B L Slomiany

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States

Are you B L Slomiany?

Claim your profile

Publications (451)986.68 Total impact

  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A peptide hormone, ghrelin, plays a key role in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori by controlling the activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase via Src/Akt-dependent phosphorylation that requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) participation. Here, we examined the relationship among PI3K; its upstream effector, protein kinase C (PKC); and cSrc. We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with H. pylori LPS leads to the activation and membrane translocation of Ser-phosphorylated PKCδ, while the effect of ghrelin is reflected in the phosphorylation of membrane-associated PKCδ on Tyr. Further, we demonstrate that in response to the LPS-induced PKCδ activation both PI3K and Src show a marked increase in their Ser phosphorylation, while the effect of ghrelin is manifested in the phosphorylation of PI3K and cSrc at Tyr. Moreover, whereas Tyr phosphorylation of PKCδ exhibited susceptibility to cSrc inhibitor (PP2), the inhibitor of PKC (GF109203X) but not that of cSrc (PP2) blocked the Tyr phosphorylation of PI3K, while ghrelin-induced cSrc phosphorylation at Tyr was subject to inhibition by the inhibitors of PKC and PI3K. Thus, our findings stipulate the prerequisite of PKCδ in the activation of PI3K as well as cSrc, and imply that PI3K activation provides an essential platform for ghrelin-induced cSrc activation through autophosphorylation at Tyr(416). We also reveal that ghrelin-elicited up-regulation in PKCδ activation by Tyr phosphorylation shows dependence on cSrc activity.
    Inflammopharmacology 05/2014;
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among the key factors defining the extent of gastric mucosal inflammatory involvement in response to Helicobacter pylori is the excessive generation of prostaglandin (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), caused by the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and triggered by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and ERK, and nuclear translocation of the cognate transcription factors. In this study, we report on the role of MAPK/ERK in the regulation of H. pylori LPS-induced gastric mucosal expression of COX-2 and iNOS. We show that ERK activation by the LPS leads to phosphorylation of the inhibitory κB kinase-β (IKK-β) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and is reflected in the upsurge in NF-κB nuclear translocation, induction in COX-2 and iNOS expression, and up-regulation in cPLA2 activity. The modulatory effect of peptide hormone, ghrelin, on the LPS-induced changes, although associated with further enhancement in ERK, IKK-β, and cPLA2 phosphorylation, was reflected in the suppression of IKK-β and cPLA2 activity through S-nitrosylation. While the effect of ghrelin on S-nitrosylation was susceptible to suppression by the inhibitors of Src/Akt pathway, the inhibition of ERK activation caused the blockage in IKK-β and cPLA2 phosphorylation as well as S-nitrosylation. Taken together, our data show that H. pylori-induced ERK activation plays a critical role in up-regulation of gastric mucosal PGE2 and NO generation at the level of IKK-β and cPLA2 activation, and that ghrelin counters these proinflammatory consequences of the LPS through Src/Akt-dependent S-nitrosylation.
    Inflammopharmacology 04/2013;
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A peptide hormone, ghrelin, plays an important role in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori infection by controlling the cross-talk between nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems. In this study, we report that H. pylori LPS-elicited induction in gastric mucosal COX-2 and inducible (i) iNOS protein expression, and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS phosphorylation, was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 activation, and occurred with the involvement of transcription factors, CCATT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) δ, cAMP response element-binding protein, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and NF-κB. The modulatory effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes was manifested in the inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and C/EBPδ, and suppression in AP-1 activation, and the inhibition in phosphorylation of JNK and p38, as well as their respective downstream targets, c-Jun and ATF-2. However, only the inhibition of p38-mediated ATF-2 phosphorylation was reflected in the reduced expression of COX-2 protein. Further, the effect of ghrelin of the LPS-induced changes was reflected in the increase in Src/Akt-dependent cNOS activation through phosphorylation and the inhibition of cNOS-mediated IKK-β S-nitrosylation. Our findings indicate ghrelin counters the proinflammatory consequences of H. pylori by interfering with the p38/ATF-2-induced AP-1 activation in association with concurrent up-regulation in Src/Akt-dependent cNOS phosphorylation.
