A. I. Sargent

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (225)857.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For over a decade, the structure of the inner ``hole'' in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present subarcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ~60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales 0.''1. A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M ⊕, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle "trap") located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 787(2):148. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present sub-arcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ~60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales of ~0.1". A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M_earth, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle "trap") located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: For over a decade, the structure of the inner cavity in the transition disk of TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. Modeling the disk with data obtained at different wavelengths has led to a variety of proposed disk structures. Rather than being inconsistent, the individual models might point to the different faces of physical processes going on in disks, such as dust growth and planet formation. Our aim is to investigate the structure of the transition disk again and to find to what extent we can reconcile apparent model differences. A large set of high-angular-resolution data was collected from near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths. We investigated the existing disk models and established a new self-consistent radiative-transfer model. A genetic fitting algorithm was used to automatize the parameter fitting. Simple disk models with a vertical inner rim and a radially homogeneous dust composition from small to large grains cannot reproduce the combined data set. Two modifications are applied to this simple disk model: (1) the inner rim is smoothed by exponentially decreasing the surface density in the inner ~3 AU, and (2) the largest grains (>100 um) are concentrated towards the inner disk region. Both properties can be linked to fundamental processes that determine the evolution of protoplanetary disks: the shaping by a possible companion and the different regimes of dust-grain growth, respectively. The full interferometric data set from near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths requires a revision of existing models for the TW Hya disk. We present a new model that incorporates the characteristic structures of previous models but deviates in two key aspects: it does not have a sharp edge at 4 AU, and the surface density of large grains differs from that of smaller grains. This is the first successful radiative-transfer-based model for a full set of interferometric data.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; 564. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations of outflows in the star-forming region NGC 1333 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA). We combined the 12CO and 13CO (1-0) CARMA mosaics with data from the 14-m Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) to probe the central, most dense and active region of this protostellar cluster at scales from 5'' to 7' (or 1000 AU to 0.5 pc at a distance of 235 pc). We map and identify 12CO outflows, and along with 13CO data we estimate their mass, momentum and energy. Within the 7'x7' map, the 5'' resolution allows for a detailed study of morphology and kinematics of outflows and outflow candidates, some of which were previously confused with other outflow emission in the region. In total, we identify 22 outflow lobes, as well as 9 dense circumstellar envelopes marked by continuum emission, of which 6 drive outflows. We calculate a total outflow mass, momentum and energy within the mapped region of 6 Msun, 19 Msun km/s, and 7x10^44 erg, respectively. Within this same region, we compare outflow kinematics with turbulence and gravitational energy, and we suggest that outflows are likely important agents for the maintenance of turbulence in this region. In the earliest stages of star formation, outflows do not yet contribute enough energy to totally disrupt the clustered region where most star formation is happening, but have the potential to do so as the protostellar sources evolve. Our results can be used to constrain outflow properties, such as outflow strength, in numerical simulations of outflow-driven turbulence in clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present dust continuum observations of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the pre-main sequence star AS 209, spanning more than an order of magnitude in wavelength from 0.88 to 9.8 mm. The disk was observed with sub-arcsecond angular resolution (0.2"-0.5") to investigate radial variations in its dust properties. At longer wavelengths, the disk emission structure is notably more compact, providing model-independent evidence for changes in the grain properties across the disk. We find that physical models which reproduce the disk emission require a radial dependence of the dust opacity \kappa_{\nu}. Assuming that the observed wavelength-dependent structure can be attributed to radial variations in the dust opacity spectral index (\beta), we find that \beta(R) increases from \beta<0.5 at \sim20 AU to \beta>1.5 for R>80 AU, inconsistent with a constant value of \beta\ across the disk (at the 10\sigma\ level). Furthermore, if radial variations of \kappa_{\nu} are caused by particle growth, we find that the maximum size of the particle-size distribution (a_{max}) increases from sub-millimeter-sized grains in the outer disk (R>70 AU) to millimeter and centimeter-sized grains in the inner disk regions (R< 70 AU). We compare our observational constraint on a_{max}(R) with predictions from physical models of dust evolution in proto-planetary disks. For the dust composition and particle-size distribution investigated here, our observational constraints on a_{max}(R) are consistent with models where the maximum grain size is limited by radial drift.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2012; 760(1). · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TW Hya is a nearby (50 pc) young stellar object with an estimated age of 10 Myr and signs of active accretion. Previous modeling of the circumstellar disk has shown that the inner disk contains optically thin material, placing this object in the class of "transition disks". We present new near-infrared interferometric observations of the disk material and use these data, as well as previously published, spatially resolved data at 10 microns and 7 mm, to constrain disk models based on a standard flared disk structure. Our model demonstrates that the constraints imposed by the spatially resolved data can be met with a physically plausible disk but this requires a disk containing not only an inner gap in the optically thick disk as previously suggested, but also some optically thick material within this gap. Our model is consistent with the suggestion by previous authors of a planet with an orbital radius of a few AU. This work was conducted at the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology.
