[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of the novel strategies to treat colon cancer, mortality rates associated with this disease remain consistently high. Tumour recurrence has been linked to the induction of resistance towards chemotherapy that involves cellular events that enable cancer cells to escape cell death. Treatment of colon cancer mainly implicates direct or indirect DNA-damaging agents and increased repair or tolerances towards subsequent lesions contribute to generate resistant populations. Resveratrol (RSV), a potent chemosensitising polyphenol, might share common properties with chemotherapeutic drugs through its indirect DNA-damaging effects reported in vitro. In this study, we investigated how RSV exerts its anticancer effects in models of colon cancer with a particular emphasis on the DNA-damage response (DDR; PIKKs-Chks-p53 signalling cascade) and its cellular consequences. We showed in vitro and in vivo that colon cancer models could progressively escape the repeated pharmacological treatments with RSV. We observed for the first time that this response was correlated with transient activation of the DDR, of apoptosis and senescence. In vitro, a single treatment with RSV induced a DDR correlated with S-phase delay and apoptosis, but prolonged treatments led to transient micronucleations and senescence phenotypes associated with polyploidisation. Ultimately, stable resistant populations towards RSV displaying higher degrees of ploidy and macronucleation as compared to parental cells emerged. We linked these transient effects and resistance emergence to the abilities of these cells to progressively escape RSV-induced DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrated that this DNA damage was triggered by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) against which cancer cells could adapt under prolonged exposure to RSV. This study provides a pre-clinical analysis of the long-term effects of RSV and highlights ROS as main agents in RSV's indirect DNA-damaging properties and consequences in terms of anticancer response and potent resistance emergence.
Cell Death & Disease 11/2014; 5. · 5.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferroptosis is a recently identified form of regulated necrosis that can be experimentally induced in cancer cells with the chemical inducer erastin. Recently, we identified sorafenib, an inhibitor of oncogenic kinases, as an inducer of ferroptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Whether sorafenib is able to exert its ferroptotic activity in cancer cells originating from other tissues is presently unclear.
Anticancer research 11/2014; 34(11):6417-22. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemoradiotherapy (CHRT) is often advocated for locally-advanced biliary tract cancer (LABTC). However there was not comparative study with chemotherapy alone (CH).
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 09/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prognosis of unresectable glioblastoma remains poor despite temozolomide-based chemoradiation. Activity of bevacizumab (BEV) and irinotecan (IRI) has been reported in recurrent disease. We evaluated BEV and IRI as neo-adjuvant and adjuvant treatment combined with temozolomide-based chemoradiation for unresectable glioblastoma.
Patients with unresectable glioblastoma, age 18-70, IK>50 were eligible. The experimental arm (BEV/IRI) consisted of neo-adjuvant intravenous BEV, 10 mg/kg, and IRI, 125 mg/m2, every 2 weeks for 4 cycles before radiotherapy (60 Gy), concomitant oral temozolomide, 75 mg/m2/day, and BEV, 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Adjuvant BEV and IRI were given every 2 weeks for 6 months. The control arm consisted of concomitant oral temozolomide, 75 mg/m2/day during radiotherapy, and 150-200 mg/m2 for 5 days every 28 days for 6 months. Use of bevacizumab was allowed at progression in the control arm.
Patients (120) were included from April 2009 to January 2011. The working hypothesis was that treatment would increase the progression free survival at 6 month (PFS-6 ) from 50 to 66 %. The primary objective was not achieved, and only 30/60 patients were alive without progression at 6 months (50.0% (IC95% [36.8; 63.1]) in the BEV/IRI arm when 37/60 patients were required according to the Fleming decision rules. PFS-6 was 7.1 months in BEV/IRI versus 5.2 months in the control arm. Median overall survival was not different between the two arms (11.1 months). Main toxicities were 3 fatal intracranial bleedings, 3 bile duct or digestive perforations/infections (1 fatal), and 6 thrombotic episodes in BEV/IRI arm, whereas there was 1 intracranial bleeding, 2 bile duct or digestive perforations/infections (1 fatal) and 1 thrombotic episode in the control arm.
Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant BEV/IRI, combined with temozolomide-radiation, is not recommended for further evaluation in first line treatment of unresectable glioblastoma.
number 2008-002775-28 (NCT01022918).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundA phase I dose-escalation trial of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) with idarubicin-loaded beads was performed in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).AimTo estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and to assess safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and quality of life.Methods
Patients received a single TACE session with injection of 2 mL drug-eluting beads (DEBs; DC Bead 300–500 μm) loaded with idarubicin. The idarubicin dose was escalated according to a modified continuous reassessment method. MTD was defined as the dose level closest to that causing dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in 20% of patients.ResultsTwenty-one patients were enrolled, including nine patients at 5 mg, six patients at 10 mg, and six patients at 15 mg. One patient at each dose level experienced DLT (acute myocardial infarction, hyperbilirubinaemia and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at 5-, 10- and 15-mg, respectively). The calculated MTD of idarubicin was 10 mg. The most frequent grade ≥3 adverse events were pain, elevated AST, elevated γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and thrombocytopenia. At 2 months, the objective response rate was 52% (complete response, 28%, and partial response, 24%) by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours. The median time to progression was 12.1 months (95% CI 7.4 months – not reached); the median overall survival was 24.5 months (95% CI 14.7 months – not reached). Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated the ability of DEBs to release idarubicin slowly.Conclusions
Using drug-eluting beads, the maximum-tolerated dose of idarubicin was 10 mg per TACE session. Encouraging responses and median time to progression were observed. Further clinical investigations are warranted (NCT01040559).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ifosfamide is used in the treatment of sarcomas and other tumors. It sometimes provokes encephalopathy, which is a serious complication even if it is usually reversible within 48-72 h after drug cessation. Ifosfamide is required to be activated by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP), especially the 3A4 subtype, leading to 4-hydroxy-ifosfamide. Ifosfamide is also converted by CYP3A4 to inactive but neurotoxic metabolites. Aprepitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist that is a potent antiemetic used in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists and corticosteroids. Aprepitant has an inhibitory effect, as well as a possible inductive effect, on CYP3A4. Since ifosfamide and aprepitant are both substrates of CYP3A4, a pharmacokinetic interaction could result in secondary effects such as the potentialization of neurological side effects. In this report, we describe 2 cases of fatal encephalopathy in patients who have received both ifosfamide and aprepitant, and we discuss the mechanisms that could be involved. Our observations draw attention to the fact that aprepitant must be avoided, or at least used with caution, in patients who are receiving ifosfamide due to the risk of severe neurological side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treats residual microscopic disease after cytoreductive surgery. In experimental models, the open HIPEC technique has shown a higher and more homogenous concentration of platinum in the peritoneum than achieved using the closed technique. A 25-cm H2O pressure enhances the penetration of oxaliplatin. Because pressure is easier to set up with the closed technique, high pressure may counterbalance the drawbacks of this technique versus open HIPEC, and a higher pressure may induce a higher penetration. Because higher concentration does not mean deeper penetration, a study of tissues beneath the peritoneum is required. Finally, achieving a deeper penetration (and a higher concentration) raises the question of the passage of drugs through the surgical glove and the surgeon's safety.
Four groups of pigs underwent HIPEC with oxaliplatin (150 mg/L) for 30 minutes in open isobaric pressure and pressure at 25 cm H2O, and closed pressure at 25 and 40 cm H2O. Systemic absorption and peritoneal mapping of the concentration of platinum were analyzed, as well as in the retroperitoneal tissue and the surgical gloves.
Blood concentrations were higher in open groups. In the parietal surfaces, the concentrations were not different between the isobaric and the closed groups (47.08, 56.39, and 48.57 mg/kg, respectively), but were higher in the open high-pressure group (85.93 mg/kg). In the visceral surfaces, they were lower in the closed groups (3.2 and 3.05 mg/kg) than in the open groups (7.03 and 9.56 mg/kg). Platinum concentrations were similar in the deep retroperitoneal tissue when compared between isobaric and high-pressure procedures. No platin was detected in the internal aspect of the gloves.
