Bruno H Ch Stricker

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (643)3733.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adiposity, as indicated by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate if these associations are causal, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methods. The associations of BMI with cardiovascular outcomes [coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and ischaemic stroke], and associations of a genetic score (32 BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms) with BMI and cardiovascular outcomes were examined in up to 22 193 individuals with 3062 incident cardiovascular events from nine prospective follow-up studies within the ENGAGE consortium. We used random-effects meta-analysis in an MR framework to provide causal estimates of the effect of adiposity on cardiovascular outcomes. There was a strong association between BMI and incident CHD (HR = 1.20 per SD-increase of BMI, 95% CI, 1.12-1.28, P = 1.9·10(-7)), heart failure (HR = 1.47, 95% CI, 1.35-1.60, P = 9·10(-19)) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 1.15, 95% CI, 1.06-1.24, P = 0.0008) in observational analyses. The genetic score was robustly associated with BMI (β = 0.030 SD-increase of BMI per additional allele, 95% CI, 0.028-0.033, P = 3·10(-107)). Analyses indicated a causal effect of adiposity on development of heart failure (HR = 1.93 per SD-increase of BMI, 95% CI, 1.12-3.30, P = 0.017) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 1.83, 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, P = 0.034). Additional cross-sectional analyses using both ENGAGE and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D data showed a causal effect of adiposity on CHD. Using MR methods, we provide support for the hypothesis that adiposity causes CHD, heart failure and, previously not demonstrated, ischaemic stroke. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv094 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), specifically citalopram and escitalopram, are thought to give QTc prolongation, although studies showed contradictory results. Nevertheless, a maximum citalopram dosage of 20 mg in high-risk patients (e.g. >60 years of age) is recommended. We aimed to investigate the association between use of (individual) SSRIs and QTc in a population-based study in older adults. This study, which was part of the prospective Rotterdam Study (period: 1991-2012), included participants with up to 5 electrocardiograms (ECGs). We used linear mixed models to compare QTcF (QT corrected according to Fridericia) measured during use of individual SSRIs with QTcF measured during non-use of any antidepressant. For citalopram, analyses were additionally restricted to a maximum dosage of 20 mg in participants aged 60 years and older. We included 12,589 participants with a total of 26,620 ECGs of which 436 ECGs were made during SSRI use. The mean QTcF was similar during use of any drugs from the SSRI class and during non-use. After stratifying to individual SSRIs, ECGs recorded during use of citalopram had the longest QTc compared with ECGs recorded during non-use (+12.8 ms; 90% CI: 7.5 - 18.2). This result remained similar in the analysis comprising participants aged 60 years and older with a maximum prescribed daily dosage of 20 mg of citalopram. Although no SSRI class effect was observed, use of citalopram was associated with a longer QTcF, even after considering the recommended restrictions. Other SSRIs may not give a clinically relevant QTcF prolongation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/bcp.12681 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsAcute drug overdose, especially with paracetamol, may cause acute liver failure leading to registration for transplantation (ALFT). Population statistics and between-country differences for ALFT related to overdose have been poorly described. The aim of the present study was to evaluate overdose ALFT in the multi-country Study of Acute Liver Transplantation (SALT).Methods All adult overdose-related ALFT, with or without suicidal intent, in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and the UK between 2005 and 2007 were identified from liver transplant registries and hospital records. These were compared with whole-country and per capita use of paracetamol.ResultsSix hundred cases of ALFT were identified in 52 of 57 eligible transplant centres, of which 114 involved overdose (72 intentional, 10 non-intentional, 32 uncertain). Overdose represented 20% of all-cause ALFT: Ireland 52%, UK 28%, France 18%, the Netherlands 8%, and Italy 1%. Overdose ALFT were mostly females (61%), mean age 33.6 ± 10.9 years. A total of 111 (97%) of the overdoses involved paracetamol. Event rates ranged from one ALFT for 20.7 tons of paracetamol in Ireland, to one for 1074 tons in Italy and one case in 60 million inhabitants over 3 years in Italy to one case in 286 000 inhabitants per year in Ireland. Per-country event rates for non-overdose ALFT exposed to paracetamol were between 2.5 and 4.0 per million treatment-years sold.Conclusions Paracetamol overdose was found to represent one-sixth of all-cause ALFT. There was a 50-fold difference in Europe in the rates of paracetamol overdose ALFT, and a 200-fold difference per million inhabitants.