    05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new near-infrared interferometric data from the CHARA array and the Keck Interferometer on the circumstellar disk of the young star, TW Hya, a proposed "transition disk." We use these data, as well as previously published, spatially resolved data at 10 μm and 7 mm, to constrain disk models based on a standard flared disk structure. We find that we can match the interferometry data sets and the overall spectral energy distribution with a three-component model, which combines elements at spatial scales proposed by previous studies: optically thin, emission nearest the star, an inner optically thick ring of emission at roughly 0.5 AU followed by an opacity gap and, finally, an outer optically thick disk starting at ~4 AU. The model demonstrates that the constraints imposed by the spatially resolved data can be met with a physically plausible disk but this requires a disk containing not only an inner gap in the optically thick disk as previously suggested, but also a gap between the inner and outer optically thick disks. Our model is consistent with the suggestion by Calvet et al. of a planet with an orbital radius of a few AU. We discuss the implications of an opacity gap within the optically thick disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2011; 728(2):96. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than L disk/L * = 2 × 10–3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than L disk/L * = 5 × 10–4 in 4 Myr.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2010; 724(2):835. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) we observed several proto-planetary disks in the dust continuum emission at 1.3 and 2.8 mm (Isella et al. 2009a, 2009b). The observations have angular resolution between 0.15 and 0.7 arcsecond, corresponding to spatial scales spanning from about the orbit of Saturn up to about the orbital radius of Pluto. The observed disks are characterized by a variety of radial profiles for the dust density. We observe inner disk clearing as well as smooth density profiles, suggesting that disks may form, or evolve, in different ways. Despite that, we find that the characteristic disk radius is correlated with the stellar age increasing from 20 AU to 100 AU over about 5 Myr. Interpreting our results in terms of the temporal evolution of a viscous alpha-disk, we estimate that (i) at the beginning of the disk evolution about 60% of the circumstellar material was located inside radii of 25-40 AU, (ii) that disks formed with masses from 0.05 to 0.4 solar masses and (iii) that the viscous timescale at the disk initial radius is about 0.1-0.3 Myr. Viscous disk models tightly link the surface density Sigma(R) with the radial profile of the disk viscosity nu(R)∝ Rgamma. We find values of gamma ranging from -0.8 to 0.8, suggesting that the viscosity dependence on the orbital radius can be very different in the observed disks. We demonstrate that the similarity solution for the surface density for gamma < 0 can explain the properties of some ``transitional'' disks without requiring discontinuities in the disk surface density. In the case of LkCa 15, a smooth distribution of material from few stellar radii to about 240 AU can produce both the observed SED and the spatially resolved continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths. For two sources, RY Tau and DG Tau, we observed the dust emission with a resolution as high as 0.15 arcsecond, which corresponds to a spatial scale of 20 AU at the distance of the two stars. The achieved angular resolution is a factor 2 higher than any existing observation of circumstellar disks at the same wavelengths and enable us to investigate the disk structure with unprecedent details. In particular, we present a first attempt to derive the radial profile of the slope of the dust opacity beta. We find mean values of beta of 0.5 and 0.7 for DG Tau and RY Tau respectively and we exclude that beta may vary by more than ±0.4 between 20-70 AU. This implies that the circumstellar dust has a maximum grain size between 10 mum and few centimeters.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of a high resolution (5") CARMA and SZA survey of the 3mm continuum emission from 11 of the brightest (at 1.1mm) starless cores in the Perseus molecular cloud. We detect 2 of the 11 cores, both of which are composed of single structures, and the median 3 sigma upper limit for the non-detections is 0.2 M_sun in a 5" beam. These results are consisent with, and as stringent as, the low detection rate of compact 3mm continuum emission in dense cores in Perseus reported by Olmi et al. (2005). From the non-detection of multiple components in any of the eleven cores we conclude that starless core mass functions derived from bolometer maps at resolutions from 10"-30" (e.g. with MAMBO, SCUBA or Bolocam) are unlikely to be significantly biased by the blending of lower mass cores with small separations. These observations provide additional evidence that the majority of starless cores in Perseus have inner density profiles shallower than r^-2. Comment: 9 pages, including 3 figures and 3 tables. Accepted to ApJ
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2010; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    Andrea Isella, John M. Carpenter, Anneila I. Sargent
