Andrey V. Kravtsov

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (170)743.06 Total impact

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    Benedikt Diemer, Andrey V. Kravtsov
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    ABSTRACT: We present a numerical study of dark matter halo concentrations in $\Lambda$CDM and self-similar cosmologies. We show that the relation between concentration, $c$, and peak height, $\nu$, exhibits the smallest deviations from universality if halo masses are defined with respect to the critical density of the universe. These deviations can be explained by the residual dependence of concentration on the local slope of the matter power spectrum, $n$, which affects both the normalization and shape of the $c$-$\nu$ relation. In particular, there is no well-defined floor in the concentration values. Instead, the minimum concentration depends on redshift: at fixed $\nu$, halos at higher $z$ experience steeper slopes $n$, and thus have lower minimum concentrations. We show that the concentrations in our simulations can be accurately described by a universal seven--parameter function of only $\nu$ and $n$. This model matches our $\Lambda$CDM results to $\lesssim 5\%$ accuracy up to $z = 6$, and matches scale-free $\Omega_{\rm m} = 1$ models to $\lesssim 15\%$. The model also reproduces the low concentration values of Earth-mass halos at $z \approx 30$, and thus correctly extrapolates over $16$ orders of magnitude in halo mass. The predictions of our model differ significantly from all models previously proposed in the literature at high masses and redshifts. Our model is in excellent agreement with recent lensing measurements of cluster concentrations.
    07/2014;
  • Oscar Agertz, Andrey V. Kravtsov
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    ABSTRACT: Using high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of galaxy formation, we investigate the star formation-feedback cycle at high redshifts ($z>1$), focusing on progenitors of Milky Way-sized galaxies. Our star formation model is based on the local density of molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) forming on dust grains, as this may be an important ingredient for regulating star formation in the high redshift, metal-poor regime of galaxy formation. Our stellar feedback model accounts for energy and momentum from supernovae, stellar winds and radiation pressure. We use a suite of simulations with different parameters and assumptions about star formation and prescription recipes. We find that in order to reproduce global properties of the Milky Way progenitors, such as star formation history and stellar mass-halo mass relation, simulations should include 1) a combination of local early ($t\lesssim 4$ Myr) momentum feedback via radiation pressure and stellar winds and subsequent efficient supernovae feedback, and 2) the global star formation efficiency on kiloparsec scales should be feedback regulated. In particular, we find that in models with efficient feedback, the local efficiency of star formation per free fall time can be substantially larger than the global star formation efficiency inferred from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We find that simulations that adopt inefficient star formation inferred from such relation fail to produce vigorous outflows and eject sufficient amounts of enriched gas in order to regulate the galactic baryon content. This illustrates the importance of understanding the complex interplay between star formation and feedback and the detailed processes that contribute to the feedback-regulated formation of galaxies. (Abridged for arXiv)
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study relation between stellar mass and halo mass for high-mass halos using a sample of galaxy clusters with accurate measurements of stellar masses from optical and IR data and total masses from X-ray observations. We find that stellar mass of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) scales as M*BCG\propto M500^a_BCG with the best fit slope of a_BCG~0.35+-0.1 and scatter of M*BCG at a fixed M500 of ~0.2 dex. We show that M*-M relations from abundance matching or halo modelling reported in recent studies underestimate stellar masses of BCGs by a factor of ~2-4, because these studies used stellar mass functions (SMF) based on photometry that severely underestimates the outer surface brightness profiles of massive galaxies. We show that M*-M relation derived using abundance matching with the recent SMF calibration by Bernardi et al. (2013) based on improved photometry is in a much better agreement with the relation we derive. The total stellar mass of galaxies correlates with total mass M500 with the slope of \approx 0.6+-0.1 and scatter of 0.1 dex. This indicates that efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars decreases with increasing cluster mass. We show that for a fixed choice of the initial mass function (IMF) total stellar fraction in clusters is only a factor of ~3-5 lower than the peak stellar fraction reached in M\approx 10^12 Msun halos, and only a factor of ~1.5-3 if the IMF becomes progressively more bottom heavy with increasing mass in early type galaxies, as indicated by recent observations. The larger normalization and slope of the M*-M relation derived in this study shows that the overall efficiency of star formation in massive halos is suppressed much less than was thought before and that feedback and associated suppression of star formation in massive halos should be weaker than assumed in most of the current semi-analytic models and simulations.
