Angela D. Friederici

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (638)2202.51 Total impact

  • Emiliano Zaccarella · Angela D. Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Language is thought to represent one of the most complex cognitive functions in humans. Here we break down complexity of language to its most basic syntactic computation which hierarchically binds single words together to form larger phrases and sentences. So far, the neural implementation of this basic operation has only been inferred indirectly from studies investigating more complex linguistic phenomena. In the present sub-region based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we directly assessed the neuroanatomical nature of this process. Our results showed that syntactic phrases—compared to word-list sequences—corresponded to increased neural activity in the ventral-anterior portion of the left pars opercularis [Brodmann Area (BA) 44], whereas the adjacently located deep frontal operculum/anterior insula (FOP/aINS), a phylogenetically older and less specialized region, was found to be equally active for both conditions. Crucially, the functional activity of syntactic binding was confined to one out of five clusters proposed by a recent fine-grained sub-anatomical parcellation for BA 44, with consistency across individuals. Neuroanatomically, the present results call for a redefinition of BA 44 as a region with internal functional specializations. Neurocomputationally, they support the idea of invariance within BA 44 in the location of activation across participants for basic syntactic building processing.
    Frontiers in Psychology 11/2015; 6(524). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01818 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Manuela Friedrich · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: The present study explored the origins of word learning in early infancy. Using event-related potentials (ERP) we monitored the brain activity of 3-month-old infants when they were repeatedly exposed to several initially novel words paired consistently with each the same initially novel objects or inconsistently with different objects. Our results provide strong evidence that these young infants extract statistic regularities in the distribution of the co-occurrences of objects and words extremely quickly. The data suggest that this ability is based on the rapid formation of associations between the neural representations of objects and words, but that the new associations are not retained in long-term memory until the next day. The type of brain response moreover indicates that, unlike in older infants, in 3-month-olds a semantic processing stage is not involved. Their ability to combine words with meaningful information is caused by a primary learning mechanism that enables the formation of proto-words and acts as a precursor for the acquisition of genuine words.
    Developmental Science 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/desc.12357 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strüngmann Forum Reports
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  • Chiao-Yi Wu · Kodjo Vissiennon · Angela D Friederici · Jens Brauer ·
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    ABSTRACT: Sentence comprehension requires the integration of both syntactic and semantic information, the acquisition of which seems to have different trajectories in the developing brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the neural correlates underlying syntactic and semantic processing during auditory sentence comprehension as well as its development in preschool children by manipulating case marking and animacy hierarchy cues, respectively. A functional segregation was observed within Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus for adults, where the pars opercularis was involved in syntactic processing and the pars triangularis in semantic processing. By contrast, five-year-old children sensitive to animacy hierarchy cues showed diffuse activation for semantic processing in the left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices. While no main effect of case marking was found in the left fronto-temporal language network, children with better syntactic skills showed greater neural responses for syntactically complex sentences, most prominently in the posterior superior temporal cortex. The current study provides both behavioral and neural evidence that five-year-old children compared to adults rely more on semantic information than on syntactic cues during sentence comprehension, but with the development of syntactic abilities, their brain activation in the left fronto-temporal network increases for syntactic processing.
    NeuroImage 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.036 · 6.36 Impact Factor
  • Gesa Schaadt · Claudia Männel · Elke van der Meer · Ann Pannekamp · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Successful communication in everyday life crucially involves the processing of auditory and visual components of speech. Viewing our interlocutor and processing visual components of speech facilitates speech processing by triggering auditory processing. Auditory phoneme processing, analyzed by event-related brain potentials (ERP), has been shown to be associated with impairments in reading and spelling (i.e. developmental dyslexia), but visual aspects of phoneme processing have not been investigated in individuals with such deficits. The present study analyzed the passive visual Mismatch Response (vMMR) in school children with and without developmental dyslexia in response to video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables silently. Our results reveal that both groups of children showed processing of visual speech stimuli, but with different scalp distribution. Children without developmental dyslexia showed a vMMR with typical posterior distribution. In contrast, children with developmental dyslexia showed a vMMR with anterior distribution, which was even more pronounced in children with severe phonological deficits and very low spelling abilities. As anterior scalp distributions are typically reported for auditory speech processing, the anterior vMMR of children with developmental dyslexia might suggest an attempt to anticipate potentially upcoming auditory speech information in order to support phonological processing, which has been shown to be deficient in children with developmental dyslexia.
    Developmental Science 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/desc.12346 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.
    Research in developmental disabilities 10/2015; 47:318-333. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2015.10.002 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • Anja Fengler · Lars Meyer · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP) in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults' complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension.
    10/2015; 15:48-57. DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.09.004
  • Emiliano Zaccarella · Lars Meyer · Michiru Makuuchi · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Language comes in utterances in which words are bound together according to a simple rule-based syntactic computation (merge), which creates linguistic hierarchies of potentially infinite length-phrases and sentences. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared prepositional phrases and sentences-both involving merge-to word lists-not involving merge-to explore how this process is implemented in the brain. We found that merge activates the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; Brodmann Area [BA] 44) and a smaller region in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Within the IFG, sentences engaged a more anterior portion of the area (pars triangularis, BA 45)-compared with phrases-which showed activity peak in BA 44. As prepositional phrases, in contrast to sentences, do not contain verbs, activity in BA 44 may reflect structure-building syntactic processing, while the involvement of BA 45 may reflect the encoding of propositional meaning initiated by the verb. The pSTS appears to work together with the IFG during thematic role assignment not only at the sentential level, but also at the phrasal level. The present results suggest that merge, the process of binding words together into syntactic hierarchies, is primarily supported by BA 44 in the IFG.
    Cerebral Cortex 10/2015; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv234 · 8.67 Impact Factor
  • Niki Katerina Vavatzanidis · Dirk Mürbe · Angela Friederici · Anja Hahne ·
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    ABSTRACT: One main incentive for supplying hearing impaired children with a cochlear implant is the prospect of oral language acquisition. Only scarce knowledge exists, however, of what congenitally deaf children actually perceive, when receiving their first auditory input and specifically what speech-relevant features they are able to extract from the new modality. We therefore presented congenitally deaf infants and young children implanted before the age of 4 with an oddball paradigm of long and short vowel variants of the syllable /ba/. We measured the EEG in regular intervals to study their discriminative ability starting with the first activation of the implant up to 8 months later. We were thus able to time-track the emerging ability to differentiate one of the most basic linguistic features that bears semantic differentiation and helps in word segmentation and semantic discrimination, namely vowel length. Results show that already 2 months after the first auditory input, but not directly after implant activation, these early implanted children differentiate between long and short syllables. Surprisingly, after only 4 months of hearing experience, the ERPs have reached the same properties as those of the normal hearing control group, demonstrating the plasticity of the brain with respect to the new modality. We thus show that a simple but linguistically highly relevant feature such as vowel length reaches age-appropriate electrophysiological levels as fast as 4 months after the first acoustic stimulation, providing good ground for further language acquisition.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 09/2015; 27(12):2427-2441. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00868 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 09/2015; DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00873 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Yaqiong Xiao · Angela D. Friederici · Daniel S. Margulies · Jens Brauer ·
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    ABSTRACT: The development of language comprehension abilities in childhood is closely related to the maturation of the brain, especially the ability to process syntactically complex sentences. Recent studies proposed that the fronto-temporal connection within left perisylvian regions, supporting the processing of syntactically complex sentences, is still immature at preschool age. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from typically developing 5-year-old children and adults to shed further light on the brain functional development. Children additionally performed a behavioral syntactic comprehension test outside the scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations was analyzed in order to identify the functional correlation networks of language-relevant brain regions. Results showed an intrahemispheric correlation between left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in adults, whereas an interhemispheric correlation between left IFG and its right-hemispheric homologue was predominant in children. Correlation analysis between resting-state functional connectivity and sentence processing performance in 5-year-olds revealed that local connectivity within the left IFG is associated with competence of processing syntactically simple canonical sentences, while long-range connectivity between IFG and pSTS in left hemisphere is associated with competence of processing syntactically relatively more complex non-canonical sentences. The present developmental data suggest that a selective left fronto-temporal connectivity network for processing complex syntax is already in functional connection at the age of 5 years when measured in a non-task situation. The correlational findings provide new insight into the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity and syntactic language abilities in preschool children.
    Neuropsychologia 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.09.003 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    Nicole E Neef · Alfred Anwander · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies which have recently implicated disrupted white matter connectivity in stuttering. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in persistent stuttering has been reported at several different loci. Our meta-analysis revealed consistent deficits in the left dorsal stream and in the interhemispheric connections between the sensorimotor cortices. In addition, recent fMRI meta-analyses link stuttering to reduced left fronto-parieto-temporal activation while greater fluency is associated with boosted co-activations of right fronto-parieto-temporal areas. However, the physiological foundation of these irregularities is not accessible with MRI. Complementary, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reveals local excitatory and inhibitory regulation of cortical dynamics. Applied to a speech motor area, TMS revealed reduced speech-planning-related neuronal dynamics at the level of the primary motor cortex in stuttering. Together, this review provides a focused view of the neurobiology of stuttering to date and may guide the rational design of future research. This future needs to account for the perpetual dynamic interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and speech motor circuits that shape fluent speech.
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 09/2015; 15(9):579. DOI:10.1007/s11910-015-0579-4 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Claudia Männel · Lars Meyer · Arndt Wilcke · Johannes Boltze · Holger Kirsten · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental dyslexia, a severe impairment of literacy acquisition, is known to have a neurological basis and a strong genetic background. However, effects of individual genetic variations on dyslexia-associated deficits are only moderate and call for the assessment of the genotype's impact on mediating neuro-endophenotypes by the imaging genetics approach. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in German participants with and without dyslexia, we investigated gray matter changes and their association with impaired phonological processing, such as reduced verbal working memory. These endophenotypical alterations were, together with dyslexia-associated genetic variations, examined on their suitability as potential predictors of dyslexia. We identified two gray matter clusters in the left posterior temporal cortex related to verbal working memory capacity. Regional cluster differences correlated with genetic risk variants in TNFRSF1B. High-genetic-risk participants exhibit a structural predominance of auditory-association areas relative to auditory-sensory areas, which may partly compensate for deficient early auditory-sensory processing stages of verbal working memory. The reverse regional predominance observed in low-genetic-risk participants may in turn reflect reliance on these early auditory-sensory processing stages. Logistic regression analysis further supported that regional gray matter differences and genetic risk interact in the prediction of individuals' diagnostic status: With increasing genetic risk, the working-memory related structural predominance of auditory-association areas relative to auditory-sensory areas classifies participants with dyslexia versus control participants. Focusing on phonological deficits in dyslexia, our findings suggest endophenotypical changes in the left posterior temporal cortex could comprise novel pathomechanisms for verbal working memory-related processes translating TNFRSF1B genotype into the dyslexia phenotype.
    Cortex 07/2015; 71:291-305. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.029 · 5.13 Impact Factor
  • Lars Meyer · Maren Grigutsch · Noura Schmuck · Phoebe Gaston · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: Successful working-memory retrieval requires that items be retained as distinct units. At the neural level, it has been shown that theta-band oscillatory power increases with the number of to-be-distinguished items during working-memory retrieval. Here we hypothesized that during sentence comprehension, verbal-working-memory retrieval demands lead to increased theta power over frontal cortex, supposedly supporting the distinction amongst stored items during verbal-working-memory retrieval. Also, synchronicity may increase between the frontal cortex and the posterior cortex, with the latter supposedly supporting item retention. We operationalized retrieval by using pronouns, which refer to and trigger the retrieval of antecedent nouns from a preceding sentence part. Retrieval demand was systematically varied by changing the pronoun antecedent: Either, it was non-embedded in the preceding main clause, and thus easy-to-retrieve across a single clause boundary, or embedded in the preceding subordinate clause, and thus hard-to-retrieve across a double clause boundary. We combined electroencephalography (EEG), scalp-level time-frequency analysis, source localization, and source-level coherence analysis, observing a frontal-midline and broad left-hemispheric theta-power increase for embedded-antecedent compared to non-embedded-antecedent retrieval. Sources were localized to left-frontal, left-parietal, and bilateral-inferior-temporal cortices. Coherence analyses suggested synchronicity between left-frontal and left-parietal and between left-frontal and right-inferior-temporal cortices. Activity of an array of left-frontal, left-parietal, and bilateral-inferior-temporal cortices may thus assist retrieval during sentence comprehension, potentially indexing the orchestration of item distinction, verbal working memory, and long-term memory. Our results extend prior findings by mapping prior knowledge on the functional role of theta oscillations onto processes genuine to human sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 07/2015; 71:205-218. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.027 · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    Michael A Skeide · Angela D Friederici ·
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent Opinion article, Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al. [1] make the interesting proposal that the basic computational mechanisms necessary for language processing are implemented in the nonhuman primate brain. According to the authors, neural differences between human and nonhu-man primates are quantitative but not qualitative in nature. Both species share a ventral stream underlying auditory object recognition and combination, and a dorsal stream underlying sequence processing. The cross-stream interaction is assumed to be crucial for human language to emerge. The observed cross-species differences in language are based on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that allows the integration of information from both streams only in humans. We agree with Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al. that language , in common with other cognitive functions, is grounded on basic physiological principles [2]. We furthermore acknowledge that the nonhuman primate prefrontal cortex supports symbolic manipulation abilities that can be seen as precursors to the syntactically guided structuring of signs in humans [3]. However, we emphasize that some important data not discussed by Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al. strongly support the view that there are clear qualitative , and not merely quantitative, differences between the species with respect to both the intrinsic functional connectivity of frontal and temporal cortices, and their direct structural connection via a dorsal white matter fiber tract. Moreover, we should point out that the exact nature of the claimed interaction between streams postulated by the authors awaits specification at both the functional and structural levels, and remains to be proven empirically.
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 06/2015; 19(9). DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2015.05.011 · 21.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 06/2015; 118. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.024 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    Andrea Santi · Angela D Friederici · Michiru Makuuchi · Yosef Grodzinsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP) similar to the dependency head intervene in the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca's area, showing that activity in Broca's area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP) interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I) the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II) CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca's area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca's area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG). Therefore, the involvement of Broca's area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (i.e., NP) intervention.
    Frontiers in Psychology 05/2015; 6:654. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00654 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Corinna E. Bonhage · Jutta L. Mueller · Angela D. Friederici · Christian J Fiebach ·
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    ABSTRACT: DOWNLOAD FULL-TEXT: It is widely agreed upon that linguistic predictions are an integral part of language comprehension. Yet, experimental proof of their existence remains challenging. Here, we introduce a new predictive eye gaze reading task combining eye tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that allows us to infer the existence and timing of linguistic predictions via anticipatory eye-movements. Participants read different types of word sequences (i.e., regular sentences, meaningless jabberwocky sentences, non-word lists) up to the pre-final word. The final target word was displayed with a temporal delay and its screen position was dependent on the syntactic word category (nouns vs verbs). During the delay, anticipatory eye-movements into the correct target word area were indicative of linguistic predictions. For fMRI analysis, the predictive sentence conditions were contrasted to the non-word condition, with the anticipatory eye-movements specifying differences in timing across conditions. A conjunction analysis of both sentence conditions revealed the neural substrate of word category prediction, namely a distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain regions including language systems, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Direct contrasts between the regular sentence condition and the jabberwocky condition indicate that prediction of word category in meaningless jabberwocky sentences relies on classical left-hemispheric language systems involving Brodman's area 44/45 in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal areas, and the dorsal caudate nucleus. Regular sentences, in contrast, allowed for the prediction of specific words. Word-specific predictions were specifically associated with more widely distributed temporal and parietal cortical systems, most prominently in the right hemisphere. Our results support the presence of linguistic predictions during sentence processing and demonstrate the validity of the predictive eye gaze paradigm for measuring syntactic and semantic aspects of linguistic predictions, as well as for investigating their neural substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.011 · 5.13 Impact Factor
  • Angela D Friederici · Wolf Singer ·
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    ABSTRACT: In animal models the neural basis of cognitive and executive processes has been studied extensively at various hierarchical levels from microcircuits to distributed functional networks. This work already provides compelling evidence that diverse cognitive functions are based on similar basic neuronal mechanisms. More recent data suggest that even cognitive functions realized only in human brains rely on these canonical neuronal mechanisms. Here we argue that language, like other cognitive functions, depends on distributed computations in specialized cortical areas forming large-scale dynamic networks and examine to what extent empirical results support this view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 04/2015; 19(6). DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2015.03.012 · 21.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

26k Citations
2,202.51 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1995-2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
      • • Department of Neuropsychology
      • • Department of Neurophysics
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2010
    • Stanford University
      • Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Zurich
      • Division of Neuropsychology
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 2006
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich
      • Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM)
      Düren, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • Bangor University
      Bangon, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2003-2004
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      • Institute for German Linguistics
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2000
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Department Linguistik
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 1997-2000
    • University of Leipzig
      • Institute of Psychology
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1997-1999
    • Max Planck Society
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1998
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1990-1995
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Psychology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1981-1990
    • Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1988
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany
  • 1980
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States