[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This document illustrates the technical layout and the expected performance
of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. The MVD will detect
charged particles as close as possible to the interaction zone. Design criteria
and the optimisation process as well as the technical solutions chosen are
discussed and the results of this process are subjected to extensive Monte
Carlo physics studies. The route towards realisation of the detector is
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a complete description of Virgo, the French-Italian gravitational wave detector. The detector, built at Cascina, near Pisa (Italy), is a very large Michelson interferometer, with 3 km-long arms. In this paper, following a presentation of the physics requirements, leading to the specifications for the construction of the detector, a detailed description of all its different elements is given. These include civil engineering infrastructures, a huge ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber (about 6000 cubic metres), all of the optical components, including high quality mirrors and their seismic isolating suspensions, all of the electronics required to control the interferometer and for signal detection. The expected performances of these different elements are given, leading to an overall sensitivity curve as a function of the incoming gravitational wave frequency. This description represents the detector as built and used in the first data-taking runs. Improvements in different parts have been and continue to be performed, leading to better sensitivities. These will be detailed in a forthcoming paper.
Journal of Instrumentation 03/2012; 7(03):P03012. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/7/03/P03012 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This document is the Technical Design Report covering the two large spectrometer magnets of the PANDA detector set-up. It shows the conceptual design of the magnets and their anticipated performance. It precedes the tender and procurement of the magnets and, hence, is subject to possible modifications arising during this process. Comment: 10 pages, 14MB, accepted by FAIR STI in May 2009, editors: Inti Lehmann (chair), Andrea Bersani, Yuri Lobanov, Jost Luehning, Jerzy Smyrski, Technical Coordiantor: Lars Schmitt, Bernd Lewandowski (deputy), Spokespersons: Ulrich Wiedner, Paola Gianotti (deputy)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This document is the Technical Design Report covering the two large
spectrometer magnets of the PANDA detector set-up. It shows the
conceptual design of the magnets and their anticipated performance. It
precedes the tender and procurement of the magnets and, hence, is
subject to possible modifications arising during this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.
Journal of Instrumentation 04/2009; 4(04):P04018. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics in interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei, the universal PANDA detector will be built. Gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure studies will be performed with unprecedented accuracy thereby allowing high-precision tests of the strong interaction. The proposed PANDA detector is a state-of-the art internal target detector at the HESR at FAIR allowing the detection and identification of neutral and charged particles generated within the relevant angular and energy range. This report presents a summary of the physics accessible at PANDA and what performance can be expected. Comment: 216 pages
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This document presents the technical layout and the envisaged performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) for the PANDA target spectrometer. The EMC has been designed to meet the physics goals of the PANDA experiment, which is being developed for the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. The performance figures are based on extensive prototype tests and radiation hardness studies. The document shows that the EMC is ready for construction up to the front-end electronics interface. Comment: 199 pages, submitted to FAIR STI on July 1st 2008, Editors: Fritz-Herbert Heinsius, Bertram Kopf, Bernd Lewandowski (Deputy Technical Coordinator), Herbert L\"ohner, Rainer Novotny (Project Coordinator), Klaus Peters, Philippe Rosier, Lars Schmitt (Technical Coordinator), Alexander Vasiliev; Spokespersons: Ulrich Wiedner, Paola Gianotti (deputy)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.
Journal of Instrumentation 07/2008; 3(07):P07002. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/3/07/P07002 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design and construction of the 990-ton gapless iron magnets for the OPERA experiment represent a major challenge from the point of view of mechanics, electric and heat engineering. Two of such magnets have been built in a deep underground hall of the Gran Sasso laboratories between 2003 and 2006 and they have been switched on for the first time in March 2006. In this paper we discuss the construction and characterization of these devices. First experience with the CNGS beam are also reported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The instrumented targets of the OPERA neutrino experiment are complemented by two massive spectrometers based on gapless iron magnets. In 2006, a systematic assessment of their electromagnetic properties have been carried out. In this document, we report the results of such characterization and demonstrate that the achieved performance fulfill the physics requirements for the study of νμ→ντ oscillations.
