Andrew J. P. White

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (754)3283.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A series of multimetallic copper(II) complexes have been re-investigated for methane oxidation with H2O2. The preparation and properties of trinuclear copper(II) complexes of the form [Cu3(triazole)n(OH2)12-n] (n = 8,10) are reported. While these complexes are trimeric in the solid-state, 1H NMR studies suggest that facile ligand dissociation occurs in solution. The oxidation of cyclohexane with H2O2 catalyzed by [Cu3(triazole)n(OH2)12-n] (n = 8, 10) is compared against a literature known oxo-centered tetrameric cluster (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 4345) and these catalysts display moderate activities. The series have also been investigated in methane oxidation at 30 bar and 40 oC. Analytical techniques including a solvent suppression 1H NMR method have been applied to quantify the liquid- and gas-phase products. The multi-metallic copper(II) complexes and copper(II) nitrate control samples produce only methanol and CO2. While TONs for methanol production range from 1.4-4.6 in all cases approximately 50 times the amount of CO2 is produced relative to methanol. We conclude that selectivity is a determining factor in methane oxidation under these conditions and should be considered in future studies.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5CY00462D
  • Mark Richard Crimmin, Andrew J P White, Adi E Nako
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    ABSTRACT: A series of bis(σ-B–H) complexes of copper(I) have been prepared by displacement of arene solvent from a β-diketiminate copper(I) complex by four-coordinate boranes, H3B–L (L = NMe3, lutidine). In the presence of the same copper arene complex, the secondary amine-borane H3B–NMe2H undergoes dehydrogenation. We provide evidence for formation of a heterogenous catalyst from decomposition of the solution species.
    Dalton Transactions 06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5DT02144H · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigation of atropisomeric [(diphosphine)Au2Cl2] complexes in the title reaction reveals an over-riding electronic effect, e.g. more-electron-rich phosphines promote greater enantioselectivity.
    ChemInform 06/2015; 46(25). DOI:10.1002/chin.201525040
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    Christian B Nielsen, Andrew J P White, Iain McCulloch
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    ABSTRACT: The 4,7-dithieno-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) moiety and its fluorinated counterpart are important pi-conjugated building blocks in the field of organic electronics. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation into fundamental properties relating to these two molecular entities and discuss the potential impact on extended π-conjugated materials and their electronic properties. While the fluorinated derivative, in the solid state, packs with a smaller co-facial overlap than DTBT, we report experimental evidence for stronger optical absorption as well as stronger intra- and intermolecular contacts upon fluorination.
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry 04/2015; 80(10). DOI:10.1021/acs.joc.5b00430 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HCl salt of the aminodiphosphine ligand HN(CH2CH2PPh2)2 reacts with [M(CO)4(pip)2] (M = Mo, W; pip = piperidine) to yield [M{κ(2)-HN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(CO)4]. The molybdenum analogue readily loses a carbonyl ligand to form [Mo{κ(3)-HN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(CO)3], which was structurally characterized. The same ligand backbone is used to form the new bifunctional ligand, KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2, which reacts with nickel and cobalt precursors to yield [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}2] and [Co{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}3]. Addition of [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) to [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}2] leads to formation of the pentametallic complex, [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2AuCl)2}2]. In contrast, addition of [PdCl2(py)2] (py = pyridine) to [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}2] does not lead to a trimetallic complex but instead yields the transmetalated cyclic compound [Pd{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}]2, which was structurally characterized. The same product is obtained directly from [PdCl2(py)2] and KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2. In contrast, the same reaction with [PtCl2(NCPh)2] yields the oligomer, [Pt{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}]n. Reaction of KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2 with cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2] provides [Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(dppm)2](+), which reacts with [AuCl(tht)] to yield [Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2AuCl)2}(dppm)2](+). Addition of [M(CO)4(pip)2] (M = Mo, W) to the same precursor leads to formation of the bimetallic compounds [(dppm)2Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}M(CO)4](+), while treatment with [ReCl(CO)5] yields [(dppm)2Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}ReCl(CO)3](+). Reaction of KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2 with [Os(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] (BTD = 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) provides [Os(CH═CHC6H4Me-4){S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(CO)(PPh3)2], but reaction with the analogous ruthenium precursor fails to yield a clean product.
