Anil Seth

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (123)427.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have measured stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) bands for 117 million resolved stars in M31. As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, we measured photometry with simultaneous point spread function fitting across all bands and at all source positions after precise astrometric image alignment (<5-10 milliarcsecond accuracy). In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W~28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W~25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams that are up to 2.5 magnitudes deeper when compared with color-magnitude diagrams from WFC3/IR photometry alone. We present extensive analysis of the data quality including comparisons of luminosity functions and repeat measurements, and we use artificial star tests to quantify photometric completeness, uncertainties and biases. We find that largest sources of systematic error in the photometry are due to spatial variations in the point spread function models and charge transfer efficiency corrections. This stellar catalog is the largest ever produced for equidistant sources, and is publicly available for download by the community.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We search Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) broadband imaging data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey to identify detections of cataloged planetary nebulae (PNe). Of the 711 PNe currently in the literature within the PHAT footprint, we find 467 detected in the broadband. For these 467 we are able to refine their astrometric accuracy from ~0."3 to 0."05. Using the resolution of HST, we are able to show that 152 objects currently in the catalogs are definitively not PNe, and we show that 32 objects thought to be extended in ground-based images are actually point-like and therefore good PN candidates. We also find one PN candidate that is marginally resolved. If this is a PN, it is up to 0.7 pc in diameter. With our new photometric data, we develop a method of measuring the level of excitation in individual PNe by comparing broadband and narrowband imaging and describe the effects of excitation on a PN's photometric signature. Using the photometric properties of the known PNe in the PHAT catalogs, we search for more PN, but do not find any new candidates, suggesting that ground-based emission-line surveys are complete in the PHAT footprint to F475W $\simeq$ 24.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the clustering of early-type stars younger than 300 Myr on galactic scales in M31. Based on the stellar photometric catalogs of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program that also provides stellar parameters derived from the individual energy distributions, our analysis is focused on the young stars in three star-forming regions, located at galactocentric distances of about 5, 10, and 15 kpc, corresponding to the inner spiral arms, the ring structure, and the outer arm, respectively. We apply the two-point correlation function to our selected sample to investigate the clustering behavior of these stars across different time- and length-scales. We find that young stellar structure survives across the whole extent of M31 longer than 300 Myr. Stellar distribution in all regions appears to be self-similar, with younger stars being systematically more strongly clustered than the older, which are more dispersed. The observed clustering is interpreted as being induced by turbulence, the driving source for which is probably gravitational instabilities driven by the spiral arms, which are stronger closer to the galactic centre.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, which we dub Scl-MM-Dw1, at a projected distance of $\sim$65 kpc from the spiral galaxy NGC 253. The discovery results from the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), a program with the Magellan/Megacam imager to study faint substructure in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to Scl-MM-Dw1 of $D$=3.9$\pm$0.5 Mpc, consistent with that of NGC 253, making their association likely. The new dwarf's stellar population is complex, with an old, metal poor red giant branch ($\gtrsim$10 Gyr, [Fe/H]$\sim$$-$2), and an asymptotic giant branch with an age of $\sim$500 Myr. Scl-MM-Dw1 has a half-light radius of $r_{h}$=340$\pm$50 pc and an absolute magnitude of $M_{V}$=$-$10.3$\pm$0.6 mag, comparable to the Milky Way's satellites at the same luminosity. Once complete, our imaging survey of NGC 253 and other nearby massive galaxies will provide a census of faint substructure in halos beyond the Local Group, both to put our own environment into context and to confront models of hierarchical structure formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 06/2014; 793(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ages and masses for 601 star clusters in M31 from the analysis of the six filter integrated light measurements from near ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths, made as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We derive the ages and masses using a probabilistic technique, which accounts for the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function. Tests on synthetic data show that this method, in conjunction with the exquisite sensitivity of the PHAT observations and their broad wavelength baseline, provides robust age and mass recovery for clusters ranging from $\sim 10^2 - 2 \times 10^6 M_\odot$. We find that the cluster age distribution is consistent with being uniform over the past $100$ Myr, which suggests a weak effect of cluster disruption within M31. The age distribution of older ($>100$ Myr) clusters fall towards old ages, consistent with a power-law decline of index $-1$, likely from a combination of fading and disruption of the clusters. We find that the mass distribution of the whole sample can be well-described by a single power-law with a spectral index of $-1.9 \pm 0.1$ over the range of $10^3-3 \times 10^5 M_\odot$. However, if we subdivide the sample by galactocentric radius, we find that the age distributions remain unchanged. However, the mass spectral index varies significantly, showing best fit values between $-2.2$ and $-1.8$, with the shallower slope in the highest star formation intensity regions. We explore the robustness of our study to potential systematics and conclude that the cluster mass function may vary with respect to environment.