The use of high pressure during HIPEC does not counterbalance the drawbacks of closed techniques. The tissue concentration of oxaliplatin achieved with the open techniques is higher, even if high pressure is applied during a closed technique. Open 25 cm H2O HIPEC achieved the highest tissue penetration of oxaliplatin, but did not enhance the depth of oxaliplatin penetration. High pressure did not enhance the risk of HIPEC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib, an orally-available kinase inhibitor, is the only medical treatment with a proven efficacy against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Although the overall clinical efficacy of sorafenib is modest, recent experimental results have uncovered new potential strategies that may increase its clinical benefits. The potential implication of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs), such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), in the development of resistance to sorafenib highlights the importance of the RAF kinase pathway. Various strategies aiming to optimize the control exerted over this pathway by combining sorafenib with other targeted molecules (such as anti-EGFR, anti-MEK) are under investigation. Increasing the cytotoxicity of sorafenib in HCC, either through apoptosis or through new forms of non-apoptotic cell death, such as ferroptosis, may also promote more sustained tumour regression. Finally, the heterogeneity of individual responses to sorafenib is increasingly recognized, even though clinically-applicable biomarkers remain to be identified. Here, we discuss how molecular genetics and complementary approaches such as short term culture of tumour samples could help to personalize the use of sorafenib.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel family of cisplatin-type complexes tethered to dibenzo[c,h][1,6]naphthyridin-6-one topoisomerase inhibitor via a polymethylene chain and their nonplatinated counterparts were prepared. Their potential cytotoxicity was assessed in three human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT 116, SW480 and HT-29 and compared to the reference molecules cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Platinated compounds were poorly active whilst nonplatinated dibenzo[c,h][1,6]naphthyridin-6-one moieties exhibited higher cytotoxic properties than cisplatin and oxaliplatin whatever the length of the polymethylene chain; molecules containing the tri- and hexamethylene chain length were the most cytotoxic.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2013; 69C:719-727. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (six cycles) is the standard treatment after surgery in glioblastoma patients. Few studies have assessed the impact of additional cycles of temozolomide on survival.
We conducted a bi-centric retrospective study comparing survival and toxicity according to the number of cycles of adjuvant temozolomide.
Fifty-eight patients were included. All patients received radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide. Thirty-eight patients received six cycles, while 20 received nine or more (median=14) cycles. The risk of recurrence was significantly higher in the group receiving six cycles compared to the other group. Prolonged treatment improved progression-free survival (p=0.03) and overall survival (p=0.01) in multivariate analysis without a significant increase in toxicity.
Prolonged administration of temozolomide seems to improve progression-free and overall survival, without increased toxicity. Prospective studies in larger populations are needed to better-define the population to whom it can be proposed and its optimal duration.
Anticancer research 08/2013; 33(8):3467-74. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of systemic chemotherapy on survival in patients with metastatic or non-resectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed data from 23 consecutive patients with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed and treated in our centre between 2000 and 2007. Patients were eligible if they had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with liver or extrahepatic metastasis and with no prior chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the impact of age, sex, presence of extrahepatic metastasis, performance status, type of chemotherapy, number of lines of chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median survival of all patients was 27.7 months (17.8-37.7). Univariate analysis showed that age less than 60 years at diagnosis, good performance status, no extrahepatic liver metastasis and the number of lines of chemotherapy were significantly associated with better survival. Multivariate analysis identified only performance status and the number of lines of chemotherapy as independent predictive factors of survival. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that iterative chemotherapy may increase survival in patients with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 05/2013; · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Sorafenib is currently the only medical treatment with proven efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC cell lines display heterogeneous sensitivity to sorafenib, but little is known about the sensitivity of clinical tumors. We aimed to examine this aspect.
Using experimental tumors generated in nude mice, we set up a technique for short-term culture of HCC fragments. We applied this technique to six human HCC samples obtained from surgical resection.
HCC fragments in culture retain their morphology and viability for at least 48 h, permitting an in vitro analysis of the effect of sorafenib on the Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. HCC exhibit heterogeneous individual responses, ranging from potent inhibition to paradoxical activation of this oncogenic cascade.
Our observations highlight the heterogeneous sensitivity of HCC to sorafenib, and point to the potential interest of short-term culture of tumor fragments for personalizing the medical treatment of HCC.