    Inorganic Chemistry 04/2015; 54(9). DOI:10.1021/ic5028527 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electron-deficient and sterically bulky trialkylborane derivative tris[bis(pentafluorophenyl)methyl]borane [1, B(CH(C6F5)2)3], has been synthesised and comprehensively characterised; detailed 1H and 19F NMR studies reveal two dynamic bond rotational processes in the solution phase. Despite conventional probes (Gutmann-Beckett and Childs methods) implying that the compound has a very limited Lewis acidity, it was used to generate frustrated Lewis pairs capable of heterolytically activating H2 in ethereal solutions, which suggests that the hydridophilicity of 1 is comparable to the potent Lewis acid B(C6F5)3.
    Dalton Transactions 03/2015; 44(19). DOI:10.1039/C5DT00821B · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of copper(I) alkylamide complexes have been synthesised; copper(I) dicyclohexylamide (1), copper(I) 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (2), copper(I) pyrrolidide (3), copper(I) piperidide (4), and copper(I) benzylamide (5). Their solid-state structures and structures in [D6 ]benzene solution are characterised, with the aggregation state in solution determined by a combination of DOSY NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Complexes 1, 2 and 4 are shown to exist as tetramers in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. In [D6 ]benzene solution, complexes 1, 2 and 5 were found by using (1) H DOSY NMR to exist in rapid equilibrium between aggregates with average aggregation numbers of 2.5, 2.4 and 3.3, respectively, at 0.05 M concentration. Conversely, distinct trimeric, tetrameric and pentameric forms of 3 and 4 were distinguishable by one-dimensional (1) H and (1) H DOSY NMR spectroscopy. Complexes 3-5 are found to react stoichiometrically with iodobenzene, in the presence or absence of 1,10-phenanthroline as an ancillary ligand, to give arylamine products indicative of their role as potential intermediates in the modified Ullmann reaction. The role of phenanthroline has also been explored both in the stoichiometric reaction and in the catalytic Ullmann protocol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 03/2015; 21(19). DOI:10.1002/chem.201405699 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of pre- or in situ-formed ruthenium complexes were assessed for the stepwise catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) via γ-valerolactone (γVL) and 1,4-pentanediol (1,4-PDO). Two different catalytic systems based on the branched triphosphine ligands Triphos (CH3C(CH2PPh2)3) and N-triphos (N(CH2PPh2)3) were investigated featuring either a central CH3C moiety or nitrogen atom. The most active catalyst for the conversion of LA to 1,4-PDO was the pre-formed ruthenium species [RuH2(PPh3){N(CH2PPh2)3}-κ3P] (5), which gave near quantitative conversion. A series of acidic additives were assessed in order to promote the final transformation of 1,4-PDO to 2-MTHF for complex 5, however, such additives were found to be detrimental and resulted in much lower conversion of LA to 1,4-PDO. Mechanistic investigations were carried out to explain the observed catalytic trends, and importantly showed that PPh3 dissociation from 5 resulted in its improved catalytic reactivity, while the presence of acidic additives removes catalytically necessary hydride ligands. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were grown for two complexes: [Ru(NCMe)3{N(CH2PPh2)3}-κ3P] (12) and [Ru2(μ-Cl)3{N(CH2PPh2)3}2-κ3P][BPh4] (14).
