Angela D Friederici

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

Are you Angela D Friederici?

Claim your profile

Publications (585)1851.92 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Supplementary data to "Connectivity Architecture and Subdivision of the Human Inferior Parietal Cortex Revealed by Diffusion MRI", Cerebral Cortex (2014) 24 (9): 2449-2463 doi:10.1093/cercor/bht096 . The file contains the group population maps of the IPCC parcellation as 3D NFTI files. Each file represents the percentage of overlap of the IPCC subregion within the group (20 Subjects, left/right hemisphere, 3 cluster). Note: MNI_colin_std_anat.nii.gz is the single subject reference brain of the Montreal Neurological Institue (MNI space; Evans et al., Neuroimage 1:43-53, 1992). It was registered to the MNI 151 Brain and can be visualized together with the IPCC populations maps with eg. FSLView.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human inferior parietal cortex convexity (IPCC) is an important association area, which integrates auditory, visual, and somatosensory information. However, the structural organization of the IPCC is a controversial issue. For example, cytoarchitectonic parcellations reported in the literature range from 2 to 7 areas. Moreover, anatomical descriptions of the human IPCC are often based on experiments in the macaque monkey. In this study, we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging combined with probabilistic tractography to quantify the connectivity of the human IPCC, and used this information to parcellate this cortex area. This provides a new structural map of the human IPCC, comprising 3 subareas (inferior parietal cortex anterior, IPC middle, and IPC posterior) of comparable size, in a rostro-caudal arrangement in the left and right hemispheres. Each subarea is characterized by a connectivity fingerprint, and the parcellation is similar to the subdivision reported for the macaque IPCC with 3 areas in a rostro-caudal arrangement (PF, PFG, and PG). However, the present study also reliably demonstrates new structural features in the connectivity pattern of the human IPCC, which are not known to exist in the macaque. This study quantifies intersubject variability by providing a population representation of the subarea arrangement and demonstrates the substantial lateralization of the connectivity patterns of the IPCC.
    Cerebral Cortex 09/2014; 24(9):2449-2463. · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The language network is a well-defined large-scale neural network of anatomically and functionally interacting cortical areas. The successful language process requires the transmission of information between these areas. Since neurotransmitter receptors are key molecules of information processing, we hypothesized that cortical areas which are part of the same functional language network may show highly similar multireceptor expression pattern (“receptor fingerprint”), whereas those that are not part of this network should have different fingerprints. Here we demonstrate that the relation between the densities of 15 different excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory receptors in eight language related areas are highly similar and differ considerably from those of 18 other brain regions not directly involved in language processing. Thus, the fingerprints of all cortical areas underlying a large-scale cognitive domain such as language is a characteristic, functionally relevant feature of this network and an important prerequisite for the underlying neuronal processes of language functions.
    Cortex 08/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on an inter-hemispheric mechanism which exploits both a right-hemispheric sensitivity to pitch information and a left-hemispheric dominance in speech processing.
    NeuroImage 07/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Hyeon-Ae Jeon, Alfred Anwander, Angela D. Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite myriads of studies on a parallel organization of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops, direct evidence of this has been lacking for the healthy human brain. Here, we scrutinize the functional specificity of the cortico-subcortical loops depending on varying levels of cognitive hierarchy as well as their structural connectivity with high-resolution fMRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) at 7 tesla. Three levels of cognitive hierarchy were implemented in two domains: second language and nonlanguage. In fMRI, for the higher level, activations were found in the ventroanterior portion of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the head of the caudate nucleus (CN), and the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) in the thalamus. Conversely, for the lower level, activations were located in the posterior region of the PFC, the body of the CN, and the medial dorsal nucleus (MD) in the thalamus. This gradient pattern of activations was furthermore shown to be tenable by the parallel connectivity in dMRI tractography connecting the anterior regions of the PFC with the head of the CN and the VA in the thalamus, whereas the posterior activations of the PFC were linked to the body of the CN and the MD in the thalamus. This is the first human in vivo study combining fMRI and dMRI showing that the functional specificity is mirrored within the cortico-subcortical loop substantiated by parallel networks.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/2014; 34(28):9202-9212. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Lars Meyer, Katrin Cunitz, Jonas Obleser, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Arcuate Fasciculus/Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (AF/SLF) is the white-matter bundle that connects posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Its causal functional role in sentence processing and verbal working memory is currently under debate. While impairments of sentence processing and verbal working memory often co-occur in patients suffering from AF/SLF damage, it is unclear whether these impairments result from shared white-matter damage to the verbal-working-memory network. The present study sought to specify the behavioral consequences of focal AF/SLF damage for sentence processing and verbal working memory, which were assessed in a single patient suffering from a cleft-like lesion spanning the deep left superior temporal gyrus, sparing most surrounding gray matter. While tractography suggests that the ventral fronto-temporal white-matter bundle is intact in this patient, the AF/SLF was not visible to tractography. In line with the hypothesis that the AF/SLF is causally involved in sentence processing, the patient's performance was selectively impaired on sentences that jointly involve both complex word orders and long word-storage intervals. However, the patient was unimpaired on sentences that only involved long word-storage intervals without involving complex word orders. On the contrary, the patient performed generally worse than a control group across standard verbal-working-memory tests. We conclude that the AF/SLF not only plays a causal role in sentence processing, linking regions of the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus to the temporo-parietal region, but moreover plays a crucial role in verbal working memory, linking regions of the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus to the left temporo-parietal region. Together, the specific sentence-processing impairment and the more general verbal-working-memory impairment may imply that the AF/SLF subserves both sentence processing and verbal working memory, possibly pointing to the AF and SLF respectively supporting each.