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We present CARMA observations of the thermal dust emission from the circumstellar disks around the young stars RYTau and DGTau at wavelengths of 1.3mm and 2.8mm. The angular resolution of the maps is as high as 0.15arcsec, or 20AU at the distance of the Taurus cloud, which is a factor of 2 higher than has been achieved to date at these wavelengths. The unprecedented detail of the resulting disk images enables us to address three important questions related to the formation of planets. (1) What is the radial distribution of the circumstellar dust? (2) Does the dust emission show any indication of gaps that might signify the presence of (proto-)planets? (3) Do the dust properties depend on the orbital radius? We find that modeling the disk surface density in terms of either a classical power law or the similarity solution for viscous disk evolution, reproduces the observations well. The 1.3mm image from RYTau shows two peaks separated by 0.2arcsec with a decline in the dust emission toward the stellar position, which is significant at about 2-4sigma. For both RYTau and DGTau, the dust emission at radii larger than 15 AU displays no significant deviation from an unperturbed viscous disk model. In particular, no radial gaps in the dust distribution are detected. Under reasonable assumptions, we exclude the presence of planets more massive than 5 Jupiter masses orbiting either star at distances between about 10 and 60 AU. The radial variation of the dust opacity slope, beta, was investigated by comparing the 1.3mm and 2.8mm observations. We find mean values of beta of 0.5 and 0.7 for DGTau and RYTau respectively. Variations in beta are smaller than 0.7 between 20 and 70 AU. These results confirm that the circumstellar dust throughout these disks differs significantly from dust in the interstellar medium. Comment: ApJ in press.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2010; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astronomy In this paper, we present a dust emission map of the starless core TMC-1C taken at 2100 μm. Along with maps at 160, 450, 850, and 1200 μm, we study the dust emissivity spectral index from the (sub)millimeter spectral energy distribution, and find that it is close to the typically assumed value of β = 2. We also map the dust temperature and column density in TMC-1C, and find that at the position of the dust peak (A_V ~ 50) the line-of-sight-averaged temperature is ~7 K. Employing simple Monte Carlo modeling, we show that the data are consistent with a constant value for the emissivity spectral index over the whole map of TMC-1C.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2009; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The observations here were all obtained by the c2d project or by GTO observations that we have included in our data. They have been described in the publications given hereafter: Five large clouds were selected for the c2d project: Serpens (Eiroa et al., 2008hsf2.book..693E), Perseus (Bally et al., 2008hsf1.book..308B), Ophiuchus (Wilking et al., 2008hsf2.book..351W), Lupus (Comeron, 2008hsf2.book..295C), and Chamaeleon (Luhman, 2008hsf2.book..169L). (5 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 10/2009; 218:10321.
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    ABSTRACT: Massive star formation occurs in giant molecular clouds (GMCs); an understanding of the evolution of GMCs is a prerequisite to develop theories of star formation and galaxy evolution. We report the highest-fidelity observations of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 in carbon monoxide (CO) emission, revealing the evolution of GMCs vis-a-vis the large-scale galactic structure and dynamics. The most massive GMCs (giant molecular associations (GMAs)) are first assembled and then broken up as the gas flow through the spiral arms. The GMAs and their H2 molecules are not fully dissociated into atomic gas as predicted in stellar feedback scenarios, but are fragmented into smaller GMCs upon leaving the spiral arms. The remnants of GMAs are detected as the chains of GMCs that emerge from the spiral arms into interarm regions. The kinematic shear within the spiral arms is sufficient to unbind the GMAs against self-gravity. We conclude that the evolution of GMCs is driven by large-scale galactic dynamics—their coagulation into GMAs is due to spiral arm streaming motions upon entering the arms, followed by fragmentation due to shear as they leave the arms on the downstream side. In M51, the majority of the gas remains molecular from arm entry through the interarm region and into the next spiral arm passage.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2009; 700(2):L132. · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • 07/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Optical & Near-IR (OIR) Interferometry as a discipline has been contributing astrophysically-significant results since the work of Michelson et al in the 20s, and Hanbury-Brown et al in the 60s. Starting with the MarkIII interferometer at Mt Wilson in the 80s and 90s, OIR interferometry has made astrometrically-relevant contributions. In this talk I will give a brief overview of OIR interferometry as a technique, summarize its astrometric scientific contributions, and discuss examples synthesizing OIR and radio interferometry, including the analysis of the PMS binary system V773 Tau A.