    02/2014; 786(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We characterize the bulge, disk, and halo subcomponents in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) over the radial range 4 < R_proj < 225 kpc. The cospatial nature of these subcomponents renders them difficult to disentangle using surface brightness (SB) information alone, especially interior to ~20 kpc. Our new decomposition technique combines information from the luminosity function (LF) of over 1.5 million bright (20 < m_814W < 22) stars from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, radial velocities of over 5000 red giant branch stars in the same magnitude range from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey, and integrated I-band SB profiles from various sources. We use an affine-invariant Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to fit an appropriate toy model to these three data sets. The bulge, disk, and halo SB profiles are modeled as a Sersic, exponential, and cored power-law, respectively, and the LFs are modeled as broken power-laws. We present probability distributions for each of 32 parameters describing the SB profiles and LFs of the three subcomponents. We find that the number of stars with a disk-like LF is ~5% larger than the the number with disk-like (dynamically cold) kinematics, suggesting that some stars born in the disk have been dynamically heated to the point that they are kinematically indistinguishable from halo members. This is the first kinematical evidence for a "kicked-up disk" halo population in M31. The fraction of kicked-up disk stars is consistent with that found in simulations. We also find evidence for a radially varying disk LF, consistent with a negative metallicity gradient in the stellar disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we term M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 x 10^8 M_sun but a half-light radius of only ~ 24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well-fit by a sum of Sersic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r_h=14 pc; n ~ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r_h=49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L_X ~ 10^38 erg/s that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (~> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (~ 70 km/s) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L_V=4.9 +/- 0.7) are consistent with---but slightly higher than---expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L_V. The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M_B ~ -18 to -19.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2013; 775(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a candidate stellar-mass black hole in the Milky Way globular cluster M62. We detected the black hole candidate, which we term M62-VLA1, in the core of the cluster using deep radio continuum imaging from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. M62-VLA1 is a faint source, with a flux density of 18.7 +/- 1.9 microJy at 6.2 GHz and a flat radio spectrum (alpha=-0.24 +/- 0.42, for S_nu = nu^alpha). M62 is the second Milky Way cluster with a candidate stellar-mass black hole; unlike the two candidate black holes previously found in the cluster M22, M62-VLA1 is associated with a Chandra X-ray source, supporting its identification as a black hole X-ray binary. Measurements of its radio and X-ray luminosity, while not simultaneous, place M62-VLA1 squarely on the well-established radio--X-ray correlation for stellar-mass black holes. In archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging, M62-VLA1 is coincident with a star near the lower red giant branch. This possible optical counterpart shows a blue excess, H alpha emission, and optical variability. The radio, X-ray, and optical properties of M62-VLA1 are very similar to those for V404 Cyg, one of the best-studied quiescent stellar-mass black holes. We cannot yet rule out alternative scenarios for the radio source, such as a flaring neutron star or background galaxy; future observations are necessary to determine whether M62-VLA1 is indeed an accreting stellar-mass black hole.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 777(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationship between the field star formation and cluster formation properties in a large sample of nearby dwarf galaxies. We use optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and from ground-based telescopes to derive the ages and masses of the young (t_age < 100 Myr) cluster sample. Our data provides the first constraints on two proposed relationships between the star formation rate of galaxies and the properties of their cluster systems in the low star formation rate regime. The data show broad agreement with these relationships, but significant galaxy-to-galaxy scatter exists. In part, this scatter can be accounted for by simulating the small number of clusters detected from stochastically sampling the cluster mass function. However, stochasticity does not fully account for the observed scatter in our data suggesting there may be true variations in the fraction of stars formed in clusters in dwarf galaxies. Comparison of the cluster formation and the brightest cluster in our sample of galaxies also provide constraints on cluster destruction models.