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/bcp.12635 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both sudden cardiac death (SCD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions in the elderly. Previous studies have identified an association between COPD and cardiovascular disease, and with SCD in specific patient groups. Our aim was to investigate whether there is an association between COPD and SCD in the general population. The Rotterdam study is a population-based cohort study among 14 926 subjects aged 45 years and older with up to 24 years of follow-up. Analyses were performed with a (time dependent) Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. Of the 13 471 persons included in the analysis; 1615 had a diagnosis of COPD and there were 551 cases of SCD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with an increased risk of SCD (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). The risk particularly increased in the period 2000 days (5.48 years) after the diagnosis of COPD (age- and sex-adjusted HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.60-2.82) and increased further to a more than three-fold higher risk in COPD subjects with frequent exacerbations during this period (age- and sex-adjusted HR 3.58, 95% CI 2.35-5.44). Analyses restricted to persons without prevalent myocardial infarction or heart failure yielded similar results. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with an increased risk for SCD. The risk especially increases in persons with frequent exacerbations 5 years after the diagnosis of COPD. This risk indicator could provide new directions for better-targeted actions to prevent SCD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv121 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A prolonged heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) increases the risk of sudden cardiac death. Some methods of heart rate correction (notably Bazett) overestimate QTc in people with high heart rates. Studies suggest that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can prolong the QTc and increase heart rate. Therefore, we aimed to study whether TCA-induced QTc prolongation is a false-positive observation due to overestimation at high heart rates. For this, we included 12,734 participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, with a total of 27,068 electrocardiograms (ECGs), of which, 331 during TCA use. Associations between use of TCAs, QTc, and heart rate were studied with linear repeated measurement analyses. QT was corrected for heart rate according to Bazett (QTcBazett), Fridericia (QTcFridericia), or a correction based on regression coefficients obtained from the Rotterdam Study data (QTcStatistical). On ECGs recorded during TCA use, QTcBazett was 6.5 milliseconds (95% confidence interval, 4.0-9.0) longer, and heart rate was 5.8 beats per minute (95% confidence interval, 4.7-6.9) faster than during nonuse. QTcFridericia and QTcStatistical were not statistically significantly longer during TCA use than during nonuse. Furthermore, QTcBazett was similar for ECGs recorded during TCA use and nonuse after statistical adjustment for heart rate. According to our results, TCA use does not seem to be associated with QTc prolongation. Therefore, the current advice of regulatory authorities to restrict the use of these drugs and to do regular checkups of the QTc may need to be revised. Other formulas, like Fridericia's, might be preferred.
    Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 04/2015; 35(3). DOI:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000321 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, and fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 02/2015; DOI:10.2337/db14-0988 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gait disturbances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may lead to disability and falls. As studies assessing gait kinematics in COPD are sparse, we investigated associations of COPD with various gait domains and explored a potential link with falling. Gait was measured within the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study (age ⩾55 years) using an electronic walkway and summarised into seven gait domains: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning and Base of Support. Rhythm is a temporal gait aspect that includes cadence and reflects how quickly steps are taken. Persons with COPD (n=196) exhibited worse Rhythm (-0.21 sd, 95% CI -0.36- -0.06 sd) compared with persons with normal lung function (n=898), independent of age, sex, height, education, smoking or analgesic use, especially when dyspnoea and severe airflow limitation or frequent exacerbations (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease group D: -0.83 sd, 95% CI -1.25- -0.41 sd) were present. A lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with worse Rhythm and Pace, including lower cadence and gait velocity, respectively. Importantly, fallers with COPD had significantly worse Rhythm than nonfallers with COPD. This study demonstrates that persons with COPD exhibit worse Rhythm, especially fallers with COPD. The degree of Rhythm deterioration was associated with the degree of airflow limitation, symptoms and frequency of exacerbations. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