    Inflammopharmacology 06/2012;
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A peptide hormone, ghrelin, is recognized as an important modulator of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to H. pylori through the regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system. As cSrc kinase plays a major role in transduction of signals that regulate the activity of NOS isozyme system, we investigated the influence of H. pylori LPS on the processes associated with Src activation in gastric mucosal cells. The LPS-induced drop in constitutive (c) cNOS activity and up-regulation in inducible (i) iNOS was associated with the suppression in cSrc kinase activity that was reflected in a decrease in its phosphorylation at Tyr⁴¹⁶. Further, the countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in cSrc activity and the extent of its phosphorylation was accompanied by a marked reduction in the activity of iNOS and an increase in cNOS activation through phosphorylation at Ser¹¹⁷⁹. Moreover, the effect of ghrelin on cSrc activation and its Tyr⁴¹⁶ phosphorylation was associated with the kinase S-nitrosylation that was susceptible to the blockage by cNOS inhibition. Our findings suggest that up-regulation in iNOS with H. pylori infection leads to disturbances in cNOS phosphorylation that exerts the detrimental effect on the processes of cSrc activation through cNOS-mediated S-nitrosylation. We also show that ghrelin attenuation of H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammatory responses involves the enhancement in cSrc activation, elicited by the kinase S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation at Tyr⁴¹⁶.
    Inflammopharmacology 04/2011; 19(4):197-204.
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disturbances in nitric oxide synthase isozyme system and the impairment in salivary mucin synthesis are well-recognized features associated with oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis. In this study, using rat sublingual gland acinar cells, we report that P. gingivalis LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis and associated suppression in Akt kinase activity were accompanied by a decrease in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity and an induction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The LPS effect on Akt inactivation was manifested in the kinase S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phosphorylation at Ser(473). Further, we demonstrate that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the suppression of iNOS and the increase in Akt activation, associated with the loss in S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation, as well as cNOS activation through phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that induction in iNOS expression by P. gingivalis-LPS leads to Akt kinase inactivation through S-nitrosylation that detrimentally impacts cNOS activation through phosphorylation as well as mucin synthesis. We also show that the countering effect of ghrelin on P. gingivalis-induced impairment in mucin synthesis is associated with Akt activation through phosphorylation.
    International journal of inflammation. 01/2011; 2011:807279.
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastric mucosal inflammatory response to H. pylori and its key virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are characterized by a massive rise in apoptosis and the disturbances in NO signaling pathways. Here, we report that H. pylori LPS-induced enhancement in the mucosal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was associated with the suppression in Akt kinase activity and the impairment in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) phosphorylation. Further, we demonstrate that the LPS effect on Akt inactivation, manifested in the kinase protein S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phosphorylation at Ser(473), was susceptible to suppression by iNOS inhibition. Moreover, the countering effect of hormone, ghrelin, on the LPS-induced changes in Akt activity was reflected in the loss in Akt S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation at Ser(473), as well as cNOS activation through phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that up-regulation in iNOS with H. pylori infection leads to Akt inactivation through S-nitrosylation that exerts the detrimental effect on the processes of cNOS activation through phosphorylation. We also report that ghrelin protection against H. pylori-induced disturbances is manifested in a marked increase in Akt activity and evoked by a decrease in the kinase S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation at Ser(473).
    ISRN gastroenterology. 01/2011; 2011:308727.
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of mucus coat integrity and the impairment in its mucin component as well as the disturbance in nitric oxide (NO) generation are well-recognized features of gastric disease associated with H. pylori infection. As ghrelin plays a major role in the regulation of nitric oxide synthase system, we investigated the influence of this hormone on H. pylori LPS-induced interference with gastric mucin synthesis. The results revealed that the LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis and accompanied induction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, were associated with the suppression in Akt kinase activity and the impairment in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) phosphorylation. The LPS effect on Akt inactivation was manifested in the kinase protein S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phosphorylation at Ser(473). Further, we show that the countering effect of ghrelin, on the LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis was reflected in the suppression of iNOS and the increase in Akt activation, associated with the loss in S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation, as well as cNOS activation through phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that up-regulation in iNOS with H. pylori infection and subsequent Akt kinase inactivation through S-nitrosylation exerts the detrimental effect on the processes dependent on Akt activation, including that of cNOS activation and mucin synthesis. We also show that ghrelin protection against H. pylori-induced impairment in mucin synthesis is intimately linked to the events of Akt activation and reflected in a decrease in the kinase S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation.