    ACS Catalysis 03/2015; DOI:10.1021/cs502025t · 7.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The preparation and characterization of a series of 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands and their complexes with Ti(iv), Al(iii) and Zn(ii) centres is presented. The complexes are characterized using NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and, in some cases, by single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The complexes are compared as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of racemic-lactide; all the complexes show moderate/good rates and high levels of polymerization control. In the case of the titanium or aluminium complexes, moderate iso-selectivity is observed (Pi = 0.75), whereas in the case of the zinc complexes, moderate hetero-selectivity is observed (Ps = 0.70).
    Dalton Transactions 03/2015; DOI:10.1039/c5dt00192g · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The azobenzene unit used as a photochemically and thermally switchable linker in the assembly of a bis-calix[4]pyrrole receptor provides a means to modulate the binding of bis-carboxylates of significant biological importance in cancer research. Conversely, the complexation of different bis-anionic guests has significant kinetic effects on both the photochemical and thermal trans/cis isomerization of the azobenzene unit. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 02/2015; 21(14). DOI:10.1002/chem.201406183 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.
    Inorganic Chemistry 02/2015; DOI:10.1021/ic5027015 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reactions of 2-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylideneamino)-6-ethoxy-4-phenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (14) with a range of primary and secondary amines are investigated. Treatment with n-BuNH2 and BnNH2 gave 1,3-di-n-butyl- and 1,3-dibenzyl-2-(3,5-dicyano-6-ethoxy-4-phenylpyrid-2-yl)guanidines 15a (32%) and 15b (82%), respective-ly. While treatment with Et2NH, n-Pr2NH or Bn2NH gave the analogous 4-dialkyl-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines 16c-e in high yields. Treatment of the dithiazole 14 with pyrrolidine, piperidine or morpholine gave the analogous 4-dialkylaminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines 16f-h, the 2-aminopyridine 13 and 2-(diamino-1-ylmethyleneamino)-6-ethoxy-4-phenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 15f-h. The 4-dialkylamino-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines 16f-h are converted to the 2-(dialkylamino-1-ylmethyleneamino)-6-ethoxy-4-phenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 15f-h upon further reaction with excess dialkylamines. The structure and origins of the two side products 17 and 18 is also discussed. Tentative mechanisms for these transformations are proposed.
    Tetrahedron 02/2015; 71(12):1799-1807. DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2015.02.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aza-crown ether compounds 1-aza-15-crown-5 and 1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 react with sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide to provide the dithiocarbamates [15]aneO4-NCS2Na and NaS2CN-[18]aneO4-NCS2Na in good yield. The complexes [MRCl(CO)(L)(PPh3)2] (M = Ru, R = H, CH═CHC6H4Me-4, CH═CHBut, CH═CH-pyrenyl-1, C(C≡CPh)═CHPh; M = Os, R = H, CH═CH-pyrenyl-1; L = 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole or no ligand) undergo reaction with [15]aneO4-NCS2Na and NaS2CN-[18]aneO4-NCS2Na to yield [MR(S2CN-[15]aneO4)(CO)(PPh3)2] and [{MR(CO)(PPh3)2}2(S2CN-[18]aneO4-NCS2)], respectively. In a similar manner, cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2] provides [Ru(S2CN-[15]aneO4)(dppm)2]+ and [{Ru(dppm)2}2(S2CN-[18]aneO4-NCS2)]2+, respectively. Reaction of [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)(S2CN-[15]aneO4)(CO)(PPh3)2] with excess HC≡CBut leads to the formation of the alkynyl complex [Ru(C≡CBut)(S2CN-[15]aneO4)(CO)(PPh3)2]. Treatment of [OsHCl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] with [HC≡C-bpyReCl(CO)3] results in the bimetallic compound [Os{CH═CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2]. This reacts with [15]aneO4-NCS2Na and NaS2CN-[18]aneO4-NCS2Na to yield [Os{CH═CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}(S2CN-[15]aneO4)(CO)(PPh3)2] and [{Os{CH═CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}(CO)(PPh3)2}2(S2CN-[18]aneO4-NCS2)], respectively. NMR studies provide information on the selectivity of binding of Li and Na ions. The structures of [RuR(S2CN-[15]aneO4)(CO)(PPh3)2] (R = H, CH═CHC6H4Me-4, CH═CH-pyrenyl-1) are also reported.
