of shocks. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. Complementary observations were made with the following. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), and Centre National d'Étude Spatiale (CNES). The Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) located at La Silla, Chile was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the European Southern Observatory. It was decommissioned in 2003. The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory and the Onsala Space Observatory.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2011; 533. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From mapping observations of H2CO, HDCO, and D2CO, we have determined how the degree of deuterium fractionation changes over the central 3'x3' region of rho Oph A. The multi-transition data of the various H2CO isotopologues, as well as from other molecules (e.g., CH3OH and N2D+) present in the observed bands, were analysed using both the standard type rotation diagram analysis and, in selected cases, a more elaborate method of solving the radiative transfer for optically thick emission. In addition to molecular column densities, the analysis also estimates the kinetic temperature and H2 density. Toward the SM1 core in rho Oph A, the H2CO deuterium fractionation is very high. In fact, the observed D2CO/HDCO ratio is 1.34+/-0.19, while the HDCO/H2CO ratio is 0.107+/-0.015. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the D2CO/HDCO abundance ratio is observed to be greater than 1. The kinetic temperature is in the range 20-30 K in the cores of rho Oph A, and the H2 density is (6-10)x10^5 cm-3. We estimate that the total H2 column density toward the deuterium peak is (1-4)x10^23 cm-2. As depleted gas-phase chemistry is not adequate, we suggest that grain chemistry, possibly due to abstraction and exchange reactions along the reaction chain H2CO -> HDCO -> D2CO, is at work to produce the very high deuterium levels observed. Comment: 17 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SWAS and Odin provided stringent upper limits on the gas phase water abundance of dark clouds (x(H2O) < 7x10^-9). We investigate the chemistry of water vapor in starless cores beyond the previous upper limits using the highly improved angular resolution and sensitivity of Herschel and measure the abundance of water vapor during evolutionary stages just preceding star formation. High spectral resolution observations of the fundamental ortho water (o-H2O) transition (557 GHz) were carried out with Herschel HIFI toward two starless cores: B68, a Bok globule, and L1544, a prestellar core embedded in the Taurus molecular cloud complex. The rms in the brightness temperature measured for the B68 and L1544 spectra is 2.0 and 2.2 mK, respectively, in a velocity bin of 0.59 km s^-1. The continuum level is 3.5+/-0.2 mK in B68 and 11.4+/-0.4 mK in L1544. No significant feature is detected in B68 and the 3 sigma upper limit is consistent with a column density of o-H2O N(o-H2O) < 2.5x10^13 cm^-2, or a fractional abundance x(o-H2O) < 1.3x10^-9, more than an order of magnitude lower than the SWAS upper limit on this source. The L1544 spectrum shows an absorption feature at a 5 sigma level from which we obtain the first value of the o-H2O column density ever measured in dark clouds: N(o-H2O) = (8+/-4)x10^12 cm^-2. The corresponding fractional abundance is x(o-H2O) ~ 5x10^-9 at radii > 7000 AU and ~2x10^-10 toward the center. The radiative transfer analysis shows that this is consistent with a x(o-H2O) profile peaking at ~10^-8, 0.1 pc away from the core center, where both freeze-out and photodissociation are negligible. Herschel has provided the first measurement of water vapor in dark regions. Prestellar cores such as L1544 (with their high central densities, strong continuum, and large envelopes) are very promising tools to finally shed light on the solid/vapor balance of water in molecular clouds.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; 521. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Water is a key molecule in the star formation process, but its spatial distribution in star-forming regions is not well known. Aims: We study the distribution of dust continuum and H2O and 13CO line emission in DR21, a luminous star-forming region with a powerful outflow and a compact H ii region. Methods: Herschel-HIFI spectra near 1100 GHz show narrow 13CO 10-9 emission and H2O 111-000 absorption from the dense core and broad emission from the outflow in both lines. The H2O line also shows absorption by a foreground cloud known from ground-based observations of low-J CO lines. Results: The dust continuum emission is extended over 36” FWHM, while the 13CO and H2O lines are confined to ≈24” or less. The foreground absorption appears to peak further North than the other components. Radiative transfer models indicate very low abundances of ~2×10-10 for H2O and ~8×10-7 for 13CO in the dense core, and higher H2O abundances of ~4×10-9 in the foreground cloud and ~7×10-7 in the outflow. Conclusions: The high H2O abundance in the warm outflow is probably due to the evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles, while the H2O abundance is kept down by freeze-out in the dense core and by photodissociation in the foreground cloud.