    American Astronomical Society, AAS Meeting #221, Long Beach, CA; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We attempt to constrain the density profile of M31's inner stellar halo by tracing the surface density of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars at galactocentric distances ranging from 2 kpc to 35 kpc. Our measurements make use of resolved stellar photometry from a section of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, supplemented by several archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. We find that the ratio of BHB to red giant stars is relatively constant outside of 1 kpc, suggesting that the BHB is as reliable a tracer of the halo population as the red giant branch. In the inner halo, we do not expect BHB stars to be produced by the high metallicity bulge and disk, making BHB stars a good candidate to be a reliable tracer of the stellar halo to much smaller galactocentric distances. If we assume a power-law profile, we can constrain the exponent of the power law to a precision of 10% outside of 3 kpc. Inside of 3 kpc, we find that the profile flattens significantly. Finally, assuming azimuthal symmetry and a constant mass-to-light ratio, we calculate a total halo stellar mass. We find these properties are comparable with both simulations of stellar halo formation formed by satellite disruption alone, and with simulations that include some in situ formation of halo stars. Support for this work is provided by NASA through grant GO-12055 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Chandra Local Volume Survey is a deep, volume-limited X-ray survey of five nearby galaxies (NGC 55, NGC 300, NGC 404, NGC 2403, and NGC 4214) with matched Hubble observations down to M_ 0, spanning a range stellar masses, metallicities, morphologies, and star formation histories. The X-ray emission detected in normal, non-active spiral galaxies such as these is dominated by X-ray binaries (XRBs). While studies of XRBs in the Milky Way often suffer from significant distance uncertainties and considerable extinction along Galactic lines of sight, these difficulties are minimized when studying X-ray sources in nearby galaxies: extinction effects are less problematic when observing galaxies away from the Galactic disk, and distance uncertainties are reduced since all X-ray sources are essentially equidistant from the observer. We present preliminary results correlating the X-ray source population properties of these five galaxies - such as the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) and radial X-ray source distributions down to ~10^36 erg/s - with the morphologies and recent star formation histories of the host galaxies.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will revolutionize our understanding of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their environments. The decade-long survey will discover at least 10 million AGN across 18,000 square degrees on the sky, with between about 50 to 200 visits per source for each of the ugrizy filters. A combination of the LSST sub-arcsecond astrometry, six-band photometry, and unprecedented cadence will enable the most efficient AGN selection, with additional characterization through the use of sophisticated star-galaxy separation techniques. The time-domain nature of the survey will provide invaluable information on the physics of the AGN central engine, as well as on transient fueling events, and will allow real-time alerts that will trigger follow-up observations. Several LSST "deep drilling" fields will help discover the faintest AGN at high redshift, enhancing the value of current and planned multiwavelength pencil-beam surveys while providing hours-to-years temporal information on thousands of AGN. The wide ranges of both luminosity and redshift spanned by LSST, including the discovery of over 1000 quasars at z>6.5, will dramatically improve the quantification of the optical AGN luminosity function. Measurements of AGN clustering at high redshift will be used to determine the relationship between AGN and dark matter. The discovery of about 8000 gravitationally lensed quasars, including 1000 systems with measurable time delays, will place significantly tighter constraints on key cosmological parameters.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters ({approx}<10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 760:104. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We attempt to constrain the shape of M31's inner stellar halo by tracing the surface density of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars at galactocentric distances ranging from 2 kpc to 35 kpc. Our measurements make use of resolved stellar photometry from a section of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, supplemented by several archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. We find that the ratio of BHB to red giant stars is relatively constant outside of 10 kpc, suggesting that the BHB is as reliable a tracer of the halo population as the red giant branch. In the inner halo, we do not expect BHB stars to be produced by the high-metallicity bulge and disk, making BHB stars a good candidate to be a reliable tracer of the stellar halo to much smaller galactocentric distances. If we assume a power-law profile r {sup -{alpha}} for the two-dimensional (2D) projected surface density BHB distribution, we obtain a high-quality fit with a 2D power-law index of {alpha} = 2.6{sup +0.3} {sub -0.2} outside of 3 kpc, which flattens to {alpha} < 1.2 inside of 3 kpc. This slope is consistent with previous measurements but is anchored to a radial baseline that extends much farther inward. Finally, assuming azimuthal symmetry and a constant mass-to-light ratio, the best-fitting profile yields a total halo stellar mass of 2.1{sup +1.7} {sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun }. These properties are comparable with both simulations of stellar halo formation by satellite disruption alone and simulations that include some in situ formation of halo stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 759(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.
    Nature 10/2012; 490(7418):71-3. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptive optics observations of the flattened nuclear star cluster in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4244 using the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) have revealed clear rotation. Using these kinematics plus 2MASS photometry we construct a series of axisymmetric two-component particle dynamical models with our improved version of NMAGIC, a flexible Chi^2-made-to-measure code. The models consist of a nuclear cluster disc embedded within a spheroidal particle population. We find a mass for the nuclear star cluster of M=1.6^+0.5_-0.2 x 10^7 M_sun within ~42.4 pc (2"). We also explore the presence of an intermediate mass black hole and show that models with a black hole as massive as M_bh = 5.0 x 10^5 M_sun are consistent with the available data. Regardless of whether a black hole is present or not, the nuclear cluster is vertically anisotropic (beta_z < 0), as was found with earlier two-integral models. We then use the models as initial conditions for N-body simulations. These simulations show that the nuclear star cluster is stable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also explore the effect of the nuclear cluster accreting star clusters at various inclinations. Accretion of a star cluster with mass 13% that of the nuclear cluster is already enough to destroy the vertical anisotropy, regardless of orbital inclination.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 429(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a preliminary analysis of known planetary nebulae (PNe) in M31 that were observed in the first year of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury HST Multi-cycle program. We use the properties of this sample to discuss PNe from this new multi-band survey.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2012; 7(S283):275-278.
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' \times 6.5' area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of \sim4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars and AGB-manqu\'e stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manqu\'e (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {\alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the RGB is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch stars (EHB) and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations, and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UVX. We calculate that only a few percent of MS stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 755(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of large size, high stellar density, high metallicity, and Sersic surface brightness profile of the spheroidal component of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) within R_proj ~ 20 kpc suggest that it is unlike any subcomponent of the Milky Way. In this work we capitalize on our proximity to and external view of M31 to probe the kinematical properties of this "inner spheroid." We employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis of resolved stellar kinematics from Keck/DEIMOS spectra of 5651 red giant branch stars to disentangle M31's inner spheroid from its stellar disk. We measure the mean velocity and dispersion of the spheroid in each of five spatial bins after accounting for a locally cold stellar disk as well as the Giant Southern Stream and associated tidal debris. For the first time, we detect significant spheroid rotation (v_rot ~ 50 km/s) beyond R_proj ~ 5 kpc. The velocity dispersion decreases from about 140 km/s at R_proj = 7 kpc to 120 km/s at R_proj = 14 kpc, consistent to 2 sigma with existing measurements and models. We calculate the probability that a given star is a member of the spheroid and find that the spheroid has a significant presence throughout the spatial extent of our sample. Lastly, we show that the flattening of the spheroid is due to velocity anisotropy in addition to rotation. Though this suggests that the inner spheroid of M31 more closely resembles an elliptical galaxy than a typical spiral galaxy bulge, it should be cautioned that our measurements are much farther out (2 - 14 r_eff) than for the comparison samples.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 752(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an on-going Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin^2). This work presents results derived from the first \sim25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include \sim2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 752(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
427.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2012
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003–2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States