    European Respiratory Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1183/09031936.00213214 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electronic healthcare records (EHR)-based surveillance systems are increasingly being developed to support early detection of safety signals. It is unknown what the power of such a system is for surveillance among children and adolescents. In this paper we provide estimates of the number and classes of drugs, and incidence rates (IRs) of events, that can be monitored in children and adolescents (0-18 years). Data were obtained from seven population-based EHR databases in Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands during the period 1996-2010. We estimated the number of drugs for which specific adverse events can be monitored as a function of actual drug use, minimally detectable relative risk (RR), and IRs for 10 events. The population comprised 4,838,146 individuals (25,575,132 person years (PYs)), who were prescribed 2,170 drugs (1,610,631 PYs drug-exposure). Half of the total drug-exposure in PYs was covered by only 18 drugs (0.8%). For a relatively frequent event like upper gastrointestinal bleeding there were 39 drugs for which an association with a RR ≥ 4, if present, can be investigated; the corresponding number of drugs was 8 for a rare event like anaphylactic shock. Drug use in children is rare and shows little variation. The number of drugs with enough exposure to detect rare adverse events in children and adolescents within an EHR-based surveillance system such as EU-ADR is limited. Use of additional sources of paediatric drug exposure information and global collaboration are imperative in order to optimise EHR data for paediatric safety surveillance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/bcp.12610 · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hypertension 02/2015; 33(2):422. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000458 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been difficult to identify genes affecting drug response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). We used multiple cross-sectional assessments of depressive symptoms in a population-based study to identify potential genetic interactions with SSRIs as a model to study genetic variants associated with SSRI response. This study, embedded in the prospective Rotterdam Study, included all successfully genotyped participants with data on depressive symptoms (CES-D scores). We used repeated measurement models to test multiplicative interaction between genetic variants and use of SSRIs on repeated CESD scores. Besides a genome-wide analysis, we also performed an analysis which was restricted to genes related to the serotonergic signaling pathway. A total of 273 out of 14 937 assessments of depressive symptoms in 6443 participants, use of an SSRI was recorded. After correction for multiple testing, no plausible loci were identified in the genome-wide analysis. However, among the top 10 independent loci with the lowest p-values, findings within two genes (FSHR and HMGB4) might be of interest. Among 26 genes related to the serotonergic signaling pathway, the rs6108160 polymorphism in the PLCB1 gene reached statistical significance after Bonferroni correction (p-value = 8.1e-5). Also, the widely replicated 102C > T polymorphism in the HTR2A gene showed a statistically significant drug-gene interaction with SSRI use. Therefore, the present study suggests that drug-gene interaction models on (repeated) cross-sectional assessments of depressive symptoms in a population-based study can identify potential loci that may influence SSRI response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 01/2015; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.01.005 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the minor allele of the rs13064411A>G polymorphism in the WD repeat domain 52 (WDR52) gene was associated with increased statin-induced proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels and with LDL cholesterol response to statins. PCSK9 promotes LDL receptor degradation, leading to increased serum LDL cholesterol. We investigated whether the polymorphism was associated with cholesterol response to statins. We identified 1105 current, 322 past, and 4831 never statin users during follow-up in the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. The mean delta total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels between current and no current statin users with the same number of minor alleles were analyzed using random-effect repeated measurements. We adjusted for age, sex, number of cholesterol measurements, and follow-up time. Compared with no users with the same genotype, current statin users carrying a minor allele showed a statistically significantly lower delta total and LDL cholesterol compared with reference homozygous major allele carriers [total: Δ=0.551 mmol/l (AG+GG) vs. Δ=0.732 mmol/l (AA), Pinteraction: 5.2×10; LDL: Δ=0.566 mmol/l (AG+GG) vs. Δ=0.720 mmol/l (AA), Pinteraction: 1.8×10]. The effect was stronger in women (Pinteraction: 2.0×10 for LDL cholesterol, 8.0×10 for total cholesterol) and in high-dose users (defined daily doses>1.00) (Pinteraction: 7.0×10 for LDL cholesterol, Pinteraction: 0.081 for total cholesterol). The polymorphism was not associated with HDL cholesterol in current statin users, or with total, LDL and HDL cholesterol in never statin users. The minor G allele of the rs13064411 polymorphism, associated with statin-induced PCSK9-levels, was associated with a decreased LDL-lowering and total cholesterol-lowering response to statins.