Allen Cohn

US Oncology, The Woodlands, Texas, United States

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Publications (36)327.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) gene is elevated in most tenosynovial giant-cell tumors. This observation has led to the discovery and clinical development of therapy targeting the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). Using x-ray co-crystallography to guide our drug-discovery research, we generated a potent, selective CSF1R inhibitor, PLX3397, that traps the kinase in the autoinhibited conformation. We then conducted a multicenter, phase 1 trial in two parts to analyze this compound. In the first part, we evaluated escalations in the dose of PLX3397 that was administered orally in patients with solid tumors (dose-escalation study). In the second part, we evaluated PLX3397 at the chosen phase 2 dose in an extension cohort of patients with tenosynovial giant-cell tumors (extension study). Pharmacokinetic and tumor responses in the enrolled patients were assessed, and CSF1 in situ hybridization was performed to confirm the mechanism of action of PLX3397 and that the pattern of CSF1 expression was consistent with the pathological features of tenosynovial giant-cell tumor. A total of 41 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation study, and an additional 23 patients were enrolled in the extension study. The chosen phase 2 dose of PLX3397 was 1000 mg per day. In the extension study, 12 patients with tenosynovial giant-cell tumors had a partial response and 7 patients had stable disease. Responses usually occurred within the first 4 months of treatment, and the median duration of response exceeded 8 months. The most common adverse events included fatigue, change in hair color, nausea, dysgeusia, and periorbital edema; adverse events rarely led to discontinuation of treatment. Treatment of tenosynovial giant-cell tumors with PLX3397 resulted in a prolonged regression in tumor volume in most patients. (Funded by Plexxikon; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01004861.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2015; 373(5):428-37. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1411366 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important therapeutic target in colorectal carcinoma. Ramucirumab is a human IgG-1 monoclonal antibody that targets the extracellular domain of VEGF receptor 2. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab versus placebo in combination with second-line FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan) for metastatic colorectal cancer in patients with disease progression during or after first-line therapy with bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and a fluoropyrimidine. Between Dec 14, 2010, and Aug 23, 2013, we enrolled patients into the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 RAISE trial. Eligible patients had disease progression during or within 6 months of the last dose of first-line therapy. Patients were randomised (1:1) via a centralised, interactive voice-response system to receive 8 mg/kg intravenous ramucirumab plus FOLFIRI or matching placebo plus FOLFIRI every 2 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or death. Randomisation was stratified by region, KRAS mutation status, and time to disease progression after starting first-line treatment. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01183780.ld FINDINGS: We enrolled 1072 patients (536 in each group). Median overall survival was 13·3 months (95% CI 12·4-14·5) for patients in the ramucirumab group versus 11·7 months (10·8-12·7) for the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·844 95% CI 0·730-0·976; log-rank p=0·0219). Survival benefit was consistent across subgroups of patients who received ramucirumab plus FOLFIRI. Grade 3 or worse adverse events seen in more than 5% of patients were neutropenia (203 [38%] of 529 patients in the ramucirumab group vs 123 [23%] of 528 in the placebo group, with febrile neutropenia incidence of 18 [3%] vs 13 [2%]), hypertension (59 [11%] vs 15 [3%]), diarrhoea (57 [11%] vs 51 [10%]), and fatigue (61 [12%] vs 41 [8%]). Ramucirumab plus FOLFIRI significantly improved overall survival compared with placebo plus FOLFIRI as second-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. No unexpected adverse events were identified and toxic effects were manageable. Eli Lilly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Oncology 04/2015; 16(5). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70127-0 · 24.73 Impact Factor
  • ASCO GI; 01/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Second-line treatment with chemotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies improves outcomes in patients with wild type Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The choice of biological agent in second-line mCRC remains unclear. In this randomized, phase II estimation trial, we compared FOLFIRI (irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin) in combination with panitumumab or bevacizumab in patients with disease progression during oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and bevacizumab. One hundred eighty-two patients were randomized to FOLFIRI with panitumumab or bevacizumab. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. PFS was similar between arms, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.50; P = .97). Median PFS was 7.7 months (95% CI, 5.7-11.8) in the panitumumab arm and 9.2 months (95% CI, 7.8-10.6) in the bevacizumab arm. OS was also similar between arms, with an HR of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.75-1.49; P = .75). Median OS was 18.0 months (95% CI, 13.5-21.7) in the panitumumab arm and 21.4 months (95% CI, 16.5-24.6) in the bevacizumab arm. ORR was 32% (95% CI, 23%-43%) in the panitumumab arm and 19% (95% CI, 11%-29%) in the bevacizumab arm. Skin disorders, diarrhea, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, dehydration, and hypotension were more frequent in the panitumumab arm. Neutropenia was more frequent in the bevacizumab-containing arm. Panitumumab or bevacizumab with FOLFIRI as second-line treatment had efficacy similar in patients whose disease progressed during oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with bevacizumab, with expected toxicities. The development of more accurate biomarkers might help caregivers and patients to better choose between therapies for individual patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Colorectal Cancer 01/2015; 14(2). DOI:10.1016/j.clcc.2014.12.009 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TH-302 is an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug that releases the DNA alkylator bromo-isophosphoramide mustard in hypoxic settings. This phase II study (NCT01144455) evaluated gemcitabine plus TH-302 in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)), gemcitabine plus TH-302 240 mg/m(2) (G+T240), or gemcitabine plus TH-302 340 mg/m(2) (G+T340). Randomized crossover after progression on gemcitabine was allowed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), tumor response, CA 19-9 response, and safety. Two hundred fourteen patients (77% with metastatic disease) were enrolled between June 2010 and July 2011. PFS was significantly longer with gemcitabine plus TH-302 (pooled combination arms) compared with gemcitabine alone (median PFS, 5.6 v 3.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.87; P = .005; median PFS for metastatic disease, 5.1 v 3.4 months, respectively). Median PFS times for G+T240 and G+T340 were 5.6 and 6.0 months, respectively. Tumor response was 12%, 17%, and 26% in the gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 arms, respectively (G+T340 v gemcitabine, P = .04). CA 19-9 decrease was greater with G+T340 versus gemcitabine (-5,398 v -549 U/mL, respectively; P = .008). Median OS times for gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 were 6.9, 8.7, and 9.2 months, respectively (P = not significant). The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue, nausea, and peripheral edema (frequencies similar across arms). Skin and mucosal toxicities (2% grade 3) and myelosuppression (55% grade 3 or 4) were the most common TH-302-related AEs but were not associated with treatment discontinuation. PFS, tumor response, and CA 19-9 response were significantly improved with G+TH-302. G+T340 is being investigated further in the phase III MAESTRO study (NCT01746979). © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2014; 33(13). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.55.7504 · 18.43 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Cancer 11/2014; 50:152. DOI:10.1016/S0959-8049(14)70591-X · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) plays an important role in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) designed to specifically block the TGF-β ligands, are expected to inhibit tumor progression in patients with metastatic cancer. TβM1 is a humanized mAb optimized for neutralizing activity against TGF-β1. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the safety and tolerability of TβM1 in patients with metastatic cancer. In this phase I, uncontrolled, non‑randomized, dose-escalation study, 18 eligible adult patients who had measurable disease per RECIST and a performance status of ≤2 on the ECOG scale were administered TβM1 intravenously over 10 min at doses of 20, 60, 120 and 240 mg on day 1 of each 28-day cycle. Safety was assessed by adverse events (as defined by CTCAE version 3.0) and possible relationship to study drug, dose-limiting toxicities and laboratory changes. Systemic drug exposure and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters were assessed. TβM1 was safe when administered once monthly. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile was consistent with a mAb with a mean elimination half-life approximately 9 days. Although anticipated changes in PD markers such as serum VEGF, bFGF and mRNA expression of SMAD7 were observed in whole-blood, suggesting activity of TβM1 on the targeted pathway, these changes were not consistent to represent a PD effect. Additionally, despite the presence of an activated TGF-β1 expression signature in patients' whole blood, the short dosing duration did not translate into significant antitumor effect in the small number of patients investigated in this study.
    International Journal of Oncology 09/2014; 45(6). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2679 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThis analysis from Avastin® Registries: Investigation of Effectiveness and Safety (ARIES) examined the association between exposure to bevacizumab after disease progression (PD) and postprogression survival (PPS) in bevacizumab-exposed metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) through the application of time-dependent and time-fixed analytical methods.Methods Patients with mCRC who were treated with first-line bevacizumab and who survived first PD (PD1) were included. A time-dependent Cox regression model was fitted to assess the effect of cumulative bevacizumab exposure on PPS, while controlling for potential confounders. In addition to support findings from previous studies, a modified intent-to-treat (mITT) analysis compared PPS in patients who received bevacizumab beyond disease progression (BBP) with those who did not (No-BBP).ResultsOf 1550 patients, 1199 survived PD1 and had a median PPS of 13.4 months. Cumulative bevacizumab exposure was associated with improved PPS (p = 0.0040). After adjusting for confounders, the hazard ratios (HRs) for PPS decreased, on average, by 1.2% (range, 1.1–1.3%) with each additional dose of bevacizumab. In the mITT analysis, the median PPS for BBP (n = 438) was 14.4 months vs 10.6 months with for No-BBP (n = 667). BBP was found to be independently associated with longer PPS in a multivariable Cox regression analysis (HR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.97). Protocol-specified adverse events suspected to be associated with bevacizumab occurred in 13.0% of patients with BBP.Conclusion This analysis supports the observation that bevacizumab exposure after PD1 is associated with longer PPS in mCRC. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 07/2014; 23(7). DOI:10.1002/pds.3633 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims The Avastin® Registry – Investigation of Effectiveness and Safety (ARIES) observational cohort study (OCS) was designed to prospectively examine outcomes associated with bevacizumab-containing treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in a community-based setting, where patient populations are less restricted than those in randomised trials. Materials and Methods Patients with mCRC who were eligible for bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in first- or second-line treatment were enrolled from November 2006 to September 2008. There were no protocol-specified treatment regimens; the dose and schedule of bevacizumab and chemotherapy were at the treating physician's discretion. The objectives in the ARIES OCS included analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, treatment patterns and safety in each of the first- and second-line treatment cohorts. Results ARIES enrolled 1550 patients with mCRC receiving first-line therapy with bevacizumab. The median follow-up time was 20.6 months. The median PFS in this cohort was 10.2 months (95% confidence interval 9.8–10.6) and the median overall survival was 23.2 months (95% confidence interval 21.2–24.8). In a separate cohort of 482 patients with second-line mCRC, the median follow-up time was 16.9 months, the median PFS and overall survival from the start of second-line treatment to the end of follow-up was 7.9 months (95% confidence interval 7.2–8.3) and 17.8 months (95% confidence interval 16.5–20.7), respectively. Incidences of known bevacizumab-associated adverse events in ARIES were generally consistent with those previously reported in OCSs and randomised trials. Conclusion Results from the prospective ARIES OCS add further evidence to support the effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab when added to first- and second-line treatment regimens for patients with mCRC in community treatment settings.
    Clinical Oncology 06/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1016/j.clon.2014.03.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-1087-S-1088. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)63966-4 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), we conducted a phase 1b/randomized phase 2 trial to define the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab (mFOLFOX6/bev) with conatumumab, an investigational, fully human monoclonal IgG1 antibody that specifically activates death receptor 5 (DR5). Twelve patients were enrolled in a phase 1b open-label dose-escalation trial of conatumumab with mFOLFOX6/bev; thereafter, 190 patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive mFOLFOX6/bev in combination with 2 mg/kg conatumumab, 10 mg/kg conatumumab, or placebo. Therapy cycles were repeated every 2 weeks until disease progression or the occurrence of unacceptable toxicity. In phase 1b, conatumumab with mFOLFOX6/bev was tolerated without apparent added toxicity over mFOLFOX6/bev alone. In phase 2, conatumumab with mFOLFOX6/bev did not confer a benefit in progression-free survival when compared with placebo with mFOLFOX6/bev. Toxicity was similar in all treatment arms. Following treatment, similar increases in circulating caspase-3 levels were observed in all arms. Conatumumab with mFOLFOX6/bev did not offer improved efficacy over the same chemotherapy with placebo in first-line treatment of patients with mCRC. These data do not support further development of conatumumab in advanced CRC. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 12/2013; 119(24). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28353 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Available preclinical and phase 2 clinical data suggest that the addition of cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to chemotherapy might improve outcome in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess whether the addition of cetuximab to chemotherapy improved progression-free survival in patients with recurrent or progressive NSCLC after platinum-based therapy. In this unmasked, open-label randomised phase 3 trial we enrolled patients with metastatic, unresectable, or locally advanced NSCLC from 121 sites in Canada and the USA. Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older who had experienced progressive disease during or after one previous platinum-based regimen. Initially, patients were randomly assigned to receive either pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) and then randomly assigned within each group to receive their chemotherapy with or without cetuximab (400 mg/m(2) at first dose and 250 mg/m(2) weekly thereafter) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. However, after a change in the standard of care, investigators chose whether to treat with pemetrexed or docetaxel on a patient-by-patient basis. The primary analysis was changed to compare progression-free survival with cetuximab plus pemetrexed versus pemetrexed, on an intention-to-treat basis. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00095199. Between Jan 10, 2005, and Feb 10, 2010, we enrolled 939 patients; data for one patient was accidentally discarded. Of the remaining 938 patients, 605 received pemetrexed (301 patients with cetuximab and 304 alone) and 333 received docetaxel (167 in combination with cetuximab and 166 alone). Median progression-free survival with cetuximab plus pemetrexed was 2·9 months (95% CI 2·7-3·2) versus 2·8 months (2·5-3·3) with pemetrexed (HR 1·03, 95% CI 0·87-1·21; p=0·76). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events with cetuximab plus pemetrexed were fatigue (33 [11%] of 292 patients), acneiform rash (31 [11%]), dyspnoea (29 [10%]), and decreased neutrophil count (28 [10%]), and with pemetrexed alone were dyspnoea (35 [12%] of 289 patients), decreased neutrophil count (26 [9%]), and fatigue (23 [8%]). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the cetuximab plus pemetrexed group (119 [41%] of 292 patients) experienced at least one serious adverse event than those patients in the pemetrexed group (85 [29%] of 289 patients; p=0·0054). Nine (3·1%) of 292 treated patients in the cetuximab and pemetrexed group died of adverse events compared with five (1·7%) of 289 treated patients in the pemetrexed alone group. The use of cetuximab is not recommended in combination with chemotherapy in patients previously treated with platinum-based therapy. Eli Lilly and Company and ImClone Systems LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company.
    The Lancet Oncology 11/2013; 14(13). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70473-X · 24.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Dasatinib inhibits src family kinases and has anti-angiogenic properties. We conducted a phase I study of dasatinib, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab (CapeOx/bevacizumab), with an expansion cohort in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients were enrolled in a dose escalation cohort to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Using a "3 + 3" design, twelve patients with advanced solid tumors received dasatinib (50 mg twice daily or 70 mg daily), capecitabine (850 mg/m(2) twice daily, days 1-14), oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2) on day 1) and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg on day1), every 3 weeks. Ten patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC were then enrolled in an expansion cohort. Activated src (srcact) expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, using an antibody that selectively recognizes the active conformation of src (clone 28). Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled between June 2009 and May 2011. Two DLTs were observed in the 50 mg bid dasatinib cohort, and one DLT was observed in the 70 mg daily dasatinib cohort. The MTD and RP2D for dasatinib was 70 mg daily. The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (20; 91 %) and diarrhea (18; 82 %). Biomarker analysis of srcact expression demonstrated that the overall response rate (ORR) was 75 % (6/8) for patients with high srcact expression (IHC ≥ 2), compared to 0 % (0/8) for patients with low srcact expression (IHC 0 or 1); (p = 0.007). Conclusions The RP2D of dasatinib is 70 mg daily in combination with CapeOx/bevacizumab. High levels of srcact expression may predict those patients most likely to benefit from dasatinib.
    Investigational New Drugs 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10637-013-0042-9 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 2 trial, the authors evaluated the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor axitinib, bevacizumab, or both in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: Patients with previously untreated mCRC were randomized 1:1:1 to receive continuous axitinib 5 mg twice daily, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or axitinib 5 mg twice daily plus bevacizumab 2 mg/kg every 2 weeks, each in combination with modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-6). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: In all, 126 patients were enrolled from August 2007 to September 2008. The ORR was numerically inferior in the axitinib arm (n = 42) versus the bevacizumab arm (n = 43; 28.6% vs 48.8%; 1-sided P = .97). Progression-free survival (PFS) (11.0 months vs 15.9 months; 1-sided P = .57) and overall survival (OS) (18.1 months vs 21.6 months; 1-sided P = .69) also were numerically inferior in the axitinib arm. Similarly, efficacy endpoints for the axitinib/bevacizumab arm (n = 41) were numerically inferior (ORR, 39%; PFS, 12.5 months; OS, 19.7 months). The patients who received axitinib had fewer treatment cycles compared with other arms. Common all-grade adverse events across all 3 treatment arms were fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea (all ≥49%). Hypertension and headache were more frequent in the patients who received axitinib. Patients in the bevacizumab arm had the longest treatment exposures and the highest rates of peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the addition of continuous axitinib nor the axitinib/bevacizumab combination to FOLFOX-6 improved ORR, PFS, or OS compared with bevacizumab as first-line treatment of mCRC. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 07/2013; 119(14). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28112 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Oncology 06/2013; 24(suppl 4):iv17-iv17. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt201.15 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction/stomach are treated by combination chemotherapy, with minimal improvements in survival. We evaluated adding cetuximab to combination chemotherapy in these patients. METHODS: The primary objective was progression-free survival. Secondary objectives were response rate, time to response, duration of response and safety. Treatment Arm 1: docetaxel+oxaliplatin (DOCOX)=docetaxel 60mg/m(2) plus oxaliplatin 130mg/m(2) on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Arm 2: docetaxel+oxaliplatin+cetuximab (DOCOX+C)=DOCOX with C 400mg/m(2) first dose then 250mg/m(2) weekly. The protocol was amended to allow collection of tissue to correlate responses with KRAS status. FINDINGS: One hundred fifty patients were enrolled (75/arm). DOCOX/DOCOX+C: gastric 44%/41%, gastroesophageal junction 51%/55%, both 5%/4%. Response rate/arm: 26.5%/38.0%. Median progression-free survival: 4.7/5.1months (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-5.6/4.3-5.9); 1year survival: 39.1%/33.0%, median overall survival: 8.5/9.4months; median duration of response: 7.3/5.6months. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events (%) included neutropenia (50%/44%), febrile neutropenia (13%/19%), diarrhoea (12%/17%), fatigue (12%/17%) and leukopenia (7%/14%). Discontinuation was due to progressive disease 39/32 and adverse events 21/34. KRAS was collected on some patients 2years into the study because of new American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) findings. INTERPRETATION: Cetuximab added to DOCOX may improve response rate minimally; there appears to be no improvement in progression-free survival, overall survival or 1-year survival. Cetuximab added to DOCOX did not produce clinically significant outcomes. Toxicities were consistent with the study drugs' known safety profiles. KRAS mutation was infrequent; no conclusions can be drawn from KRAS response data. ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT00517829.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 06/2013; 49(13). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2013.04.022 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Targeted agents presently available for mutant KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are bevacizumab and aflibercept. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of conatumumab (an agonistic monoclonal antibody against human death receptor 5) and ganitumab (a monoclonal antibody against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor) combined with standard FOLFIRI chemotherapy as a second-line treatment in patients with mutant KRAS mCRC.Patients and methodsPatients with mutant KRAS metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum refractory to fluoropyrimidine- and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to receive intravenous FOLFIRI plus conatumumab 10 mg/kg (Arm A), ganitumab 12 mg/kg (Arm B), or placebo (Arm C) Q2W. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).ResultsIn total, 155 patients were randomized. Median PFS in Arms A, B, and C was 6.5 months (HR, 0.69; P = 0.147), 4.5 months (HR, 1.01; P = 0.998), and 4.6 months, respectively; median overall survival was 12.3 months (HR, 0.89; P = 0.650), 12.4 months (HR, 1.27; P = 0.357), and 12.0 months; and objective response rate was 14%, 8%, and 2%. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events in Arms A/B/C included neutropenia (30%/25%/18%) and diarrhea (18%/2%/10%).Conclusions Conatumumab, but not ganitumab, plus FOLFIRI was associated with a trend toward improved PFS. Both combinations had acceptable toxicity.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2013; 24(7). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt057 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was designed to establish the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of etirinotecan pegol. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with refractory solid malignancies were enrolled and assigned to escalating-dose cohorts. Patients received one infusion of etirinotecan pegol weekly × 3 every 4 weeks (w×3q4w), or every 14 days (q14d), or every 21 days (q21d), with MTD as the primary end point using a standard 3+3 design. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were entered onto three dosing schedules (58-245 mg/m2). The MTD was 115 mg/m2 for the w×3q4w schedule and 145 mg/m2 for both the q14d and q21d schedules. Most adverse events related to study drug were gastrointestinal disorders and were more frequent at higher doses of etirinotecan pegol. Late onset diarrhea was observed in some patients, the frequency of which generally correlated with dose density. Cholinergic diarrhea commonly seen with irinotecan treatment didn't occur in patients treated with etirinotecan pegol. Etirinotecan pegol administration resulted in sustained and controlled systemic exposure to SN-38, which had a mean half-life of approximately 50 days. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of etirinotecan pegol are predictable and do not require complex dosing adjustments. Confirmed partial responses were observed in eight patients with breast, colon, lung (small and squamous cell), bladder, cervical, and neuroendocrine cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Etirinotecan pegol demonstrated substantial antitumor activity in patients with various solid tumors and a somewhat different safety profile compared with the irinotecan historical profile. The MTD recommended for phase II clinical trials is 145 mg/m2 q14d or q21d.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2012; 19(1). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1201 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The Avastin® Registry: Investigation of Effectiveness and Safety (ARIES) study is a prospective, community-based observational cohort study that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of first-line treatment patterns, assessing the impact of chemotherapy choice and treatment duration.Methods. The ARIES study enrolled patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving first-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab and followed them longitudinally. The protocol did not specify treatment regimens or assessments. Analyses included all patients who initiated bevacizumab in combination with either first-line oxaliplatin with infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan with infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFIRI). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounding factors.Results. In total, 1,550 patients with first-line mCRC were enrolled (median follow-up, 21 months) and most received FOLFOX-bevacizumab (n = 968) or FOLFIRI-bevacizumab (n = 243) as first-line therapy. The baseline characteristics and median treatment duration were generally similar between subgroups. There were no significant differences in the median PFS (10.3 months vs. 10.2 months) or OS (23.7 months vs. 25.5 months) time between the FOLFOX-bevacizumab and FOLFIRI-bevacizumab subgroups, respectively, by unadjusted analyses. Multivariate analyses showed FOLFIRI-bevacizumab resulted in a similar PFS (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.21) and OS (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.16) outcome as with FOLFOX-bevacizumab. The incidence proportions of bevacizumab-associated adverse events were similar for FOLFOX- and FOLFIRI-based therapies.Conclusions. In first-line mCRC patients, the FOLFOX-bevacizumab and FOLFIRI-bevacizumab regimens were associated with similar treatment patterns and clinical outcomes.
    The Oncologist 09/2012; 17(12). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0190 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background TH-302 is a hypoxia targeted prodrug with a hypoxia-triggered 2-nitroimidazole component designed to release the DNA alkylator, bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM), when reduced in severe hypoxia. A randomized Phase 2B study (NCT01144455) was conducted to assess the benefit of G + T to standard dose G as first-line therapy of PAC.
    Annals of Oncology 09/2012; 23(suppl 9):ix224-ix257. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mds398 · 6.58 Impact Factor