[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The energy absorbed from the radio-frequency fields of mobile telephones depends strongly on distance from the source. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate whether gliomas occur preferentially in the areas of the brain having the highest radio-frequency exposure. The authors used 2 approaches: In a case-case analysis, tumor locations were compared with varying exposure levels; in a case-specular analysis, a hypothetical reference location was assigned for each glioma, and the distances from the actual and specular locations to the handset were compared. The study included 888 gliomas from 7 European countries (2000-2004), with tumor midpoints defined on a 3-dimensional grid based on radiologic images. The case-case analyses were carried out using unconditional logistic regression, whereas in the case-specular analysis, conditional logistic regression was used. In the case-case analyses, tumors were located closest to the source of exposure among never-regular and contralateral users, but not statistically significantly. In the case-specular analysis, the mean distances between exposure source and location were similar for cases and speculars. These results do not suggest that gliomas in mobile phone users are preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest radio-frequency fields from mobile phones.
American journal of epidemiology 07/2011; 174(1):2-11. · 5.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is responsible for up to 45% of in-hospital trauma mortality. Computed tomography (CT) is central to acute TBI diagnostics, and millions of brain CT scans are conducted yearly worldwide. Though many studies have addressed individual predictors of outcome from findings on CT scans, few have done so from a multivariate perspective. As these parameters are interrelated in a complex manner, there is a need for a better understanding of them in this context. CT scans from 861 TBI patients were reviewed according to an extensive protocol. An extended analysis of CT parameters with respect to outcome was performed using linear and non-linear methods. We identified complex interactions and mutual information in many of the parameters. Variables predicting death differ from those predicting unfavorable versus favorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale scores of 1-3 versus 4-5 [GOS]). The most important parameter for prediction of unfavorable outcome is the magnitude of midline shift. In fact, this parameter, as a continuous variable, is by itself a better predictor and is better calibrated than the Marshall CT score, even for predicting death. In addition, hematoma volumes are nearly co-linear with midline shift and can be substituted for it. A score of traumatic subarachnoid/intraventricular blood components adds substantially to model calibration. A CT scoring system geared toward dichotomous GOS scores is suggested. CT parameters were found to add 6-10% additional estimated explained variance in the presence of the important clinical variables of age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and pupillary response. Finally we present a practical clinical "rule of thumb" to help predict the probability of unfavorable outcome using clinical and CT variables.
Journal of neurotrauma 09/2009; 27(1):51-64. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span.
Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005).
Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up.
Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is graded with three levels of severity-mild, moderate and severe. The outcome of individuals with mild and severe grades can be reliably predicted from this scheme. Individuals with moderate degree are divided in outcome between those who suffer major neurologic problems (e.g., cerebral palsy) and those who are assumed to recover from the incident. It is however not clear if the recovery is complete and unquestionable. A group of adolescents who had been born at term, diagnosed with moderate HIE but had not developed cerebral palsy, were investigated with diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy maps were used as a basis of comparison to a group of controls of the same age and gender distribution. In several white matter areas fractional anisotrophy was lower in the group of individuals with a history of moderate HIE. These areas include the internal capsules (bilaterally in the posterior limb and on the right in the anterior limb), the posterior and anterior corpus callosum as well as frontal inferior white matter areas. These results indicate that even in the absence of such major neurologic impairments as cerebral palsy, moderate HIE causes long term white matter disturbances which are not repaired by adolescence.
Pediatric Research 12/2005; 58(5):936-40. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preterm birth frequently involves white matter injury and affects long-term neurologic and cognitive outcomes. Diffusion tensor imaging has been used to show that the white matter microstructure of newborn, preterm children is compromised in a regionally specific manner. However, until now it was not clear whether these lesions would persist and be detectible on long-term follow-up. Hence, we collected diffusion tensor imaging data on a 1.5-T scanner, and computed fractional anisotropy and coherence measures to compare the white matter integrity of children born preterm to that of control subjects. The subjects for the preterm group (10.9 +/- 0.29 y; n = 9; birth weight <or= 1500 g; mean gestational age, 28.6 +/- 1.05 wk) possessed attention deficits, a common problem in preterms. They were compared with age- and sex-matched control children (10.8 +/- 0.33 y; n = 10; birth weight >or= 2500; gestational age, >or= 37 wk). We found that the preterm group had lower fractional anisotropy values in the posterior corpus callosum and bilaterally in the internal capsules. In the posterior corpus callosum this difference in fractional anisotropy values may partially be related to a difference in white matter volume between the groups. An analysis of the coherence measure failed to indicate a group difference in the axonal organization. These results are in agreement with previous diffusion tensor imaging findings in newborn preterm children, and indicate that ex-preterm children with attention deficits have white matter disturbances that are not compensated for or repaired before 11 y of age.
Pediatric Research 11/2003; 54(5):672-9. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The estimated degree of carotid stenosis is decisive for the selection of patients who would benefit from surgical treatment. Carotid thrombendarterectomy is recommended in patients with symptomatic > or = 80 procent internal carotid artery stenosis (ECST method). Many vascular centers now often rely entirely on duplex ultrasonography to select the patients for carotid surgery. The results of a recently published Swedish multicenter study (Jogestrand et al., Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2002; 23:510-8) demonstrate that certain technical aspects of the ultrasound examination are of importance for the estimation of the degree of stenosis. Based on these results, the Swedish Quality Board for Carotid Surgery recommends the use of Doppler angle range specific cut off points for the peak systolic velocity in the internal carotid artery for identification of high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis: These cut off points are > or = 2.1 m/s for insonation angles of 0-49 degrees and > or = 3.2 m/s for angles 50-60 degrees. The angle of insonation should be kept as small as possible and should always be stated in the investigators report.