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 01/2015; 25(3). DOI:10.1097/FPC.0000000000000120 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Antidepressant drug use increases worldwide. It is pivotal to closely monitor the use of antidepressants and to determine in what subpopulations the rise is most substantial. In a Dutch primary care database, we aimed to investigate the (sex- and age-specific) prevalence and incidence of antidepressant prescription and to monitor the indication of incident prescriptions over a 17-year period (1996–2012). Methods This study, embedded in the Integrated Primary Care Information database, included all patients aged 10 years or older. Per calendar year, prevalence and incidence of antidepressant drug prescription were calculated by drug class (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and others), sex, and age. The indication of incident prescriptions (e.g., depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and neuropathic pain) was determined based on the International Classification of Primary Care codes. Results In total, 1.49 million patients were included. For all antidepressants together, the prevalence increased over time. However, incident prescription of specific SSRIs decreased from 2000 onward. During the study period, incidence and prevalence were higher in older and female patients. The increase in prevalence and the decrease in incidence were more pronounced in females than that in males. Furthermore, antidepressants were increasingly prescribed for indications such as neuropathic pain and sleep disorders. Conclusions In Dutch primary care, prevalent prescription of antidepressants continued to increase, but incident prescription of particular SSRIs decreased from 2000 onward. In later years, antidepressants were less frequently prescribed for depression-related indications in incident users.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 71(3). DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1803-x · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The existing literature provides contradictory evidence on antidepressant use and risk of suicide. Some studies have shown that the use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) is associated with an increased risk of suicide, especially during the first months of treatment, whereas other studies did not confirm this association. For this reason, our objective was to investigate the association between antidepressant use and risk of suicide in incident antidepressant users in relation to time since starting therapy. We conducted a population-based cohort study within the Dutch Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) database, in incident users of antidepressant therapy between 1994 and 2012 (n=27,712). Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the association between current use of SSRIs, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and other antidepressants and risk of suicide or attempted suicide. During follow-up, a total of 280 incident antidepressant users attempted or committed suicide. Current use of SSRIs (hazard ratio (HR): 0.78, 95% CI: 0.57-1.07), TCAs (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.48-1.42) or other antidepressants (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.47-1.18) was not statistically significantly associated with suicide compared to past use of any of the antidepressants. Although a large healthcare database was used, the number of reported cases of suicide (attempt) was low. This study did not indicate an increase in risk of suicide after starting treatment with SSRIs, TCAs or other antidepressants compared with past antidepressant use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:479-484. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.032 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evidence on the association between pioglitazone use and bladder cancer is contradictory, with many studies subject to allocation bias. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of exposure to pioglitazone on bladder cancer risk internationally across several cohorts. The potential for allocation bias was minimised by focusing on the cumulative effect of pioglitazone as the primary endpoint using a time-dependent approach. Prescription, cancer and mortality data from people with type 2 diabetes were obtained from six populations across the world (British Columbia, Finland, Manchester, Rotterdam, Scotland and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink). A discrete time failure analysis using Poisson regression was applied separately to data from each centre to model the effect of cumulative drug exposure on bladder cancer incidence, with time-dependent adjustment for ever use of pioglitazone. These were then pooled using fixed and random effects meta-regression. Data were collated on 1.01 million persons over 5.9 million person-years. There were 3,248 cases of incident bladder cancer, with 117 exposed cases and a median follow-up duration of 4.0 to 7.4 years. Overall, there was no evidence for any association between cumulative exposure to pioglitazone and bladder cancer in men (rate ratio [RR] per 100 days of cumulative exposure, 1.01; 95% CI 0.97, 1.06) or women (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.97, 1.11) after adjustment for age, calendar year, diabetes duration, smoking and any ever use of pioglitazone. No association was observed between rosiglitazone and bladder cancer in men (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.98, 1.03) or women (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.94, 1.07). The cumulative use of pioglitazone or rosiglitazone was not associated with the incidence of bladder cancer in this large, pooled multipopulation analysis.