    07/2009;
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    Andrea Isella, John M. Carpenter, Anneila I. Sargent
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    ABSTRACT: We present new sub-arcsecond (0.7'') Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission from circumstellar disks around 11 low and intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars. High resolution observations for 3 additional sources were obtained from literature. In all cases the disk emission is spatially resolved. We adopt a self consistent accretion disk model based on the similarity solution for the disk surface density and constrain the dust radial density distribution on spatial scales of about 40 AU. Disk surface densities appear to be correlated with the stellar ages where the characteristic disk radius increases from ~ 20 AU to 100 AU over about 5 Myr. This disk expansion is accompanied by a decrease in the mass accretion rate, suggesting that our sample disks form an evolutionary sequence. Interpreting our results in terms of the temporal evolution of a viscous $\alpha$-disk, we estimate (i) that at the beginning of the disk evolution about 60% of the circumstellar material was located inside radii of 25--40 AU, (ii) that disks formed with masses from 0.05 to 0.4 M$_{\sun}$ and (iii) that the viscous timescale at the disk initial radius is about 0.1-0.3 Myr. Viscous disk models tightly link the surface density $\Sigma(R)$ with the radial profile of the disk viscosity $\nu(R) \propto R^{\gamma}$. We find values of $\gamma$ ranging from -0.8 to 0.8, suggesting that the viscosity dependence on the orbital radius can be very different in the observed disks. Adopting the $\alpha$ parameterization for the viscosity, we argue that $\alpha$ must decrease with the orbital radius and that it may vary between 0.5 and $10^{-4}$. (abridged) Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal, 43 pages, 18 figures, Typo in the author name corrected
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2009; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on near-infrared (IR) interferometric observations of the double-lined pre-main sequence binary system DQ Tau. We model these data with a visual orbit for DQ Tau supported by the spectroscopic orbit and analysis of Mathieu et al. Further, DQ Tau exhibits significant near-IR excess; modeling our data requires inclusion of near-IR light from an "excess" source. Remarkably, the excess source is resolved in our data, similar in scale to the binary itself (~0.2 AU at apastron), rather than the larger circumbinary disk (~0.4 AU radius). Our observations support the Mathieu et al. and Carr et al. inference of significant warm material near the DQ Tau binary.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2009; 696(2):L111. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The c2d Spitzer Legacy project obtained images and photometry with both IRAC and MIPS instruments for five large, nearby molecular clouds. Three of the clouds were also mapped in dust continuum emission at 1.1 mm, and optical spectroscopy has been obtained for some clouds. This paper combines information drawn from studies of individual clouds into a combined and updated statistical analysis of star-formation rates and efficiencies, numbers and lifetimes for spectral energy distribution (SED) classes, and clustering properties. Current star-formation efficiencies range from 3% to 6%; if star formation continues at current rates for 10 Myr, efficiencies could reach 15-30%. Star-formation rates and rates per unit area vary from cloud to cloud; taken together, the five clouds are producing about 260 M ☉ of stars per Myr. The star-formation surface density is more than an order of magnitude larger than would be predicted from the Kennicutt relation used in extragalactic studies, reflecting the fact that those relations apply to larger scales, where more diffuse matter is included in the gas surface density. Measured against the dense gas probed by the maps of dust continuum emission, the efficiencies are much higher, with stellar masses similar to masses of dense gas, and the current stock of dense cores would be exhausted in 1.8 Myr on average. Nonetheless, star formation is still slow compared to that expected in a free-fall time, even in the dense cores. The derived lifetime for the Class I phase is 0.54 Myr, considerably longer than some estimates. Similarly, the lifetime for the Class 0 SED class, 0.16 Myr, with the notable exception of the Ophiuchus cloud, is longer than early estimates. If photometry is corrected for estimated extinction before calculating class indicators, the lifetimes drop to 0.44 Myr for Class I and to 0.10 for Class 0. These lifetimes assume a continuous flow through the Class II phase and should be considered median lifetimes or half-lives. Star formation is highly concentrated to regions of high extinction, and the youngest objects are very strongly associated with dense cores. The great majority (90%) of young stars lie within loose clusters with at least 35 members and a stellar density of 1 M ☉ pc–3. Accretion at the sound speed from an isothermal sphere over the lifetime derived for the Class I phase could build a star of about 0.25 M ☉, given an efficiency of 0.3. Building larger mass stars by using higher mass accretion rates could be problematic, as our data confirm and aggravate the "luminosity problem" for protostars. At a given T bol, the values for L bol are mostly less than predicted by standard infall models and scatter over several orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that accretion is time variable, with prolonged periods of very low accretion. Based on a very simple model and this sample of sources, half the mass of a star would be accreted during only 7% of the Class I lifetime, as represented by the eight most luminous objects.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2009; 181(2):321. · 14.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
857.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2014
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      • • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2008
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • Northern Arizona University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
  • 2000
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 1996
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1986–1992
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1987
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States