Journal of Instrumentation 03/2007; 2(03):T03001. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/2/03/T03001 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The OPERA neutrino detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) was designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in appearance mode, through the study of νμ → ντ oscillations. The apparatus consists of a lead/emulsion-film target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the high-energy, long-baseline CERN to LNGS beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the neutrino source. In August 2006, a first run with CNGS neutrinos was successfully conducted. A first sample of neutrino events was collected, statistically consistent with the integrated beam intensity. After a brief description of the beam and of the various sub-detectors, we report on the achievement of this milestone, presenting the first data and some analysis results.
New Journal of Physics 12/2006; 8(12):303. DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/8/12/303 · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construction and commissioning of the 990-ton gapless iron magnets for the OPERA experiment is presented. These magnets have been built in a deep underground hall of the Gran Sasso laboratories between 2003 and 2006 and they have been switched on for the first time in March 2006. In this poster we discuss the mechanic, electric and thermal characterization of these devices as well as measurements of the magnetic field by means of pickup coils. Moreover, we discuss the commissioning of the auxiliary systems (power supply, water cooling plant); first neutrino beam has been sent in August 2006 and is also reported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with resistive plate chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper, we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the resistive plate chambers are reported. Finally, the expected physics performance of the detector is described; estimates rely on numerical simulations and the outcome of the tests described above.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the instrumented lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The spectrometer consists of a dipolar magnet without air gaps. The driving coils are located in the return yokes which are connected by two columns of iron slabs interleaved with Resistive Plate Chambers. The particle trajectories are measured by layers of vertical drift tube planes located before and after the magnet. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained front the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at Gran Sasso. We present the ballistic techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet and the results in term of field uniformity and magnetic properties of the iron. Moreover, we demonstrate that a field calibration at the level of 3% can be reached and we discuss the limiting systematics. The mass production of RPC started in Jan 2003. Results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production are reported. Finally, the expected physics performance of the detector is described; estimates rely on numerical simulations and the outcome of the tests described above.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experimental problem of the calibration of magnetic field in large iron detectors located in underground areas is discussed. Emphasis is laid on techniques based on ballistic measurements as the ones employed by MINOS or OPERA. An experimental investigation of the precision achievable by these methods has been carried out using a full-scale prototype of the OPERA spectrometer built in Frascati in 2001. We demonstrate that a field calibration at the level of 3% can be reached and discuss in details the limiting systematics. Moreover, we provide analytical formulas to model the behaviour of the apparatus in the transient regime, keeping into account eddy current effects and the finite penetration velocity of the driving fields. These formulas ease substantially the design of the calibration apparatus. Finally, ballistic techniques are shown to match the requirements for field calibration at the next generation long-baseline neutrino experiments and are well-suited to operate in underground laboratories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FINUDA is an experiment aiming at high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. It employs different types of detectors enclosed inside a large superconducting solenoid. It will operate on the new, high luminosity (e+ − e−) collider DAΦNE of the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The solenoid operates at 2765 A maximum current corresponding to a magnetic field of 1.1 T. The inner dimensions are: 2.4 m length, 2.7 m diameter. The coil within its cryostat is enclosed inside an iron return yoke composed by a central barrel and two end-caps which can be opened to access the inner detectors. The magnetic field in the inner volume has been fully mapped for both main and minor components. The alignment of such a magnet on a machine as DAΦNE is a very crucial item, needing particular care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have designed, built and tested a gas threshold Cherenkov counter as prototype for a larger counter foreseen for use in the DIRAC experiment, at CERN. We describe the performances of the counter on a test beam.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 05/1999; 426(2):254-267. DOI:10.1016/S0168-9002(98)01400-4 · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The performance of the ALEPH detector at the LEP e+e− collider is reviewed. The accuracy of the tracking detectors to measure the impact parameter and momentum of charged tracks is specified. Calorimeters are used to measure photons and neutral hadrons, and the accuracy obtained in energy and angle is given. An essential property of the detector is its ability to identify particles; the performance in identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos (from missing energy), charged hadrons, π0's and V0's is described.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 06/1995; 360(3). DOI:10.1016/0168-9002(95)00138-7 · 1.22 Impact Factor