    Neuropsychologia 06/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While the role of synchronized oscillatory activity in the gamma-band frequency range for conscious perception is well established in the visual domain, there is limited evidence concerning neurophysiological mechanisms in conscious auditory perception. In the current study, we addressed this issue with 64-channel EEG and a dichotic listening (DL) task in twenty-five healthy participants. The typical finding of DL is a more frequent conscious perception of the speech syllable presented to the right ear (RE), which is attributed to the supremacy of the contralateral pathways running from the RE to the speech-dominant left hemisphere. In contrast, the left ear (LE) input initially accesses the right hemisphere and needs additional transfer via interhemispheric pathways before it is processed in the left hemisphere. Using lagged phase synchronization (LPS) analysis and eLORETA source estimation we examined the functional connectivity between right and left primary and secondary auditory cortices in the main frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma) during RE/LE-reports. Interhemispheric LPS between right and left primary and secondary auditory cortices was specifically increased in the gamma-band range, when participants consciously perceived the syllable presented to the LE. Our results suggest that synchronous gamma oscillations are involved in interhemispheric transfer of auditory information.
    NeuroImage 06/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Michael A Skeide, Jens Brauer, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An essential computational component of the human language faculty is syntax as it regulates how words are combined into sentences. Although its neuroanatomical basis is well-specified in adults, its emergence in the maturing brain is not yet understood. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a cross-sectional design, we discovered, that in contrast to what is known about adults 3-to-4- and 6-to-7-year-old children do not process syntax independently from semantics at the neural level already before these two types of information are integrated for the interpretation of a sentence. It is not until the end of the 10th year of life that children show a neural selectivity for syntax, segregated and gradually independent from semantics, in the left inferior frontal cortex as in the adult brain. Our results indicate that it takes until early adolescence for the domain-specific selectivity of syntax within the language network to develop.
    NeuroImage 06/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • 20th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) 2014; 06/2014
  • Lars Meyer, Katrin Cunitz, Jonas Obleser, Angela D. Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Arcuate Fasciculus/Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (AF/SLF) is the white-matter bundle that connects posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Its causal functional role in sentence processing and verbal working memory is currently under debate. While impairments of sentence processing and verbal working memory often co-occur in patients suffering from AF/SLF damage, it is unclear whether these impairments result from shared white-matter damage to the verbal-working-memory network. The present study sought to specify the behavioral consequences of focal AF/SLF damage for sentence processing and verbal working memory, which were assessed in a single patient suffering from a cleft-like lesion spanning the deep left superior temporal gyrus, sparing most surrounding gray matter. While tractography suggests that the ventral fronto-temporal white-matter bundle is intact in this patient, the AF/SLF was not visible to tractography. In line with the hypothesis that the AF/SLF is causally involved in sentence processing, the patient's performance was selectively impaired on sentences that jointly involve both complex word orders and long word-storage intervals. However, the patient was unimpaired on sentences that only involved long word-storage intervals without involving complex word orders. On the contrary, the patient performed generally worse than a control group across standard verbal-working-memory tests. We conclude that the AF/SLF not only plays a causal role in sentence processing, linking regions of the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus to the temporo-parietal region, but moreover plays a crucial role in verbal working memory, linking regions of the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus to the left temporo-parietal region. Together, the specific sentence-processing impairment and the more general verbal-working-memory impairment may imply that the AF/SLF subserves both sentence processing and verbal working memory, possibly pointing to the AF and SLF respectively supporting each.