    Organometallics 01/2015; 34(2):150113103757008. DOI:10.1021/om5011269 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray crystal structures of two [(diphosphine)Au2 Cl2 ] complexes (in which diphosphine=P-Phos and xylyl-P-Phos; P-Phos=[2,2',6,6'-Tetramethoxy-4,4'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-3,3'-bipyridine]) were determined and compared to the reported structures of similar atropisomeric gold complexes. Correlations between the Au⋅⋅⋅Au distances and torsional angles for the biaryl series of ligands (MeOBIPHEP, SEGPhos, and P-Phos; BIPHEP=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-biphenyl, SEGPhos=[(4,4'-bi-1,3-benzodioxole)-5,5'-diyl]bis[diphenylphosphine]) can be made; these measurements appear to be very dependent upon the phosphorous substituent. Conversely, the same effect was not observed for ligands based on the binaphthyl (BINAP) series. The catalytic activity of these complexes was subsequently assessed in the enantioselective cycloisomerisation of 1,6-enynes and revealed an over-riding electronic effect: more-electron-rich phosphines promote greater enantioselectivity. The possibility of silver acting as a (co-)catalyst was ruled out in these reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Chemistry 12/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1002/chem.201404496 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new photoactive polymer comprising benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b':5,6-d']trithiophene and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide is reported. The synthetic design allows for alkyl chains to be introduced on both electron-rich and electron-deficient components, which in turn allows for rapid optimization of the alkyl chain substitution pattern. Consequently, the optimized polymer shows a maximum efficiency of 8.3% in organic photovoltaic devices processed in commercially viable fashion without solvent additives, annealing, or device engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Advanced Materials 12/2014; 27(5). DOI:10.1002/adma.201404858 · 15.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immobilisation of electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction onto light harvesting semiconductors is proposed to be an important step towards developing more efficient CO2 reduction photoelectrodes. Here, we report a low cost nickel cyclam complex covalently anchored to a metal oxide surface. Using transient spectroscopy we validate the role of surface immobilisation on enhancing the rate of photoelectron transfer. Furthermore [Ni(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6-carboxylic acid)]2+ (2) is shown to be a very active electrocatalyst in solution
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11/2014; 17(3). DOI:10.1039/C4CP04871G · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of mono- and bi-metallic metal complexes (with Cu(II), Pt(II) and Zn(II)) with substituted polypyridyl ligands have been prepared and their binding affinities towards quadruplex (c-Myc and human telomeric) and duplex DNA (ds26 and calf thymus) determined using fluorescent indicator displacement (FID) assays and UV/vis spectroscopic titrations. These studies have shown that the number of aromatic rings and number/position of cyclic amine substituents on the ligands, play an important role in defining the DNA binding abilities of the resulting metal complexes. We also show that bi-metallic complexes prepared using a novel terpyridine-cyclen ligand have higher affinity towards G-quadruplex DNA as compared to their mono-metallic counterparts. Cytotoxicity assays were carried out for all the new complexes against an osteosarcoma cancer cell line (U2OS) as well as a normal fibroblast cell line (GM05757). Several of these compounds displayed cytotoxicity similar to that of cisplatin.