    01/2014;
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    Benedikt Diemer, Andrey V. Kravtsov
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    ABSTRACT: We present a systematic study of the density profiles of halos forming in a LCDM cosmology, focusing on the outer regions of halos, 0.1 < r/Rvir < 9. We show that the median and mean density profiles of halo samples of a given peak height exhibit significant deviations from the universal analytic profiles discussed previously in the literature, such as the NFW and Einasto profiles, at radii r > 0.5 R200m. In particular, at these radii the logarithmic slope of the median density profiles of massive or rapidly accreting halos steepens more sharply than predicted. The steepening becomes more pronounced with increasing mass accretion rate. The steepest slope of the profiles occurs at r ~ R200m, and its absolute value increases with increasing peak height or mass accretion rate, reaching slopes of -4 and steeper. Importantly, we find that the outermost density profiles at r > R200m are remarkably self-similar when radii are rescaled by R200m. This self-similarity indicates that radii defined with respect to the mean density are preferred for describing the structure and evolution of the outer profiles. However, the inner density profiles are most self-similar when radii are rescaled by R200c, a radius enclosing a fixed overdensity with respect to the critical density of the universe. We propose a new fitting formula that describes the profiles at all radii out to r ~ 9 Rvir, including the transition region around r ~ R200m where the steepening occurs. The formula fits the median and mean density profiles of halo samples selected by their peak height or mass accretion rate with accuracy < 10% at all redshifts and masses we studied, 0 < z < 6 and Mvir > 1.7E10 Msun/h. We discuss observational signatures of the density profile features described above, and show that the steepening of the outer profile should be detectable in future weak lensing analyses of massive clusters. (abridged)
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 789(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use recent proper motion measurements of the tangential velocity of M31, along with its radial velocity and distance, to derive the likelihood of the sum of halo masses of the Milky Way and M31. This is done using a sample halo pairs in the Bolshoi cosmological simulation of $\Lambda$CDM cosmology selected to match properties and environment of the Local Group. The resulting likelihood gives estimate of the sum of masses of $M_{\rm MW,200}+M_{\rm M31,200}=$ $2.40_{-1.05}^{+1.95}\times10^{12}\,M_{\odot}$ ($90\%$ confidence interval). This estimate is consistent with individual mass estimates for the Milky Way and M31 and is consistent, albeit somewhat on the low side, with the mass estimated using the timing argument. We show that although the timing argument is unbiased on average for all pairs, for pairs constrained to have radial and tangential velocities similar to that of the Local Group the argument overestimates the sum of masses by a factor of $1.6$. Using similar technique we estimate the total dark matter mass enclosed within $1$ Mpc from the Local Group barycenter to be $M_{\rm LG}(r<1\, {\rm Mpc})=4.2_{-2.0}^{+3.4}\times10^{12}\,M_{\odot}$ ($90\%$ confidence interval).