    Inflammopharmacology 01/2011; 19(2):89-97.
  • Source
    Amalia Slomiany, Bronislaw L Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal in phosphoinositides cellular metabolism is to decipher their global func-tional organization and coordination of the com-partmentalized signaling processes. In this re-port we present evidence linking nuclear phos-phoinositides cycle with endoplasmic reticulum synthesis and function. The rapid transforma-tion of [ 3 H]inositol-labeled phosphoinositides in the intact nuclei (IN) was captured in chase studies for 0-5 min, followed by examination of phosphatidylinositides in the inner nuclear me-mbrane (INM), the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We re-vealed that synthesis of phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) occurs in ONM and the de-phosphorylation takes place in the INM. The rapid transformation of the radiolabeled PIPs in ONM reverberated in their appearance and suc-cessive transformation in INM, and in the 5min chased nuclei was tracked to ONM as the re-emerging radiolabeled phosphatidylinositol (PI). These chase-uncovered changes in ONM and INM PIPs profiles allow us to conclude that the observed conversions in the nuclear membrane continuum are induced by the lateral movement of the membrane and its transit from the cyto-solic to nuclear and back to cytosolic environ-ment. The suggested membrane synthesis-in-duced movement provides the means to trans-port the membrane-and the membrane lipid ligand-associated cytosolic proteins to the in-tranuclear spaces and renewal of INM. Export of the nuclear components interacting with the modified INM, by exiting from nuclear to cyto-solic site, endows ER with a steady influx of the membrane that is conditioned to generate vesi-cles according to the nucleus delivered tem-plates.
    01/2011; 3:187-199.
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infection with H. pylori is a primary factor in the etiology of gastric disease, and the excessive NO generation and a massive rise in apoptosis are well recognized features that characterize the mucosal inflammatory responses to the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we report that H. pylori LPS-induced enhancement in gastric mucosal cell apoptosis and NO generation was associated with the suppression in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity and a marked up-regulation in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Further, we demonstrate that the detrimental effect of the LPS on cNOS was manifested in the enzyme protein S-nitrosylation, that was susceptible to suppression by iNOS inhibitor, 1400W. Moreover, we show that the countering effect of peptide hormone, ghrelin, on the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and cNOS activity was reflected in the loss in cNOS S-nitrosylation and the increase in the enzyme phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that the disturbances in gastric mucosal NO generation system caused by H. pylori result from the iNOS-derived NO suppression of cNOS activation through S-nitrosylation. We also report that ghrelin protection against H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal proapoptotic events involves cNOS activation manifested by the increase in enzyme protein phosphorylation and a decrease in its S-nitrosylation.
    Inflammopharmacology 10/2010; 18(5):233-40.
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in identifying the salivary constituents of significance to the maintenance of soft oral tissue integrity have brought to focus the importance of a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we report on the role of ghrelin in countering the disturbances in salivary mucin synthesis caused by ethanol cytotoxicity in rat sublingual gland acinar cells. We show that the countering effect of ghrelin on mucin synthesis was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2 production, and the enhancement in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity. The ghrelin-induced up-regulation in mucin synthesis, like that of cPLA2 activity, was subject to suppression by Src inhibitor, PP2, ERK inhibitor, PD98059, as well as Akt inhibitor, SH-5 and ascorbate. Moreover, the loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the ethanol cytotoxicity and mucin synthesis was attained with cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME as well as COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560. Furthermore, while the effect of L-NAME was also reflected in the inhibition of the acinar cell capacity for NO and PGE2 generation, and cPLA2 S-nitrosylation, the COX-1 inhibitor caused the inhibition in PGE2 only. Our findings demonstrate that ghrelin protection of the acinar cells against ethanol cytotoxicity and the impairment in salivary mucin synthesis involves Src kinase activation of the Akt/cNOS pathway that leads to up-regulation in cNOS activity. We also show that cNOS-derived NO induction of the cPLA2 activation through S-nitrosylation, for the increase in PGE2 generation, is an essential element of the protective mechanism of ghrelin action.