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; 518(107). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory allows the first observations of light diatomic molecules at high spectral resolution and in multiple transitions. Here, we report deep integrations using HIFI in different lines of hydrides towards the high-mass star forming region AFGL 2591. Detected are CH, CH+, NH, OH+, H2O+, while NH+ and SH+ have not been detected. All molecules except for CH and CH+ are seen in absorption with low excitation temperatures and at velocities different from the systemic velocity of the protostellar envelope. Surprisingly, the CH(JF,P = 3/2_2,- - 1/2_1,+) and CH+(J = 1 - 0, J = 2 - 1) lines are detected in emission at the systemic velocity. We can assign the absorption features to a foreground cloud and an outflow lobe, while the CH and CH+ emission stems from the envelope. The observed abundance and excitation of CH and CH+ can be explained in the scenario of FUV irradiated outflow walls, where a cavity etched out by the outflow allows protostellar FUV photons to irradiate and heat the envelope at larger distances driving the chemical reactions that produce these molecules.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; 521(44). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a Herschel Key Program investigating the water chemistry in young stellar objects (YSOs) during protostellar evolution. Hydroxyl (OH) is one of the reactants in the chemical network most closely linked to the formation and destruction of H2O. High-temperature chemistry connects OH and H2O through the OH + H2 <-> H2O + H reactions. Formation of H2O from OH is efficient in the high-temperature regime found in shocks and the innermost part of protostellar envelopes. Moreover, in the presence of UV photons, OH can be produced from the photo-dissociation of H2O. High-resolution spectroscopy of the OH 163.12 micron triplet towards HH 46 and NGC 1333 IRAS 2A was carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board Herschel. The low- and intermediate-mass YSOs HH 46, TMR 1, IRAS 15398-3359, DK Cha, NGC 7129 FIRS 2, and NGC 1333 IRAS 2A were observed with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) in four transitions of OH and two [OI] lines. The OH transitions at 79, 84, 119, and 163 micron and [OI] emission at 63 and 145 micron were detected with PACS towards the class I low-mass YSOs as well as the intermediate-mass and class I Herbig Ae sources. No OH emission was detected from the class 0 YSO NGC 1333 IRAS 2A, though the 119 micron was detected in absorption. With HIFI, the 163.12 micron was not detected from HH 46 and only tentatively detected from NGC 1333 IRAS 2A. The combination of the PACS and HIFI results for HH 46 constrains the line width (FWHM > 11 km/s) and indicates that the OH emission likely originates from shocked gas. This scenario is supported by trends of the OH flux increasing with the [OI] flux and the bolometric luminosity. Similar OH line ratios for most sources suggest that OH has comparable excitation temperatures despite the different physical properties of the sources.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; 521(36). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HERSCHEL-HIFI observations of water from the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2 provide a powerful diagnostic of the physical conditions in this star formation environment. Six spectral settings, covering four H216O and two H218O lines, were observed and all but one H218O line were detected. The four H2 16 O lines discussed here share a similar morphology: a narrower, \approx 6 km/s, component centered slightly redward of the systemic velocity of NGC7129 FIRS 2 and a much broader, \approx 25 km/s component centered blueward and likely associated with powerful outflows. The narrower components are consistent with emission from water arising in the envelope around the intermediate mass protostar, and the abundance of H2O is constrained to \approx 10-7 for the outer envelope. Additionally, the presence of a narrow self-absorption component for the lowest energy lines is likely due to self-absorption from colder water in the outer envelope. The broader component, where the H2O/CO relative abundance is found to be \approx 0.2, appears to be tracing the same energetic region that produces strong CO emission at high J.