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 793(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of isolated SMC- and Milky Way-sized galaxies that include a model for feedback from galactic cosmic rays (CRs). We find that CRs are naturally able to drive winds with mass loading factors of up to ~10 in dwarf systems. The scaling of the mass loading factor with circular velocity between the two simulated systems is consistent with \propto v_c^{1-2} required to reproduce the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. In addition, simulations with CR feedback reproduce both the normalization and the slope of the observed trend of wind velocity with galaxy circular velocity. We find that winds in simulations with CR feedback exhibit qualitatively different properties compared to SN driven winds, where most of the acceleration happens violently in situ near star forming sites. In contrast, the CR-driven winds are accelerated gently by the large-scale pressure gradient established by CRs diffusing from the star-forming galaxy disk out into the halo. The CR-driven winds also exhibit much cooler temperatures and, in the SMC-sized system, warm (T~10^4 K) gas dominates the outflow. The prevalence of warm gas in such outflows may provide a clue as to the origin of ubiquitous warm gas in the gaseous halos of galaxies detected via absorption lines in quasar spectra.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 777(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce the AGORA project, a comprehensive numerical study of well-resolved galaxies within the LCDM cosmology. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with force resolutions of ~100 proper pc or better will be run with a variety of code platforms to follow the hierarchical growth, star formation history, morphological transformation, and the cycle of baryons in and out of 8 galaxies with halo masses M_vir ~= 1e10, 1e11, 1e12, and 1e13 Msun at z=0 and two different ("violent" and "quiescent") assembly histories. The numerical techniques and implementations used in this project include the smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes GADGET and GASOLINE, and the adaptive mesh refinement codes ART, ENZO, and RAMSES. The codes will share common initial conditions and common astrophysics packages including UV background, metal-dependent radiative cooling, metal and energy yields of supernovae, and stellar initial mass function. These are described in detail in the present paper. Subgrid star formation and feedback prescriptions will be tuned to provide a realistic interstellar and circumgalactic medium using a non-cosmological disk galaxy simulation. Cosmological runs will be systematically compared with each other using a common analysis toolkit, and validated against observations to verify that the solutions are robust - i.e., that the astrophysical assumptions are responsible for any success, rather than artifacts of particular implementations. The goals of the AGORA project are, broadly speaking, to raise the realism and predictive power of galaxy simulations and the understanding of the feedback processes that regulate galaxy "metabolism." The proof-of-concept dark matter-only test of the formation of a galactic halo with a z=0 mass of M_vir ~= 1.7e11 Msun by 9 different versions of the participating codes is also presented to validate the infrastructure of the project.
    08/2013;
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    Benedikt Diemer, Andrey V. Kravtsov, Surhud More
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate whether the evolution of cluster scaling relations is affected by the spurious evolution of mass due to the evolving reference density with respect to which halo masses are defined (pseudo-evolution). We use the relation between mass, M, and velocity dispersion, sigma, as a test case, and find that the deviation from the M-sigma relation of cluster-sized halos due of pseudo-evolution is smaller than 10% for a wide range of mass definitions. The reason for this small impact is a tight relation between the velocity dispersion and mass profiles, sigma(<r) = const * (GM(<r) / r)^(1/2), which holds across a large radial range. We show that such a relation is generically expected for a wide range of density profiles, as long as halos are in approximate Jeans equilibrium. Thus, as the outer "virial" radius used to define the halo mass, R, increases due to pseudo-evolution, halos approximately preserve their M-sigma relation. This result explains why such relations are almost insensitive to the definition of the virial radius, and highlights the fact that tight scaling relations are the result of tight equilibrium relations between radial profiles of physical quantities, rather than a result of the virial theorem applied to the cluster as a whole within some unique boundary. We find exceptions at very small and very large radii, where the profiles deviate from the relations they exhibit at intermediate radii. We discuss the implications of these results for other cluster scaling relations, and argue that pseudo-evolution should have very small effects on most scaling relations, except for those which involve the stellar masses of galaxies. In particular, we show that the relation between stellar mass fraction and total mass is affected by pseudo-evolution, and is largely shaped by it for halo masses smaller than 1E14 Msun.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Kyu-Hyun Chae, Mariangela Bernardi, Andrey V. Kravtsov