    Neuropsychologia 01/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The emotional expression of the face provides an important social signal that allows humans to make inferences about other people's state of mind. However, the underlying brain mechanisms are complex and still not completely understood. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we analyzed the spatiotemporal structure of regional electrical brain activity in human adults during a categorization task (faces or hands) and an emotion discrimination task (happy faces or neutral faces). Brain regions that are specifically important for different aspects of processing emotional facial expressions showed interesting hemispheric dominance patterns. The dorsal brain regions showed a right predominance when participants paid attention to facial expressions: The right parietofrontal regions, including the somatosensory, motor/premotor, and inferior frontal cortices showed significantly increased activation in the emotion discrimination task, compared to in the categorization task, in latencies of 350 to 550 ms, while no activation was found in their left hemispheric counterparts. Furthermore, a left predominance of the ventral brain regions was shown for happy faces, compared to neutral faces, in latencies of 350 to 550 ms within the emotion discrimination task. Thus, the present data suggest that the right and left hemispheres play different roles in the recognition of facial expressions depending on cognitive context.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88628. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Sebastian Jentschke, Angela. D. Friederici, Stefan Koelsch
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Music is a basic and ubiquitous socio-cognitive domain. However, our understanding of the time course of the development of music perception, particularly regarding implicit knowledge of music-syntactic regularities, remains contradictory and incomplete: Some authors assume that the acquisition of knowledge about these regularities lasts until late childhood, but there is also evidence for the presence of such knowledge in four- and five-year-olds. To explore, whether such knowledge is already present in younger children, we tested whether 30-month-olds (N = 62) show neurophysiological responses to music-syntactically irregular harmonies. We observed an early right anterior negativity in response to both irregular in-key and out-of-key chords. This indicates that 30-month-olds already have acquired implicit knowledge of complex harmonic music-syntactic regularities and process new musical information according to this knowledge. The N5, a brain response usually present in older children and adults, was not observed, indicating that processes of harmonic integration (as reflected in the N5) are still in development in this age group.
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 01/2014;
  • Source
    Jens Brauer, Alfred Anwander, Daniela Perani, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The dorsal and ventral information streams between inferior frontal and temporal language regions in the human brain are implemented by two fiber connections that consist of separable tracts. We compared the maturation of the two connections including their subcomponents in three different age groups: newborn infants, 7-year-old children, and adults. Our results reveal a maturational primacy of the ventral connection in the language network associating the temporal areas to the inferior frontal gyrus during early development, which is already in place at birth. Likewise, a dorsal pathway from the temporal cortex to the premotor cortex is observable at this early age. This is in contrast to the dorsal pathway to the inferior frontal gyrus which matures at later stages in development and might play a role in more complex language functions.
    Brain and Language 11/2013; 127(2):289–295. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Claudia Männel, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Language acquisition has long been discussed as an interaction between biological preconditions and environmental input. This general interaction seems particularly salient in lexical acquisition, where infants are already able to detect unknown words in sentences at 7 months of age, guided by phonological and statistical information in the speech input. While this information results from the linguistic structure of a given language, infants also exploit situational information, such as speakers' additional word accentuation and word repetition. The current study investigated the developmental trajectory of infants' sensitivity to these two situational input cues in word recognition. Testing infants at 6, 9, and 12 months of age, we hypothesized that different age groups are differentially sensitive to accentuation and repetition. In a familiarization-test paradigm, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed age-related differences in infants' word recognition as a function of situational input cues: at 6 months infants only recognized previously accentuated words, at 9 months both accentuation and repetition played a role, while at 12 months only repetition was effective. These developmental changes are suggested to result from infants' advancing linguistic experience and parallel auditory cortex maturation. Our data indicate very narrow and specific input-sensitive periods in infant word recognition, with accentuation being effective prior to repetition.
    Cortex 09/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Roland M Friedrich, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(1):e53699. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In conversations, adults readily detect and anticipate the end of a speaker's turn. However, little is known about the development of this ability. We addressed two important aspects involved in the perception of conversational turn taking: semantic content and intonational form. The influence of semantics was investigated by testing prelinguistic and linguistic children. The influence of intonation was tested by presenting participants with videos of two dyadic conversations: one with normal intonation and one with flattened (removed) intonation. Children of four different age groups-two prelinguistic groups (6- and 12-month-olds) and two linguistic groups (24- and 36-month-olds)-and an adult group participated. Their eye movements were recorded, and the frequency of anticipated turns was analyzed. Our results show that (a) the anticipation of turns was reliable only in 3-year-olds and adults, with younger children shifting their gaze between speakers regardless of the turn taking, and (b) only 3-year-olds anticipated turns better if intonation was normal. These results indicate that children anticipate turns in conversations in a manner comparable (but not identical) to adults only after they have developed a sophisticated understanding of language. In contrast to adults, 3-year-olds rely more strongly on prosodic information during the perception of conversational turn taking.
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 07/2013; 116(2):264-277. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Language abilities are known to deteriorate in aging, possibly related to decreased functional and structural connectivity within specialized brain networks. Here, we investigated syntactic ability in healthy young and older adults using a comprehensive assessment of behavioral performance, task-independent functional (FC) and structural brain connectivity (SC). Seed-based FC originating from left pars opercularis (part of Broca's area) known to support syntactic processes was assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and SC using fractional anisotropy from diffusion weighted imaging, in the dorsally located superior longitudinal and the ventrally located uncinate fasciculi (SLF, UF) and forceps minor. Young compared to older adults exhibited superior syntactic performance and stronger FC within the mainly left-lateralized syntax network, which was beneficial for performance. In contrast, in older adults, FC within the mainly left-lateralized syntax network was reduced and did not correlate with performance; inter-hemispheric FC to right inferior frontal and angular gyri was detrimental for performance. In both groups, performance was positively correlated with inter-hemispheric SC. For intra-hemispheric SC, performance correlated with structural integrity of SLF in young adults and with integrity of UF in older adults. Our data show that reduced syntactic ability in older adults is associated with decreased FC within dedicated syntax networks. Moreover, young adults showed an association of syntactic ability with structural integrity of the dorsal tract, while older adults rely more on ventral fibers. In sum, our study provided novel insight into the relationship between connectivity and syntactic performance in young and older adults. In addition to elucidating age-related changes in syntax networks and their behavioral relevance, our results contribute to a better understanding of age-related changes in functional and structural brain organization in general, an important prerequisite for developing novel strategies to counteract age-related cognitive decline.
    NeuroImage 07/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Hyeon-Ae Jeon, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lateral prefrontal cortex is known to be organized by cognitive hierarchies following a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Here we test whether this model applies across different cognitive domains by varying levels of cognitive hierarchy in first language, second language and non-language domains. These domains vary in their degree of automaticity with first language being the most automatic. For second language/non-language a clear gradient pattern of activation depending on the level of hierarchy is observed in the prefrontal cortex with the highest level of hierarchy recruiting its most anterior region, whereas for first language the highest level of hierarchy recruits its most posterior region. Moreover, second language/non-language and first language differ in the structural connectivity of their underlying networks. The current data strongly suggest that functional segregation of the prefrontal cortex is determined by cognitive hierarchy and the degree of automaticity.
    Nature Communications 06/2013; 4:2041. · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • Claudia Männel, Christine S Schipke, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spoken language is hierarchically structured into prosodic units divided by prosodic breaks. The largest prosodic breaks in an utterance are intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs), which are defined by three acoustic cues, namely, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pausing. Previous studies have revealed that the electrophysiological marker of IPB perception, the Closure Positive Shift (CPS), is established between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, we examined the neural activity underlying IPB perception in children by targeting their reliance on pausing; hypothesized to be a key boundary cue in German. To evaluate the role of pausing, we tested IPB perception without the boundary pause, but with pitch change and preboundary lengthening. We tested children at the age of 3 years, when the CPS in response to IPBs has just emerged, and at 6 years, when language abilities are further developed. Results revealed that 6-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, show the CPS in response to IPBs without full prosodic marking. These results indicate developmental differences with respect to the role of pausing as a prosodic boundary cue in German. The correlation of children's IPB perception and their syntactic abilities further corroborates the close prosody-syntax interaction in children's advancing ability to process phrase structure.
    Developmental cognitive neuroscience. 02/2013; 5C:86-94.
  • Michiru Makuuchi, Angela D Friederici
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Language processing inevitably involves working memory (WM) operations, especially for sentences with complex syntactic structures. Evidence has been provided for a neuroanatomical segregation between core syntactic processes and WM, but the dynamic relation between these systems still has to be explored. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the network dynamics of regions involved in WM operations which support sentence processing during reading, comparing a set of dynamic causal models (DCM) with different assumptions about the underlying connectional architecture. The DCMs incorporated the core language processing regions (pars opercularis and middle temporal gyrus), WM related regions (inferior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus), and visual word form area (fusiform gyrus). The results indicate a processing hierarchy from the visual to WM to core language systems, and moreover, a clear increase of connectivity between WM regions and language regions as the processing load increases for syntactically complex sentences.
    Cortex 01/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,851.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
      • • Department of Neuropsychology
      • • Department of Neurophysics
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2013
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Leipzig
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
    • Bangor University
      Bangon, Wales, United Kingdom
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      Maryland, United States
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Psychology
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 2012
    • Beijing Normal University
      • State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
      • Faculty of Psychology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Central European University
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2010–2011
    • Birkbeck, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2009
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Psychology
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
    • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
      Villeurbanne, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • McGill University
      • Department of Linguistics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1993–2009
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • • Department of Philosophy and Humanities
      • • Institute of Psychology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2008
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
    • National University of Singapore
      • Department of Psychology
      Singapore, Singapore
  • 2006–2008
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich
      • Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM)
      Düren, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2007
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 2004
    • University of Utah
      • Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
    • Philipps-Universität Marburg
      • Institute for German Linguistics
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2002–2004
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Chair of Linguistics
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
      Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1996–1999
    • Max Planck Society
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1986–1990
    • Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1988
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany
  • 1981
    • Boston University
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1980
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States