    International journal of biomedical science : IJBS. 03/2010; 6(1):37-44.
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in identifying the salivary constituents capable of influencing the oral mucosal inflammatory responses have brought to focus the importance of a peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we report on the involvement of ghrelin in controlling the apoptotic processes induced in sublingual salivary gland acinar cells by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of a periodontopathic bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. We show that the countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced acinar cell apoptosis was associated with the increase in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity, and the reduction in caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and caspase-3 activity was attained with Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, as well as Akt inhibitor, SH-5, and cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but not the iNOS inhibitor, 1400W. The effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in cNOS activity, moreover, was reflected in the increased cNOS phosphorylation that was sensitive to PP2 as well as SH-5. Furthermore, the ghrelin-induced up-regulation in cNOS activity was associated with the increase in caspase-3 S-nitrosylation that was susceptible to the blockage by SH-5 and L-NAME. The findings point to the involvement of ghrelin in Src/Akt kinase-mediated cNOS activation and the apoptogenic signal inhibition through the NO-induced caspase-3 S-nitrosylation.
    Inflammopharmacology 02/2010; 18(3):119-25.
  • Source
    Amalia Slomiany, Bronislaw L Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport vesicles is dictated by the contents and derivation of the cellular cytosol. The ER transport vesicles synthesized in the presence of gastric epithelial cells cytosol are destined for en bloc fusion with apical epithelial membrane, whereas those generated in hepa-tocytes-derived cytosol are destined for en bloc fusion with basolateral membrane. Moreover, during assembly of the dominant fraction of the apical or basolateral transport vesicles, a sub-stantial fraction of the vesicles is produced that fuses with endosomes, and the vesicles with still unknown destination that remain in cytosol. The process of ER vesicles synthesis is blocked by RNase treatment, whereas Golgi vesicles as-sembly is not affected. The experiments indicate that transport vesicles' membrane composition and fidelity of its construction is defined in ER. The process involves synchronous membrane lipid synthesis, cotranslational intercalation of integral membrane proteins and containment of the vesicular cargo.
    01/2010; 2:1437-1447.
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, a peptide hormone, newly identified in oral mucosal tissue, has emerged re-cently as a principal modulator of the in-flammatory responses to bacterial infection through the regulation of nitric oxide syn-thase system. In this study, using rat sub-lingual salivary gland acinar cells, we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of periodon-topathic bacterium, P. gingivalis-induced enhancement in the activity of inducible ni-tric oxide synthase (iNOS) was associated with the suppression in Akt kinase activity and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS phosphorylation. Further, we show that the detrimental effect of the LPS on Akt activa-tion, manifested in the kinase protein S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phos-phorylation at Ser 473 , was susceptible to suppression by iNOS inhibitor, 1400W. Moreover, we demonstrate that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced changes in Akt activity and NOS system. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decreased in Akt S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation at Ser 473 , as well as cNOS activation through phos-phorylation. Our findings suggest that P. gingivalis-induced up-regulation in iNOS leads to Akt kinase inactivation through S-nitrosylation that impacts cNOS activation through phosphorylation. We also show that the countering effect of ghrelin on P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in Akt ac-tivation are manifested in a decrease in the kinase S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation.
    01/2010; 2:1448-1455.