    Diabetologia 12/2014; 58(3). DOI:10.1007/s00125-014-3456-9 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
    Nature Genetics 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/ng.3014 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of sleep disturbances and heart failure increases with age. We aimed to evaluate the associations of incident heart failure and cardiac dysfunction with changes in sleep quality. This prospective population-based study was conducted in the Rotterdam Study. Of the 3445 eligible persons (mean age 72.0±7.1 years) available for cross-sectional analyses, 8.9% (n = 307) had prevalent clinical heart failure. In longitudinal analyses, 1989 eligible persons (mean age 70.0±5.8 years) were followed for an average of 6.5±0.4 years, of which 4.6% (n = 91) had prevalent or incident clinical heart failure. Heart failure was assessed according to European Society of Cardiology criteria. To estimate cardiac function, we measured left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic function, and E/A ratio by echocardiography. Heart failure and cardiac dysfunction were studied with linear regression in relation to sleep quality, assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. No associations between clinical heart failure and sleep quality were observed in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical heart failure predicted a reduction of sleep quality (B = 1.00 points on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; 95% CI 0.40, 1.60) in longitudinal assessment. This association was driven by the sleep onset latency and sleep quality components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Cardiac dysfunction was not related to sleep quality in cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Clinical heart failure, but not cardiac dysfunction measured by echocardiography, increases the risk of poor sleep quality in the general population over time. These findings suggest that clinical manifestations of heart failure negatively affect sleep. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.5664/jcsm.4454 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate differences in first manifestations of cardiovascular disease between men and women in a competing risks framework. Prospective population based cohort study. People living in the community in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 8419 participants (60.9% women) aged ≥55 and free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. First diagnosis of coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, revascularisation, and coronary death), cerebrovascular disease (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and carotid revascularisation), heart failure, or other cardiovascular death; or death from non-cardiovascular causes. Data were used to calculate lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease and its first incident manifestations adjusted for competing non-cardiovascular death. During follow-up of up to 20.1 years, 2888 participants developed cardiovascular disease (826 coronary heart disease, 1198 cerebrovascular disease, 762 heart failure, and 102 other cardiovascular death). At age 55, overall lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease were 67.1% (95% confidence interval 64.7% to 69.5%) for men and 66.4% (64.2% to 68.7%) for women. Lifetime risks of first incident manifestations of cardiovascular disease in men were 27.2% (24.1% to 30.3%) for coronary heart disease, 22.8% (20.4% to 25.1%) for cerebrovascular disease, 14.9% (13.3% to 16.6%) for heart failure, and 2.3% (1.6% to 2.9%) for other deaths from cardiovascular disease. For women the figures were 16.9% (13.5% to 20.4%), 29.8% (27.7% to 31.9%), 17.5% (15.9% to 19.2%), and 2.1% (1.6% to 2.7%), respectively. Differences in the number of events that developed over the lifespan in women compared with men (per 1000) were -7 for any cardiovascular disease, -102 for coronary heart disease, 70 for cerebrovascular disease, 26 for heart failure, and -1 for other cardiovascular death; all outcomes manifested at a higher age in women. Patterns were similar when analyses were restricted to hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes, but absolute risk differences between men and women were attenuated for both coronary heart disease and stroke. At age 55, though men and women have similar lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease, there are considerable differences in the first manifestation. Men are more likely to develop coronary heart disease as a first event, while women are more likely to have cerebrovascular disease or heart failure as their first event, although these manifestations appear most often at older ages. © Leening et al 2014.
    BMJ Clinical Research 11/2014; 349:g5992. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g5992 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medication use is a potentially modifiable risk factor for falling; psychotropic and cardiovascular drugs have been indicated as main drug groups that increase fall risk. However, evidence is mainly based on studies that recorded falls retrospectively and/or did not determine medication use at the time of the fall. Therefore, we investigated the associations indicated in the literature between medication use and falls, using prospectively recorded falls and medication use determined at the time of the fall.
    Drugs & Aging 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40266-014-0225-x · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate isotretinoin exposure in Dutch pregnant women despite the implemented pregnancy prevention programme (PPP) and second, to analyse the occurrence of adverse fetal or neonatal outcomes in these isotretinoin exposed pregnancies.
    BMJ Open 11/2014; 4(11):e005602. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005602 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
    Nature Communications 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/ncomms6068 · 10.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
3,733.44 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2015
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1993–2015
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Informatics
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1986–2014
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      • Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC)
      Лувен-ла-Нев, Walloon, Belgium
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2012
    • Ghent University
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2009–2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Epidemiology (EPI)
      Maryland, United States
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      Maryland, United States
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 1992–2012
    • University of Groningen
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacology
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Hospital Costa del Sol
      Marbella, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1995–2010
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Canadian Society for Epidemiology and Biostatistics 
  • 2001
    • Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis
      Dordt, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1996
    • Medisch Spectrum Twente
      • Hospital Medical Spectrum Twente
      Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
    • Diergaarde Blijdorp
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands