ABSTRACT: There are limited data comparing radiofrequency catheter ablation with antiarrhythmic drug therapy as first-line treatment in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
We randomly assigned 294 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and no history of antiarrhythmic drug use to an initial treatment strategy of either radiofrequency catheter ablation (146 patients) or therapy with class IC or class III antiarrhythmic agents (148 patients). Follow-up included 7-day Holter-monitor recording at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary end points were the cumulative and per-visit burden of atrial fibrillation (i.e., percentage of time in atrial fibrillation on Holter-monitor recordings). Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis.
There was no significant difference between the ablation and drug-therapy groups in the cumulative burden of atrial fibrillation (90th percentile of arrhythmia burden, 13% and 19%, respectively; P=0.10) or the burden at 3, 6, 12, or 18 months. At 24 months, the burden of atrial fibrillation was significantly lower in the ablation group than in the drug-therapy group (90th percentile, 9% vs. 18%; P=0.007), and more patients in the ablation group were free from any atrial fibrillation (85% vs. 71%, P=0.004) and from symptomatic atrial fibrillation (93% vs. 84%, P=0.01). One death in the ablation group was due to a procedure-related stroke; there were three cases of cardiac tamponade in the ablation group. In the drug-therapy group, 54 patients (36%) underwent supplementary ablation.
In comparing radiofrequency ablation with antiarrhythmic drug therapy as first-line treatment in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, we found no significant difference between the treatment groups in the cumulative burden of atrial fibrillation over a period of 2 years. (Funded by the Danish Heart Foundation and others; MANTRA-PAF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00133211.).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2012; 367(17):1587-95. · 53.30 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study assessed the cardiac electrophysiological and hemodynamic effects of an intravenous infusion of the combined ion channel blocker AZD1305.
After successful ablation of atrial flutter, patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 12) or AZD1305 (n = 38) in 4 ascending dose groups. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements were performed before and commencing 20 minutes after start of infusion.
Left atrial effective refractory period increased dose and the primary outcome measure increased dose and plasma concentration dependently, with a mean increase of 55 milliseconds in dose group 3. There was a corresponding increase in right atrial effective refractory period of 84 milliseconds. The right ventricular effective refractory period and the paced QT interval also increased dose and concentration dependently, by 59 and 70 milliseconds, respectively, in dose group 3. There were indications of moderate increases of atrial, atrioventricular nodal, and ventricular conduction times. No consistent changes in intracardiac pressures were observed, but there was a small transient decrease in systolic blood pressure. Adverse events were consistent with the study population and procedure, and there were no signs of proarrhythmia despite marked delay in ventricular repolarization in some individuals.
AZD1305 shows electrophysiological characteristics indicative of potential antiarrhythmic efficacy in atrial fibrillation.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 09/2010; 56(3):300-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: AZD0837 is an investigational oral anticoagulant that is bioconverted to its active form, AR-H067637, a selective direct thrombin inhibitor.
The objectives of the present study were to investigate if there are any clinically relevant adverse effects of intravenous AZD0837 on cardiac conduction, refractoriness and repolarization, and to study its safety and tolerability.
In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study (study code D1250C00026), invasive electrophysiological measurements were performed twice in 30 subjects with a history of, or ongoing, atrial flutter, starting 30 minutes after successful ablation of atrial flutter and then 60 minutes after start of an intravenous infusion of AZD0837. Pre-study warfarin therapy was not an exclusion criterion. The stimulation protocol was performed mainly at 500 and 400 ms drive cycle length. A 12-lead ECG was also recorded before and during AZD0837 infusion. Plasma concentrations of AZD0837 and its metabolites were obtained at predefined timepoints.
Measurements were made at baseline and during stable plasma concentrations of the prodrug AZD0837 (mean +/- standard deviation 7.96 +/- 2.38 micromol/L, approximate target of 10 micromol/L), the intermediate metabolite AR-H69927 (1.26 +/- 0.39 micromol/L, target 1-2 micromol/L) and the active direct thrombin inhibitor AR-H067637 (0.35 +/- 0.14 micromol/L, target 0.5-1.0 micromol/L). There were no clinically relevant effects on cardiac conduction (QRS duration, PR interval, His bundle electrogram, Wenckebach point), refractoriness (atrial, atrioventricular and ventricular effective refractory periods) or repolarization (QT, QT interval corrected for heart rate using Fridericia's formula, QRS onset to the top of the T wave [QT(top)], QRS onset to the end of the T wave [QT(end)] or QT(top) - QT(end)).
AZD0837 was well tolerated, and had no clinically relevant effects on cardiac electrophysiology of the target population, either in subjects previously treated with warfarin or in those without previous treatment.
Clinical Drug Investigation 01/2010; 30(7):461-71. · 1.82 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of C-reactive protein and other inflammatory markers have been reported in some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether this finding is related to AF per se or to other conditions remains unclear. In addition, the source of inflammatory markers is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to assess the extent and the source of inflammation in patients with AF and no other concomitant heart or inflammatory conditions.
The study group consisted of 29 patients referred for radiofrequency catheter ablation: 10 patients with paroxysmal AF, 8 patients with permanent AF, and 10 control patients with Wolf-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and no evidence of AF (mean age 54 +/- 11 vs. 57 +/- 13 vs. 43 +/- 16). No patient had structural heart diseases or inflammatory conditions. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were assessed in blood samples from the femoral vein, right atrium, coronary sinus, and the left and right upper pulmonary veins. All samples were collected before ablation. Compared with controls and patients with paroxysmal AF, patients with permanent AF had higher plasma levels of IL-8 in the samples from the femoral vein, right atrium, and coronary sinus, but not in the samples from the pulmonary veins (median values in the femoral vein: 2.58 vs. 2.97 vs. 4.66 pg/mL, P = 0.003; right atrium: 2.30 vs. 3.06 vs. 3.93 pg/mL, P = 0.013; coronary sinus: 2.85 vs. 3.15 vs. 4.07, P = 0.016). A high-degree correlation existed between the IL-8 levels in these samples (correlation coefficient between 0.929 and 0.976, P < 0.05). No differences in the C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels were noted between the three groups of patients.
The normal levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, along with the elevated levels of IL-8 in patients with permanent AF but not in those with paroxysmal AF, suggest a link between a low-grade inflammatory reaction and long-lasting AF. The elevated IL-8 levels in the peripheral blood, right atrium, and coronary sinus but not in the pulmonary veins suggest a possible source of inflammation in the systemic circulation.
Europace 07/2008; 10(7):848-53. · 1.98 Impact Factor