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    ABSTRACT: We assemble a statistical set of global mass models for ~2,000 nearly spherical SDSS galaxies at a mean redshift of 0.12 based on their aperture velocity dispersions and newly derived luminosity profiles in conjunction with published velocity dispersion profiles and empirical properties and relations of galaxy and halo parameters. We consider two-component mass models, in which stellar mass distribution is assumed to follow the observationally-derived luminosity profile and dark matter (DM) distribution is modelled using the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (gNFW) or Einasto profile, as well as single component models of total mass distribution. When the two-component mass models are fitted to the SDSS aperture velocity dispersions, the predicted velocity dispersion profile (VP) slopes within the effective radius R_eff match well the distribution in observed elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the single-component models cannot reproduce the VP slope distribution. From a number of input variations the models exhibit for the radial range 0.1 R_eff < r < R_eff a tight correlation gamma_e=(1.865+/-0.008)+(-4.93+/-0.15) where gamma_e is the mean slope absolute value of the total mass density and eta is the mean slope of the velocity dispersion profile, which leads to a super-isothermal gamma_e = 2.15+/-0.04 for empirical eta=-0.058+/-0.008. Furthermore, the successful two-component models appear to imply a typical slope curvature pattern in the total mass profile. Finally, it is intriguing to note that a combination analogous to the pseudo phase-space density of DM haloes from N-body simulations Q'(r)=rho(r)/sigma^3(r)$, where rho(r) is the total density profile and sigma(r) is the radial stellar velocity dispersion profile, may well have a universal profile within R_eff with a mean slope of ~-1.87, strikingly similar to the corresponding slope of self-gravitating DM haloes. (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide emission measure weighted spectra, arising from a range of density and temperature fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM). This is fitted to a single temperature plasma emission model to provide an estimate of the gas density and temperature, which are sensitive to the gas inhomogeneities. Therefore, X-ray observations yield a potentially biased estimate of the thermal gas pressure, PX. At the same time Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) observations directly measure the integrated gas pressure, PSZ. If the X-ray pressure profiles are strongly biased with respect to the SZ, then one has the possibility to probe the gas inhomogeneities (their amplitude and physical nature), even at scales unresolved by the current generation of telescopes. At the same time, a weak bias has implications for the interchangeable use of mass proxies like YSZ and YX as cosmological probes. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the bias, defined as bP(r) ≡ PX(r)/PSZ(r) - 1, on the characteristics of fluctuations in the ICM taking into account the correlation between temperature and density fluctuations. We made a simple prediction of the irreducible bias in idealized X-ray versus SZ observations using multitemperature plasma emission model. We also provide a simple fitting form to estimate the bias given the distribution of fluctuations. In real observations, there can be additional complications arising from instrumental background, insufficient photon statistics, asphericity, method of deprojection, etc. Analysing a sample of 16 clusters extracted from hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the median value of bias is within ±3 per cent within R500, it decreases to -5 per cent at R500 < r < 1.5R500 and then rises back to ˜0 per cent at r ≳ 2R500. The scatter of bP(r) between individual relaxed clusters is small at the level of <0.03 within R500, but turns significantly larger (0.25) and highly skewed ({overline{b}_P}(r) ≫ 0) at r ≳ 1.5R500. For any relaxed cluster, we find |bP(r)| < 15 per cent within R500, across different implementations of input physics in the simulations. Unrelaxed clusters exhibit a larger scatter in bP(r) (both from radius to radius and from cluster to cluster).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 431(1):954-965. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that an estimate of the likelihood distribution of the Milky Way halo mass can be derived using the properties of the satellites similar to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). However, it would be straightforward to interpret such an estimate only if the properties of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) are fairly typical and are not biased by the environment. In this study we explore whether the environment of the Milky Way affects the properties of the SMC and LMC such as their velocities. To test for the effect of the environment, we compare velocity distributions for MC-sized subhalos around Milky Way hosts in a sample selected simply by mass and in the second sample of such halos selected with additional restrictions on the distance to the nearest cluster and the local galaxy density, designed to mimic the environment of the Local Group (LG). We find that satellites in halos in the LG-like environments do have somewhat larger velocities, as compared to the halos of similar mass in the sample without environmental constraints. We derive the host halo likelihood distribution for the samples in the LG-like envirionment and in the control sample and find that the environment does not significantly affect the derived likelihood. We use the updated properties of the SMC and LMC to derive the constraint on the MW halo mass $\log{({\rm M}_{200} /\msol)}=12.06^{+0.31}_{-0.19}$ (90% confidence interval). We also explore the incidence of close pairs with relative velocities and separations similar to those of the LMC and SMC and find that such pairs are quite rare among $\Lambda$CDM halos. Taking into account the close separation of the MCs in the Busha et al.\ 2011 method results in the shift of the MW halo mass estimate to smaller masses, with the peak shifting approximately by a factor of two.[Abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 770(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: I/O performance is vital for most HPC applications especially those that generate a vast amount of data with the growth of scale. Many studies have shown that scientific applications tend to issue small and noncontiguous accesses in an interleaving fashion, causing different processes to access overlapping regions. In such scenario, collective I/O is a widely used optimization technique. However, the use of collective I/O deployed in existing MPI implementations is not trivial and sometimes even impossible. Collective I/O is an optimization based on a single collective I/O access. If the data reside in different places (e.g. in different arrays), the application has to maintain a buffer to first combine these data and then perform I/O operations on the buffer rather than the original data pieces. The process is very tedious for application developers. Besides, collective I/O requires the creating of a file view to describe the noncontiguous access patterns and additional coding is needed. Moreover, for the applications with complex data access using dynamic data sizes, it is hard or even impossible to use the file view mechanism to describe the access pattern through derived data types. In this study, we develop a user-level library called transparent collective I/O (TCIO) for application developers to easily incorporate collective I/O optimization into their applications. Preliminary experiments by means of a synthetic benchmark and a real cosmology application demonstrate that the library can significantly reduce the programming efforts required for application developers. Moreover, TCIO delivers better performance at large scales as compared to the existing collective functionality provided by MPI-IO.
    Parallel & Distributed Processing (IPDPS), 2013 IEEE 27th International Symposium on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Upcoming wide-area sky surveys offer the power to test the source of cosmic acceleration by placing extremely precise constraints on existing cosmological model parameters. These observational surveys will employ multiple tests based on statistical signatures of galaxies and larger-scale structures such as clusters of galaxies. Simulations of large-scale structure provide the means to maximize the power of sky survey tests by characterizing key sources of systematic uncertainties. We describe an XSEDE program to produce multiple synthetic sky surveys of galaxies and large-scale cosmic structure in support of science analysis for the Dark Energy Survey. We explain our Airavata-enabled methods and report extensions to our workflow processing over the last year. We highlight science analysis focused on counts of clusters of galaxies.
    Proceedings of the Conference on Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment: Gateway to Discovery, San Diego, California; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Distributed as an Instant Email Notice Supernovae Credential Certification: Masao Sako (masao@sas.upenn.edu) Subjects: Optical, Supernovae Referred to by ATel #: 4725, 4741, 4800, 4826 First SN Discoveries from the Dark Energy Survey The Dark Energy Survey (DES) report the discovery of the first set of supernovae (SN) from the project. Images were observed as part of the DES Science Verification phase using the newly-installed 570-Megapixel Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope by observers J. Annis, E. Buckley-Geer, and H. Lin. SN observations are planned throughout the observing campaign on a regular cadence of 4-6 days in each of the ten 3-deg2 fields in the DES griz filters. The SN candidates are named according to the season and field in which they were discovered. We adopt the convention -- DES{season}{field}{index} -- where {season} is the year pertaining to the beginning of each observing season, {field} denotes one of the ten SN search fields (E1,E2,S1,S2,X1,X2,X3,C1,C2,C3) in Elais-S1 (E), Stripe 82 (S), XMM-LSS (X) and CDF-S (C), and {index} is one or more lower-case letters starting from a-z, then aa-az, and so on. The DES SN Survey strategy is described in Bernstein et al. (2012, ApJ, 753, 152). Spectroscopic classifications were performed by the OzDES collaboration from spectra (350-900 nm) obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with AAOmega-2dF observed by C. Lidman, R. Sharp, and