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in the stomach, has emerged as an important modulator of the inflammatory responses that are of significance to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. Here, we report on the role of ghrelin in controlling the apoptotic processes induced in gastric mucosal cells by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced mucosal cell apoptosis was associated with the increase in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity, and the reduction in caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2). The loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and caspase-3 activity was attained with Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, as well as Akt inhibitor, SH-5, and cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME. Moreover, the effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in cNOS activity was reflected in the increased cNOS phosphorylation that was sensitive to SH-5. Furthermore, the ghrelin-induced up-regulation in cNOS activity was associated with the increase in caspase-3 S-nitrosylation that was susceptible to the blockage by L-NAME. Therefore, ghrelin protection of gastric mucosal cells against H. pylori LPS-induced apoptosis involves Src/Akt-mediated up-regulation in cNOS activation that leads to the apoptotic signal inhibition through the NO-induced caspase-3 S-nitrosylation.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2010; 2010:280464. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, a peptide hormone, newly identified in oral mucosal tissues, has emerged recently as an important mediator of the processes of mucosal defense. Here, we report on the mechanism of ghrelin protection against ethanol cytotoxicity in rat sublingual salivary gland cells. The protective effect of ghrelin was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2, and upregulation in cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) activity and arachidonic acid (AA) release. The loss in countering effect of ghrelin occurred with cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, as well as indomethacin and COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560, while COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and iNOS inhibitor, 1400W, had no effect. The effect of L-NAME was reflected in the inhibition of ghrelin-induced cell capacity for NO production, cPLA(2) activation and PGE2 generation, whereas indomethacin caused only the inhibition in PGE2. Moreover, the ghrelin-induced up-regulation in AA release was reflected in the cPLA(2) phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. Inhibition in ghrelin-induced S-nitrosylation was attained with L-NAME, whereas the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, caused the blockage in cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation as well as S-nitrosylation. Thus, ghrelin protection of salivary gland cells against ethanol involves cNOS-derived NO induction of cPLA(2) activation through S-nitrosylation for the increase in AA release at the site of COX-1 action for PGE2 synthesis.
    Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 01/2010; 2010:269274.
  • Source
    Bronislaw L Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis, and its key virulence factor, LPS, are characterized by a massive rise in epithelial cell apoptosis and the disturbances in NO signaling pathways. Here, we report that the LPS-induced enhancement in rat sublingual salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis and NO generation was associated with the suppression in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity and a marked increase in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We demonstrate that the detrimental effect of the LPS on cNOS was manifested by the enzyme protein S-nitrosylation, that was susceptible to inhibition by iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. Further, we show that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and cNOS activity. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decrease in cNOS S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation. Our findings imply that P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in the acinar cell NO signaling pathways result from upregulation in iNOS-derived NO that causes cNOS S-nitrosylation that interferes with its activation through phosphorylation. We also show that ghrelin protection against P. gingivalis-induced disturbances involves cNOS activation associated with a decrease in its S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation.
    Journal of signal transduction. 01/2010; 2010:643642.
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is an important regulator of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems, the products of which are of major significance to the processes of gastric mucosal defense and repair. Here, using primary culture of rat gastric mucosal cells, we report on the mechanism of ghrelin protection against ethanol cytotoxicity. We show that the protective effect of ghrelin was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2 production, and characterized by a marked up-regulation in cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) activity and arachidonic acid (AA) release. The loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the ethanol cytotoxicity was attained with constitutive NOS (cNOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, as well as indomethacin and a specific COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560, while specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400W, had no effect. The effect of L-NAME was reflected in the inhibition of ghrelin-induced mucosal cell capacity for NO production, cPLA(2) activation, and PGE2 generation, whereas indomethacin caused only the inhibition in PGE2 generation. Moreover, the ghrelin-induced up-regulation in AA release was reflected in the cPLA(2) enzyme protein phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. Preincubation with L-NAME resulted in the inhibition of the ghrelin-induced S-nitrosylation, whereas the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, caused the blockage in cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation as well as S-nitrosylation. The findings demonstrate that ghrelin protection of gastric mucosa against ethanol cytotoxicity involves cNOS-derived NO induction of cPLA(2) activation for the increase in PGE2 synthesis. This activation process apparently includes the cPLA(2) phosphorylation followed by S-nitrosylation.
    Inflammopharmacology 09/2009; 17(5):245-53.
  • Source
    B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A pleiotropic hormone, leptin, secreted into saliva by the acinar cells of salivary glands is an important mediator of the processes of oral mucosal defense. Here, we report on the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in the signaling events that mediate leptin protection of sublingual salivary gland acinar cells against ethanol cytotoxicity. We show that the protective effect of leptin against ethanol cytotoxicity was associated with the increased EGFR protein tyrosine kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) activity, and characterized by a marked increase in matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 and arachidonic acid (AA) release, and PGE(2) generation. The loss in countering capacity of leptin against ethanol cytotoxicity was attained with JAK inhibitor AG490, Src inhibitor PP2, and EGFR inhibitor AG1478, as well as ERK inhibitor PD98059. Moreover, the agents evoked also the inhibition in leptin-induced up-regulation in cPLA(2) activity, AA release, and PGE(2) generation. The changes caused by leptin in EGFR phosphorylation, MMP-9, and cPLA(2) activation were susceptible to suppression by metalloprotease inhibitor GM6001, but the production of MMP-9 was not affected by EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or PKC inhibitor Ro318220. These findings point to the involvement of MMP-9 in the event of leptin-induced EGFR transactivation that results in the signaling cascade leading to cPLA(2) activation and up-regulation in PGE(2) generation, thus providing new insights into the mechanism of oral mucosal protection against ethanol toxicity.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 07/2009; 60(2):49-55. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A pluripotent cytokine, leptin, released locally within the mucosal tissue is an important mediator of the processes of gastric mucosal defense and repair. Here, we report that leptin protection of gastric mucosal cells against ethanol cytotoxicity requires epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) participation. We show that the protective effect of leptin against ethanol cytotoxicity was associated with the increased EGFR and cPLA(2) phosphorylation, and characterized by a marked increase in arachidonic acid (AA) release and prostaglandin (PGE(2)) generation. The loss in countering capacity of leptin on the ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was attained with Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, and EGFR kinase inhibitor, AG1478, as well as ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Moreover, all three agents evoked also the inhibition in leptin-induced upregulation in cPLA(2) activity, AA release, and PGE(2) generation. Furthermore, changes caused by leptin in EGFR phosphorylation and cPLA(2) activation were susceptible to suppression by GM6001, a metalloprotease inhibitor of membrane-anchored EGFR ligand cleavage. These findings disclose an important link between leptin-induced and Src kinase-mediated EGFR transactivation and the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) that leads to up-regulation in PGE2 production, thus providing new insights into the mechanism of gastric mucosal protection by leptin.
    Inflammopharmacology 01/2009; 17(1):6-14.
  • B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advances in understanding the functional aspects of leptin in the processes affecting peripheral tissues have brought to the forefront the role of this pluripotent cytokine in the processes of gastric mucosal defense and repair. Here, we report that leptin protects the gastric mucosal cells against ethanol cytotoxicity. We show that ethanol cytotoxicity, characterized by a marked drop in the mucosal cells capacity for NO production, arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin generation, was subject to suppression by leptin. The loss in countering capacity of leptin on the ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was attained with cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin and nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, as well as PP2, an inhibitor of Src kinase. Indomethacin caused the inhibition in PGE(2) generation, pretreatment with L-NAME led to the inhibition in NO production, whereas PP2 exerted the inhibitory effect on leptin-induced changes in NO, arachidonic acid and PGE(2). The leptin-induced changes in arachidonic acid release and PGE(2) generation were blocked by ERK inhibitor, PD98059, but not by PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of leptin on the mucosal cells cNOS activity was inhibited not only by PP2, but also by Akt inhibitor, SH-5. Our findings demonstrate that leptin protection of gastric mucosa against ethanol cytotoxicity involves Src kinase-mediated bifurcated activation of MAPK/ERK and Akt that leads to up-regulation of the respective prostaglandin and nitric oxide synthase pathways.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 07/2008; 59(2):301-14. · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
986.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2013
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • New Jersey Dental School
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 1981–2006
    • metropolitan medical center
      Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines
  • 1970–2006
    • New York Medical College
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1992–1999
    • Siena Heights University
      University Heights, Ohio, United States
  • 1995
    • Kochi Medical School
      Kôti, Kōchi, Japan
  • 1993
    • Krakow University Hospital
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1980–1986
    • Columbia University
      • Division of Operative Dentistry
      New York City, NY, United States