Antonio Salas

Instituto Nacional de Toxicología y Ciencias Forenses, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (213)883.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Guatemala is a multiethnic and multilingual country located in Central America. The main population groups separate 'Ladinos' (mixed Native American-African-Spanish), and Native indigenous people of Maya descent. Among the present-day Guatemalan Maya, there are more than 20 different ethnic groups separated by different languages and cultures. Genetic variation of these communities still remains largely unexplored. The principal aim of this study is to explore the genetic variability of the Maya and 'Ladinos' from Guatemala by means of uniparental and ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Analyses of uniparental genetic markers indicate that Maya have a dominant Native American ancestry (mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]: 100%; Y-chromosome: 94%). 'Ladino', however, show a clear gender-bias as indicated by the large European ancestry observed in the Y-chromosome (75%) compared to the mtDNA (0%). Autosomal polymorphisms (AIMS) also mirror this marked gender-bias: (i) Native American ancestry: 92% for the Maya vs. 55% for the 'Ladino', and (ii) European ancestry: 8% for the Maya vs. 41% for the 'Ladino'. In addition, the impact of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on the present-day Guatemalan population is very low (and only occurs in the 'Ladino'; mtDNA: 9%; 4%), in part mirroring the fact that Guatemala has a predominant orientation to the Pacific Ocean instead of a Caribbean one. Sequencing of entire Guatemalan mitogenomes has led to improved Native American phylogeny via the addition of new haplogroups that are mainly observed in Mesoamerica and/or the North of South America. The data reveal the existence of a fluid gene flow in the Mesoamerican area and a predominant unidirectional flow towards South America, most likely occurring during the Pre-Classic (1800 BC-200 AD) and the Classic (200-1000 AD) Eras of the Mesoamerican chronology, coinciding with development of the most distinctive and advanced Mesoamerican civilization, the Maya. Phylogenetic features of mtDNA data also suggest a demographic scenario that is compatible with moderate local endogamy and isolation in the Maya combined with episodes of gene exchange between ethnic groups, suggesting an ethno-genesis in the Guatemalan Maya that is recent and supported on a cultural rather than a biological basis.
    BMC Genomics 12/2015; 16(1):1339. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1339-1 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated the allele frequencies for the 15 autosomal STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler (Applied Biosystems, USA) in a sample of 986 unrelated non-Native American individuals collected at five different localities from Chile, namely, Iquique, Santiago, Concepción, Temuco and Punta Arenas. Frequency distributions and several forensic parameters were estimated at each recruitment site. In addition, analyses were carried out merging the data into five sample locations. No significant statistical differences could be detected between different regions in Chile. These data represent one of the very few studies performed on autosomal STRs in Chile and therefore provide a useful tool for forensic casework carried out in the country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 05/2015; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.05.016 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotavirus vaccine might reduce the risk of hospitalization due to childhood seizures (CS). We aimed to identify and assess variations in the incidence of hospitalizations for CS among children <5 years of age before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Annual hospitalization rates for any kind of childhood seizures, before and after rotavirus vaccine (RV) introduction in 2007, were calculated using the official surveillance system for hospitalization data. Our study cohort totaled 6,149 children <5 years admitted to the hospital between 2003 and 2013 with any kind of childhood seizures (780.3*+779.0*+333.2*+345*ICD-9-CM code). The annual hospitalization rates for any kind of CS in children <5 years were correlated with RV coverage (r=-0.673, P=0.033) and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RAGE) admission rates (ρ=0.506, P=0.001), with decrease rates ranging from 16.2% (95% CI=8.3-23.5%) in 2007 to 34.0% (27.3-40.1%) in 2010, as compared to the median rate of the pre-vaccination period (2003 to 2006). Similarly, for convulsions (780.3*ICD-9-CM code) the decrease seen in children <5 years was significantly correlated with the increase in RV coverage (r=-0.747, P=0.013) and RAG admission rates (ρ=0.543, P<.001), with decrease rates ranging from 18.7% (9.6-26.8%) in 2007 to 42.5% (35.3-48.9%) in 2012. Significant results were also obtained for infants <12 months and infants 1-2 years. In the remaining age groups or diagnostic categories analyzed, changes were either not significant or not related to vaccination changes or RAGE admission rates. Our results show that rotavirus vaccination may have a significant impact in the decrease in seizure-related hospitalizations in childhood. This additional benefit of rotavirus vaccination seems more marked in the youngest infants.