S. A. Uddin. Classifications were performed using Superfit (Howell et al 2002, BAAS, 34, 1256) or SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024). Redshifts measured from narrow galaxy lines are quoted to 3 significant figures. Those measured from broad SN features are quoted to 2 significant figures. SN phases are based on both the optical spectra and multi-band light curves at the time of the spectroscopic measurements. Name | RA(J2000) | Dec(J2000) | Discovery date (UT) | Discovery r mag| Spectrum date (UT) | redshift | type | phase DES12C1a | 03:38:54.5 | -27:32:28.2 | 2012 Dec 07 | 22.0 | 2012 Dec 13 | 0.303 | Ia | near max DES12C1b | 03:35:05.8 | -26:45:53.9 | 2012 Dec 07 | 20.9 | 2012 Dec 13 | 0.243 | Ia | near max DES12C2a | 03:41:13.1 | -28:59:37.9 | 2012 Dec 04 | 21.5 | 2012 Dec 14 | 0.21 | Ia | near max
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2012;
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    Andrey V. Kravtsov
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    ABSTRACT: Sizes of galaxies are an important diagnostic for galaxy formation models. In this study I use the abundance matching ansatz, which has proven to be successful in reproducing galaxy clustering and other statistics, to derive estimates of the virial radius, R200, for galaxies of different morphological types and wide range of stellar mass. I show that over eight of orders of magnitude in stellar mass galaxies of all morphological types follow an approximately linear relation between 3D half-mass radius of their stellar distribution, rhalf and virial radius, rhalf~0.015R200 with a scatter of ~0.2 dex. Such scaling is in remarkable agreement with expectation of models which assume that galaxy sizes are controlled by halo angular momentum, which implies rhalf\propto lambda R200, where lambda is the spin of galaxy parent halo. The scatter about the relation is comparable with the scatter expected from the distribution of $\lambda$ and normalization of the relation agrees with that predicted by the model of Mo, Mao & White (1998), if galaxy sizes were set on average at z~1-2. Moreover, I show that when stellar and gas surface density profiles of galaxies of different morphological types are rescaled using radius r_n= 0.015 R200, the rescaled surface density profiles follow approximately universal exponential (for late types) and de Vaucouleurs (for early types) profiles with scatter of only 30-50% at R~1-3r_n. Remarkably, both late and early type galaxies have similar mean stellar surface density profiles at R>r_n. The main difference between their stellar distributions is thus at R<r_n. The results of this study imply that galaxy sizes and radial distribution of baryons are shaped primarily by properties of their parent halo and that sizes of both late type disks and early type spheroids are controlled by halo angular momentum.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 12/2012; 764(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new method to identify and characterize the structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) in simulated galaxy clusters. The method uses the median of gas properties, such as density and pressure, which we show to be very robust to the presence of gas inhomogeneities. In particular, we show that the radial profiles of median gas properties are smooth and do not exhibit fluctuations at locations of massive clumps in contrast to mean and mode properties. It is shown that distribution of gas properties in a given radial shell can be well described by a log-normal PDF and a tail. The former corresponds to a nearly hydrostatic bulk component, accounting for ~99% of the volume, while the tail corresponds to high density inhomogeneities. We show that this results in a simple and robust separation of the diffuse and clumpy components of the ICM. The FWHM of the density distribution grows with radius and varies from ~0.15 dex in cluster centre to ~0.5 dex at 2r_500 in relaxed clusters. The small scatter in the width between relaxed clusters suggests that the degree of inhomogeneity is a robust characteristic of the ICM. It broadly agrees with the amplitude of density perturbations in the Coma cluster. We discuss the origin of ICM density variations in spherical shells and show that less than 20% of the width can be attributed to the triaxiality of the cluster gravitational potential. As a link to X-ray observations of real clusters we evaluated the ICM clumping factor with and without high density inhomogeneities. We argue that these two cases represent upper and lower limits on the departure of the observed X-ray emissivity from the median value. We find that the typical value of the clumping factor in the bulk component of relaxed clusters varies from ~1.1-1.2 at r_500 up to ~1.3-1.4 at r_200, in broad agreement with recent observations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2012; 428(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar feedback plays a key role in galaxy formation by regulating star formation, driving interstellar turbulence and generating galactic scale outflows. Although modern simulations of galaxy formation can resolve scales of 10-100 pc, star formation and feedback operate on smaller, "subgrid" scales. Great care should therefore be taken in order to properly account for the effect of feedback on global galaxy evolution. We investigate the momentum and energy budget of feedback during different stages of stellar evolution, and study its impact on the interstellar medium using simulations of local star forming regions and galactic disks at the resolution affordable in modern cosmological zoom-in simulations. In particular, we present a novel subgrid model for the momentum injection due to radiation pressure and stellar winds from massive stars during early, pre-supernova evolutionary stages of young star clusters. Early injection of momentum acts to clear out dense gas in star forming regions, hence limiting star formation. The reduced gas density mitigates radiative losses of thermal feedback energy from subsequent supernova explosions, leading to an increased overall efficiency of stellar feedback. The detailed impact of stellar feedback depends sensitively on the implementation and choice of parameters. Somewhat encouragingly, we find that implementations in which feedback is efficient lead to approximate self-regulation of global star formation efficiency. We compare simulation results using our feedback implementation to other phenomenological feedback methods, where thermal feedback energy is allowed to dissipate over time scales longer than the formal gas cooling time. We find that simulations with maximal momentum injection suppress star formation to a similar degree as is found in simulations adopting adiabatic thermal feedback.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; 770(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The next generation of wide-area sky surveys offer the power to place extremely precise constraints on cosmological parameters and to test the source of cosmic acceleration. These observational programs will employ multiple techniques based on a variety of statistical signatures of galaxies and large-scale structure. These techniques have sources of systematic error that need to be understood at the percent-level in order to fully leverage the power of next-generation catalogs. Simulations of large-scale structure provide the means to characterize these uncertainties. We are using XSEDE resources to produce multiple synthetic sky surveys of galaxies and large-scale structure in support of science analysis for the Dark Energy Survey. In order to scale up our production to the level of fifty 10^10-particle simulations, we are working to embed production control within the Apache Airavata workflow environment. We explain our methods and report how the workflow has reduced production time by 40% compared to manual management.
    10/2012;
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    Benedikt Diemer, Surhud More, Andrey Kravtsov
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    ABSTRACT: A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the Universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z=1 to 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M200 of about 1E12 solar masses and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2012; 766(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Andrey Kravtsov, Stefano Borgani
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we describe our current understanding of cluster formation: from the general picture of collapse from initial density fluctuations in an expanding Universe to detailed simulations of cluster formation including the effects of galaxy formation. We outline both the areas in which highly accurate predictions of theoretical models can be obtained and areas where predictions are uncertain due to uncertain physics of galaxy formation and feedback. The former includes the description of the structural properties of the dark matter halos hosting cluster, their mass function and clustering properties. Their study provides a foundation for cosmological applications of clusters and for testing the fundamental assumptions of the standard model of structure formation. The latter includes the description of the total gas and stellar fractions, the thermodynamical and non-thermal processes in the intracluster plasma. Their study serves as a testing ground for galaxy formation models and plasma physics. In this context, we identify a suitable radial range where the observed thermal properties of the intra-cluster plasma exhibit the most regular behavior and thus can be used to define robust observational proxies for the total cluster mass. We put particular emphasis on examining assumptions and limitations of the widely used self-similar model of clusters. Finally, we discuss the formation of clusters in non-standard cosmological models, such as non-Gaussian models for the initial density field and models with modified gravity, along with prospects for testing these alternative scenarios with large cluster surveys in the near future.
    Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2012; · 23.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
743.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2013
    • California College San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      • Center for Particle Astrophysics
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • New Mexico State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Las Cruces, NM, United States
  • 2008
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1999–2008
    • The Ohio State University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, Ohio, United States