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; 521(41). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 'Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel' (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC1333 in several H2-16O, H2-18O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H16O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km/s), medium-broad (~5-10 km/s), and narrow (<5 km/s) components. The H2-18O emission is only detected in broad 1_10-1_01 lines (>20 km/s), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H2-16O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (<1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (~10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ~0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to H2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; 521(30). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report observations of the reactive molecular ions OH$^+$, H$_2$O$^+$, and H$_3$O$^+$ towards Orion KL with Herschel/HIFI. All three $N=1-0$ fine-structure transitions of OH$^+$ at 909, 971, and 1033GHz and both fine-structure components of the doublet {\it ortho}-H$_2$O$^+$ $1_{11}-0_{00}$ transition at 1115 and 1139GHz were detected; an upper limit was obtained for H$_3$O$^+$. OH$^+$ and H$_2$O$^+$ are observed purely in absorption, showing a narrow component at the source velocity of 9 kms$^{-1}$, and a broad blueshifted absorption similar to that reported recently for HF and {\it para}-H$_{2}^{18}$O, and attributed to the low velocity outflow of Orion KL. We estimate column densities of OH$^+$ and H$_2$O$^+$ for the 9 km s$^{-1}$ component of $9 \pm 3 \times 10^{12}$cm$^{-2}$ and $7 \pm 2 \times 10^{12}$cm$^{-2}$, and those in the outflow of $1.9 \pm 0.7 \times 10^{13}$cm$^{-2}$ and $1.0 \pm 0.3 \times 10^{13}$cm$^{-2}$. Upper limits of $2.4\times 10^{12}$cm$^{-2}$ and $8.7\times 10^{12}$cm$^{-2}$ were derived for the column densities of {\it ortho} and {\it para}-H$_3$O$^+$ from transitions near 985 and 1657GHz. The column densities of the three ions are up to an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from recent observations of W31C and W49N. The comparatively low column densities may be explained by a higher gas density despite the assumption of a very high ionization rate. Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure. Accepted to and to be published in the Herschel HIFI special issue of A\&A Letters
    09/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We have used the Odin submillimetre-wave satellite telescope to observe the ground state transitions of ortho-ammonia and ortho-water, including their 15N, 18O, and 17O isotopologues, towards Sgr B2. The extensive simultaneous velocity coverage of the observations, >500 km/s, ensures that we can probe the conditions of both the warm, dense gas of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 near the Galactic centre, and the more diffuse gas in the Galactic disk clouds along the line-of-sight. We present ground-state NH3 absorption in seven distinct velocity features along the line-of-sight towards Sgr B2. We find a nearly linear correlation between the column densities of NH3 and CS, and a square-root relation to N2H+. The ammonia abundance in these diffuse Galactic disk clouds is estimated to be about (0.5-1)e-8, similar to that observed for diffuse clouds in the outer Galaxy. On the basis of the detection of H218O absorption in the 3 kpc arm, and the absence of such a feature in the H217O spectrum, we conclude that the water abundance is around 1e-7, compared to ~1e-8 for NH3. The Sgr B2 molecular cloud itself is seen in absorption in NH3, 15NH3, H2O, H218O, and H217O, with emission superimposed on the absorption in the main isotopologues. The non-LTE excitation of NH3 in the environment of Sgr B2 can be explained without invoking an unusually hot (500 K) molecular layer. A hot layer is similarly not required to explain the line profiles of the 1_{1,0}-1_{0,1} transition from H2O and its isotopologues. The relatively weak 15NH3 absorption in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud indicates a high [14N/15N] isotopic ratio >600. The abundance ratio of H218O and H217O is found to be relatively low, 2.5--3. These results together indicate that the dominant nucleosynthesis process in the Galactic centre is CNO hydrogen burning. Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

173 Citations
181.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • AlbaNova University Center
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2010–2012
    • Chalmers University of Technology
      • Department of Earth and Space Sciences
      Onsala, Halland, Sweden
  • 2009–2011
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden