[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) provides a key opportunity for achieving tremendous benefits of utilizing rice straw as cellulosic biomass. Out of total 80 microbial isolates from different ecological niches one bacterial strain, identified as
Bacillus sp. 313SI
, was selected for CMCase production under stationary as well as shaking conditions of growth. During two-stage pretreatment, rice straw was first treated with 0.5 M KOH to remove lignin followed by treatment with 0.1 N H
for removal of hemicellulose. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase activity of 3.08 U/mL was obtained using 1% (w/v) pretreated rice straw with 1% (v/v) inoculum, pH 8.0 at 35°C after 60 h of growth under stationary conditions, while the same was obtained as 4.15 U/mL using 0.75% (w/v) pretreated substrate with 0.4% (v/v) inoculum, pH 8.0 at 30°C, under shaking conditions of growth for 48 h. For maximum titre of CMCase carboxymethyl cellulose was optimized as the best carbon source under both cultural conditions while ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate were optimized as the best nitrogen sources under stationary and shaking conditions, respectively. The present study provides the useful data about the optimized conditions for CMCase production by
Bacillus sp. 313SI
from pretreated rice straw.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A B S T R A C T Amyloglucosidase (α-1, 4 glucan glucohydrolase EC 188.8.131.52) hydrolyses amylaceous polysaccharides, removing successive glucose units in the β configuration from the non-reducing end of the chain. Amyloglucosidase is of considerable commercial importance to grain-alcohol fermentation, food, textile and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize amyloglucosidase Produced by Aspergillus awamori NA21 under Solid State Fermentation (SSF) using Tapioca Powder. The enzyme was purified by sequential ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Thermostability is increased by addition of thermo stabilizers, PEG 6000 and Ethylene glycol at 5 mM. The enzyme apparent molecular weight is determined by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The enzyme was purified approximately 68 fold with 54 percent recovery. The pH and temperature optima were 5.0 and 60°C, respectively. Enzyme was stable at temperature up to 40°C for 18 h and thermostability has increased to 24 h. The enzyme was stable at pH from 4.0 to 6.0. The enzyme was found to have apparent molecular weight of 61 kDa. The Michaelis Menten's constant Km for soluble starch was 3.12 mg/ ml. The V max for soluble starch was 50.54 mg/ ml /min. The enzyme was activated by Ca 2+ but inhibited by Co 2+, Hg 2+, EDTA and Pb 2+. The purified amyloglucosidase is stable in various organic solvents. This is the first report on purification of amyloglucosidase produced by Aspergillus awamori under SSF with tapioca powder as substrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A B S T R A C T Phytate [myo-inositol(1,2,3,4,5,6)hexakisphosphate] have been considered negative in food industry as it is the main storage form of phosphorus (P) in many plants but this phytate-bound P is not available to non – ruminants as they don't have these endogenous enzyme and hence the availability and digestibility of phytate phosphorous is very low in these animals. Phytic acid has antinutrients behavior and has a potential for binding positively charged multivalent cations, proteins and amino acids in foods. Phytase [myo-inositol(1,2,3,4,5,6)hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases], a phytate-specific phosphates is an enzyme that can break down the undigestible phytic acid and thus release digestible phosphorus, calcium & other nutrients. Research in the field of animal nutrition has put forth the idea of supplementing phytase enzyme, exogenously, so as to make available bound nutrients from phytic acid and, thereby helps in food processing and digestion in the human alimentary tract. This review covers the application of phytase in food industry and emphasizes is given on developing new effective phytase with improved properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrazole and pyrazolone motifs are well known for their wide range of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The incorporation of more than one pharmacophore in a single scaffold is a well known approach for the development of more potent drugs. In the present investigation, a series of differently substituted 4-arylidene pyrazole derivatives bearing pyrazole and pyrazolone pharmacophores in a single scaffold was synthesized.
The synthesis of novel 4-arylidene pyrazole compounds is achieved through Knovenagel condensation between 1,3-diaryl-4-formylpyrazoles and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-(4H)-ones in good yields. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity.
A series of 4-arylidene pyrazole derivatives was evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli), as well as two pathogenic fungal strains (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The majority of the compounds displayed excellent antimicrobial profile against the Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus), and some of them are even more potent than the reference drug ciprofloxacin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production of poly β -hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h(-1) L(-1), using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β -hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-(2-Thienyl)-2-arylazo-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diones 4, obtained by the condensation of aryldiazonium salts 2 with 1-(2-thienyl)-4,4,4-trifluoromethyl-1,3-butanedione 3, on treatment with hydroxylamine hydrochloride yielded 3-(2-thienyl)-4-arylazo-5-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-Δ2-isoxazolines 5. Subsequently, dehydration of 5-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-Δ2-isoxazolines 5 to corresponding 3-(2-thienyl)-4-arylazo-5-trifluoromethylisoxazoles 6 was achieved by treating them with acetic anhydride or EtOH–H2SO4. The structure of the compounds was established on the basis of IR, NMR (1H, 13C and 19F), mass spectral studies and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacterial strains such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and in vitro antifungal activity against two pathogenic fungal strains namely, Candida strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity selectively against Gram-positive bacteria and antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study describes the treatment of sugar industry waste water and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of bioplastic by Bacillus subtilis NG05. The B. subtilis NG05 grow at the rate of 0.14 g h−1 L−1 of production media used and accumulate the 50.1 % of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). The phase contrast microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in B. subtilis NG05 which was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance. The polymer was further analysed by differential scanning calorimetry. PHB production yield was achieved up to 4.991 g L−1 with Sugar industry waste water as sole nutrient source. Thus the process provided dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB and waste management.
Journal of Polymers and the Environment 06/2012; 21(2). DOI:10.1007/s10924-012-0533-3 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective: Phytic acid, which is the main constituent of animal diet, is not digested by monogastric animals and hence, create problem in the availability of phosphorus in their diet. It also causes environmental pollution by extra supplemented phosphorus in animal's diet. Hence, acido-thermophilic phytase producer bacterial strain has been isolated in this study for its potential use in poultry feedings. Material and methods: Samples for the screening of phytase producers were collected from different habitats. 1g of soil was inoculated in culture broth containing 2% (w/w) phytate organic substrate. The qualitative screening for phytase production was performed by agar plate containing sodium phytate followed by quantitative screening using shaking flask method. Phytase activity was determined and the selected isolate was biochemically characterized using the standard biochemical techniques. Results: AR58 bacterial isolate, isolated from poultry field soil, showing significant extracellular phytase production was selected. After qualitative and quantitative screening, AR58 showed a hydrolytic zone of 42 mm diameter and 395 IU/ml phytase activity. AR58 was identified as Klebsiella sp. The enzyme had maximum activity at 55°C and pH range from 3.5 to 5.5. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that acido-thermophilic phytase from Klebsiella sp. could have great potential for feed industries. Significance and impact of the study: In the present study, phytase accumulation by the strain of Klebsiella sp. has significant values. Hence, this enzyme could find application in the animal feed industry for improving the nutritional status of feed as well as combating environmental pollution.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 01/2012; 4(4). · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amount of plastic waste increases every year and exact time for its degradation is unknown. Out
of a total of 300 isolated strains one strain was selected for PHB production in different conditions like carbon source, nitrogen source and incubation temperature and time. When PHB production conditions were optimized with different carbon and nitrogen sources, the highest PHB production was observed with raffinose and peptone. Regarding incubation time and temperature and pH, optimum PHB production conditions were 72h, 30°C and 7.0, respectively. The isolate was characterised biochemically as Bacillus species. The present study provide the useful data about the optimized conditions for PHB production by Bacillus species that can be utilized for industrial production of PHB, a fast emerging alternative of non biodegradable plastics.