Anticancer research 04/2013; 33(4):1415-20. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The combination of bevacizumab and bolus 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan is highly effective in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This randomised, multicenter, non-comparative phase II trial assessed the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus oral capecitabine plus irinotecan (XELIRI) or infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin plus irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as first-line therapy for patients with mCRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg on day 1 plus XELIRI (irinotecan 200mg/m(2) on day 1 and oral capecitabine 1000mg/m(2) bid on days 1-14) every 3weeks or bevacizumab 5mg/kg on day 1 plus FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil 400mg/m(2) on day 1 plus 2400mg/m(2) as a 46-h infusion, leucovorin 400mg/m(2) on day 1, and irinotecan 180mg/m(2) on day 1) every 2weeks. Patients aged ⩾65years received a lower dose of capecitabine (800mg/m(2) twice daily). The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were enrolled (bevacizumab-XELIRI, n=72; bevacizumab-FOLFIRI, n=73). The 6-month PFS rate was 82% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 71-90%) in the bevacizumab-XELIRI arm and 85% (95% CI 75-92%) in the bevacizumab-FOLFIRI arm. In both the bevacizumab-XELIRI and bevacizumab-FOLFIRI arms, median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 9 and 23months, respectively. The most frequent toxicities were grade 3/4 neutropenia (bevacizumab-XELIRI 18%; bevacizumab-FOLFIRI 26%) and grade 3 diarrhoea (12% and 5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This randomised non-comparative study demonstrates that bevacizumab-XELIRI and bevacizumab-FOLFIRI are effective regimens for the first-line treatment of patients with mCRC with manageable toxicity profiles.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 01/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND:: Self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) insertion has been suggested as a promising alternative to emergency surgery for left-sided malignant colonic obstruction (LMCO). However, the literature on the long-term impact of SEMS as "a bridge to surgery" is limited and contradictory. METHODS:: From January 1998 to June 2011, we retrospectively identified patients operated on for LMCO with curative intent. The primary outcome criterion was overall survival. Short-term secondary endpoints included the technical success rate and overall success rate and long-term secondary endpoints included 5-year overall survival, 5-year cancer-specific mortality, 5-year disease-free survival, the recurrence rate, and mean time to recurrence. Patients treated with SEMS were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Overall survival was analyzed after using a propensity score to correct for selection bias. RESULTS:: There were 48 patients in the SEMS group and 39 in the surgery-only group. In the overall population, overall survival (P = 0.001) and 5-year overall survival (P = 0.0003) were significantly lower in the SEMS group than in the surgery-only group, and 5-year cancer-specific mortality was significantly higher in the SEMS group (48% vs 21%, respectively (P = 0.02)). Five-year disease-free survival, the recurrence rate, and the mean time to recurrence were better in the surgery-only group (not significant). For patients with no metastases or perforations at hospital admission, overall survival (P = 0.003) and 5-year overall survival (30% vs 67%, respectively, P = 0.001) were significantly lower in the SEMS group than in the surgery-only group. CONCLUSIONS:: Our study results suggest worse overall survival of patients with LMCO with SEMS insertion compared with immediate surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aims. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases can induce hepatotoxicity in noncancerous liver. We describe these lesions and assess risk factors and impacts on postresection morbidity and mortality in naive patients to chemotherapy before the era of bevacizumab. Methods. Noncancerous liver tissue lesions were analysed according to tumour, chemotherapy, surgery, and patient characteristics. Results. Fifty patients aged 62 ± 9.3 years were included between 2003 and 2007. Thirty-three (66%) received chemotherapy, with Folfox (58%), Folfiri (21%), LV5FU2 (12%), or Xelox (9%) regimens. Hepatotoxicity consisted of 18 (36%) cases of severe sinusoidal dilatation (SD), 13 (26%) portal fibrosis, 7 (14%) perisinusoidal fibrosis (PSF), 6 (12%) nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), 2 (4%) steatosis >30%, zero steatohepatitis, and 16 (32%) surgical hepatitis. PSF was more frequent after chemotherapy (21% versus 0%, P = 0.04), especially LV5FU2 (P = 0.02). SD was associated with oxaliplatin (54.5% versus 23.5%, P = 0.05) and low body mass index (P = 0.003). NRH was associated with oxaliplatin (P = 0.03) and extensive resection (P = 0.04). No impact on mortality and morbidity was observed, apart postoperative elevation of bilirubin levels in case of PSF (P = 0.03), longer hospitalization in case of surgical hepatitis (P = 0.03), and greater blood loss in case of portal fibrosis (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases induces sinusoidal dilatation related to oxaliplatin and perisinusoidal fibrosis related to 5FU, without any impact on postoperative mortality.
International journal of hepatology. 01/2013; 2013:314868.