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 04/2015; 34(7). DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000723 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In most societies, surnames are passed down from fathers to sons, just like the Y chromosome. It follows that, theoretically, men sharing the same surnames would also be expected to share related Y chromosomes. Previous investigations have explored such relationships, but so far, the only detailed studies that have been conducted are on samples from the British Isles. In order to provide additional insights into the correlation between surnames and Y chromosomes, we focused on the Spanish population by analysing Y chromosomes from 2121 male volunteers representing 37 surnames. The results suggest that the degree of coancestry within Spanish surnames is highly dependent on surname frequency, in overall agreement with British but not Irish surname studies. Furthermore, a reanalysis of comparative data for all three populations showed that Irish surnames have much greater and older surname descent clusters than Spanish and British ones, suggesting that Irish surnames may have considerably earlier origins than Spanish or British ones. Overall, despite closer geographical ties between Ireland and Britain, our analysis points to substantial similarities in surname origin and development between Britain and Spain, while possibly hinting at unique demographic or social events shaping Irish surname foundation and development.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.75.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2015.75 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy) in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000) and partial control region sequences (>180,000). Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%). Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran. Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119242. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119242 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Antonio Salas, Joanna L Elson
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    ABSTRACT: We have set out a short guide to help prevent false positive and negative results in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) case-control association studies. Currently the mtDNA association literature is replete with conflicting reports. Associating mtDNA variation with common disease is a complex task, which requires a detailed understanding of the nuances of mitochondrial genetics. We present some of the reasons for the conflicting associations with possible solutions. We feel that this is important, as the continued publication of association studies that fall short of current design criteria will impact negatively on the field.
    Journal of Genetics and Genomics 03/2015; 42(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jgg.2015.03.002 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Certain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and haplogroups have been found to be associated with neurological disorders. Several studies have suggested that mtDNA variation could have an etiologic role in these disorders by affecting the ATP production on high-energy demanding organs, such as the brain. We have analyzed 15 mtDNA SNPs (mtSNPs) in five cohorts of cases presenting Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and migraine, and in controls, to evaluate the role mtDNA variation in disease risk. Association tests were undertaken both for mtSNPs and mitochondrial haplogroups. No significant association was detected for any mtSNP or haplogroup in AD and PD cohorts. Two mtSNPs were associated with one migraine cohort after correcting for multiple tests, namely, T4216C and G13708A and haplogroup J (FDR q-value = 0.02; Santiago's cohort). However, this association was not confirmed in a second replication migraine series. A review of the literature reveals the existence of inconsistent findings and methodological shortcomings affecting a large proportion of mtDNA association studies on AD, PD, and migraine. A detailed inspection of the literature highlights the need for performing more rigorous methodological and statistical standards in mtDNA genetic association studies aimed to avoid false positive results of association between mtDNA variants and neurological diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2015; 168(1). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32276 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the specific male genetic component of 226 Bolivians recruited in five different regions (“departments”), La Paz, Cochabamba, Pando, Beni, and Santa Cruz. To evaluate the effect of geography on the distribution of genetic variability, the samples were also grouped into three main eco-geographical regions, namely, Andean, Sub-Andean, and Llanos. All the individuals were genotyped for 17 Y-STR and 32 Y-SNP markers. The average Y-chromosome Native American component in Bolivians is 28%, and it is mainly represented by haplogroup Q1a3a, while the average Y-chromosome European ancestry is 65%, and it is mainly represented by haplogroup R1b1-P25. The data indicate that there exists significant population sub-division in the country in terms of continental ancestry. Thus, the partition of ancestries in Llanos, Sub-Andean, and Andean regions is as follows (respectively): (i) Native American ancestry: 47%, 7%, and 19%, (ii) European ancestry: 46%, 86%, and 75%, and (iii) African ancestry: 7%, 7%, and 6%. The population sub-structure in the country is also well mirrored when inferred from an AMOVA analysis, indicating that among-population variance in the country reaches 9.74–11.15%. This suggests the convenience of using regional datasets for forensic applications in Bolivia, instead of using a global and single country database. By comparing the Y-chromosome patterns with those previously reported on the same individuals on autosomal SNPs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it becomes clear that Bolivians show a strong gender-bias.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 11/2014; 14. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.10.023 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 10/2014; 165(7). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32264 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The origin of the Etruscan civilization (Etruria, Central Italy) is a long-standing subject of debate among scholars from different disciplines. The bulk of the information has been reconstructed from ancient texts and archaeological findings and, in the last few years, through the analysis of uniparental genetic markers. Methods By meta-analyzing genome-wide data from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature, we were able to compare the genomic patterns (>540,000 SNPs) of present day Tuscans (N = 98) with other population groups from the main hypothetical source populations, namely, Europe and the Middle East. Results Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25–34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans. Different analyses have been carried out using identity-by-state (IBS) values and genetic distances point to Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans. Conclusions The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600–3,100 years ago (y.a.). On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e105920. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105920 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA large body of genetic research has focused on the potential role that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants might play on the predisposition to common and complex (multi-factorial) diseases. It has been argued however that many of these studies could be inconclusive due to artifacts related to genotyping errors or inadequate design.MethodsAnalyses of the data published in case–control breast cancer association studies have been performed using a phylogenetic-based approach. Variation observed in these studies has been interpreted in the light of data available on public resources, which now include over >27,000 complete mitochondrial sequences and the worldwide phylogeny determined by these mitogenomes. Complementary analyses were carried out using public datasets of partial mtDNA sequences, mainly corresponding to control-region segments.ResultsBy way of example, we show here another kind of fallacy in these medical studies, namely, the phenomenon of SNP-SNP interaction wrongly applied to haploid data in a breast cancer study. We also reassessed the mutually conflicting studies suggesting some functional role of the non-synonymous polymorphism m.10398A > G (ND3 subunit of mitochondrial complex I) in breast cancer. In some studies, control groups were employed that showed an extremely odd haplogroup frequency spectrum compared to comparable information from much larger databases. Moreover, the use of inappropriate statistics signaled spurious “significance” in several instances.ConclusionsEvery case–control study should come under scrutiny in regard to the plausibility of the control-group data presented and appropriateness of the statistical methods employed; and this is best done before potential publication.
    BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):659. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-659 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the question of human identification. Previous recommendations published in 2000 addressed the analysis and interpretation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in forensic casework. While the foundations set forth in the earlier recommendations still apply, new approaches to the quality control, alignment and nomenclature of mitochondrial sequences, as well as the establishment of mtDNA reference population databases, have been developed. Here, we describe these developments and discuss their application to both mtDNA casework and mtDNA reference population databasing applications. While the generation of mtDNA for forensic casework has always been guided by specific standards, it is now well-established that data of the same quality are required for the mtDNA reference population data used to assess the statistical weight of the evidence. As a result, we introduce guidelines regarding sequence generation, as well as quality control measures based on the known worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, that can be applied to ensure the highest quality population data possible. For both casework and reference population databasing applications, the alignment and nomenclature of haplotypes is revised here and the phylogenetic alignment proffered as acceptable standard. In addition, the interpretation of heteroplasmy in the forensic context is updated, and the utility of alignment-free database searches for unbiased probability estimates is highlighted. Finally, we discuss statistical issues and define minimal standards for mtDNA database searches.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 07/2014; 13C:134-142. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.07.010 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2014; 10(7):e1004488. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004488 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is a growing interest among geneticists in developing panels of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) aimed at measuring the biogeographical ancestry of individual genomes. The efficiency of these panels is commonly tested empirically by contrasting self-reported ancestry with the ancestry estimated from these panels. Results Using SNP data from HapMap we carried out a simulation-based study aimed at measuring the effect of SNP coverage on the estimation of genome ancestry. For three of the main continental groups (Africans, East Asians, Europeans) ancestry was first estimated using the whole HapMap SNP database as a proxy for global genome ancestry; these estimates were subsequently compared to those obtained from pre-designed AIM panels. Panels that consider >400 AIMs capture genome ancestry reasonably well, while those containing a few dozen AIMs show a large variability in ancestry estimates. Curiously, 500-1,000 SNPs selected at random from the genome provide an unbiased estimate of genome ancestry and perform as well as any AIM panel of similar size. In simulated scenarios of population admixture, panels containing few AIMs also show important deficiencies to measure genome ancestry. Conclusions The results indicate that the ability to estimate genome ancestry is strongly dependent on the number of AIMs used, and not primarily on their individual informativeness. Caution should be taken when making individual (medical, forensic, or anthropological) inferences based on AIMs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-543) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Genomics 06/2014; 15(1):543. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-543 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial common variants (mtSNPs) and the haplogroups defined by them have been inconsistently correlated with increased prostate cancer risk. Here we aimed to investigate the influence of the mitochondrial genetic background on prostate cancer. A total of 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing the common European branches of the mtDNA phylogeny were analyzed in a cohort of 620 Spanish prostate cancer patients and 616 matched population-based controls. Association tests were computed on mtSNPs and haplogroups. None of the evaluated mtSNPs or haplogroups were statistically associated with prostate cancer risk in our Spanish cohort. We show that previous association findings do not rest on solid grounds given that all of them (i) were based on underpowered studies, (ii) did not control for population stratification, (iii) lacked replication/confirmation cohorts, and (iv) and did not control for multiple test corrections. Taken together, a critical reassessment of the previous literature and the results obtained in the present study suggest that mtDNA common European variants are not correlated with increases in the risk for prostate cancer.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.46.
    Journal of Human Genetics 06/2014; 59(7). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.46 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend towards smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 04/2014; 12:12-23. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA common variants have been reported to be associated with the development of radiation-induced toxicity. Using a large cohort of patients, we aimed to validate these findings by investigating the potential role of common European mitochondrial DNA SNPs (mtSNPs) to the development of radio-toxicity. Overall acute and late toxicity data were assessed in a cohort of 606 prostate cancer patients by means of Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score. We carried out association tests between radiation toxicity and a selection of 15 mtSNPs (and the haplogroups defined by them). Statistically significant association between mtSNPs and haplogroups with toxicity could not be validated in our Spanish cohort. The present study suggests that the mtDNA common variants analyzed are not associated with clinically relevant increases in risk of overall radiation-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 04/2014; 111(2). DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2014.03.012 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Mitochondrial DNA common variants have been reported to be associated with the development of radiation-induced toxicity. Using a large cohort of patients, we aimed to validate these findings by investigating the potential role of common European mitochondrial DNA SNPs (mtSNPs) to the development of radio-toxicity. Material and methods Overall acute and late toxicity data were assessed in a cohort of 606 prostate cancer patients by means of Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score. We carried out association tests between radiation toxicity and a selection of 15 mtSNPs (and the haplogroups defined by them). Results Statistically significant association between mtSNPs and haplogroups with toxicity could not be validated in our Spanish cohort. Conclusions The present study suggests that the mtDNA common variants analyzed are not associated with clinically relevant increases in risk of overall radiation-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients.

Publication Stats

6k Citations
883.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Instituto Nacional de Toxicología y Ciencias Forenses
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2001–2015
    • Instituto De Medicina Legal
      La Habana, La Habana, Cuba
    • University of Antioquia
      • Instituto de Biología
      Santa Fe de Antioquia, Antioquia, Colombia
  • 1997–2014
    • University of Santiago de Compostela
      • • Department of Pathological Anatomy and Forensic Sciences
      • • Instituto de Medicina Legal
      • • Group of Genomic Medicine
      Santiago, Galicia, Spain
  • 2007–2011
    • Universität Hamburg
      • Department of Mathematics
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Pavia
      • Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Lazzaro Spallanzani"
      Pavia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004
    • University of Huddersfield
      • Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences
      Huddersfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • University of Zulia
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela
  • 1998
    • Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago
      • Department of Medicine
      Santiago, Galicia, Spain