    Dalton Transactions 10/2014; 44(8). DOI:10.1039/c4dt02910k · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) dimetallic complexes were prepared and their affinities towards arsenate investigated. Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) were carried out to establish the complexes with best affinities towards arsenate. A di-zinc complex (3) was selected and its arsenate-binding abilities investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The X-ray crystal structure of this metallo-receptor bound to arsenate is also reported, which allowed us to establish the binding mode between 3 and this oxyanion. Immobilising 3 onto HypoGel resin yielded a novel adsorbent (Zn–HypoGel) with high affinity for arsenate. Adsorption of arsenate from competitive solutions and natural groundwater was greater than that of the commercially used iron oxide Bayoxide E33. Zn–HypoGel could be efficiently and simply regenerated by washing with sodium acetate solution.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 10/2014; 20(51). DOI:10.1002/chem.201404723 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis the novel acceptor, 4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-5,6-dicyano-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTDCNBT) and compare its properties to that of 4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTDFBT). Co-polymers of both monomers with the donor monomers indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienogermole (DTG) were prepared and investigated. The DTDCNBT unit was found to be a much stronger electron acceptor than DTDFBT. The electron affinity of the cyanated polymers was increased by up to ~0.4 eV, resulting in red-shifted absorptions and reduced optical band gaps. In field effect transistors it was found that replacing the fluorine substituents of the polymers with cyano groups changed the charge transport from unipolar P-type to unipolar N-type.
    10/2014; 3(2). DOI:10.1039/C4TC02008A
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    ABSTRACT: The new, unsymmetrical dithiocarbamate ligands, KS2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me and KS2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me, are formed from the respective amines on reaction with KOH and carbon disulfide. The homoleptic complexes [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}2] and [M{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}2] (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) are formed on reaction with suitable metal precursors. Conversion between the two pendant functionalities was confirmed by hydrogenation of [Ni{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}2] to yield [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}2]. The monodithiocarbamate compounds of group 8, 10, and 11 metals, [Ru{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(dppm)2](+), [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4){S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(CO)(PPh3)2], [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(dppp)](+), and [Au{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(PPh3)] were formed successfully. Using KS2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me, the complex [Ru{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}(dppm)2](+) was obtained from cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2]. One palladium example, [Pd{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}(PPh3)2](+), was also isolated in low yield. However, under the typical conditions employed, a rearrangement reaction prevented isolation of further group 10 propargyl-dithiocarbamate products. Over the extended reaction time required, Me(HC≡CCH2)NCS2(-) was found to undergo a remarkable, atom-efficient cyclization to form the thiazolidine-2-thione, H2C═CCH2N(Me)C(═S)S, in high yield, with MeC═CHN(Me)C(═S)S as the minor product. The reactivity of the pendant triple bonds in [Ni{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}2] was probed in the reaction with [RuH(CO)(S2P(OEt)2)(PPh3)2] to form the trimetallic example [Ni{S2CN(Me)CH2CH═CHRu(CO)(S2P(OEt)2)(PPh3)2}2], while the copper(I) catalyzed reaction with benzylazide yielded the triazole product, [Ni{S2CN(Me)CH2(C2HN3)Bz}2]. KS2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me was also used to prepare the gold nanoparticles, Au@S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me. Structural studies are reported for [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4){S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(CO)(PPh3)2] and [Ru{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}(dppm)2]PF6.
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2014; 53(21). DOI:10.1021/ic502015c · 4.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
3,283.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2015
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Chemistry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2012
    • University College London
      • Department of Chemistry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
  • 2010
    • University of Sunderland
      Sunderland, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2010
    • Universidad de Extremadura
      • Faculty of Veterinary
      Ara Pacis Augustalis, Extremadura, Spain
    • Universidad de Burgos
      Burgos, Castille and León, Spain
    • N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1996–2010
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Chemistry
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University of Oxford
      • Chemical Research Laboratory
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Organic Chemistry
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Chemistry
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Catania
      Catania, Sicily, Italy
  • 2000–2006
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2004
    • Università degli Studi di Siena
      Siena, Tuscany, Italy
    • Ramapo College
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Tulane University
      • Department of Chemistry
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 1997–2002
    • Imperial Valley College
      South Kensington, Maryland, United States
    • Newcastle University
      • School of Chemistry
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2000
    • University of Bologna
      • "Giacomo Ciamician" Department of Chemistry CHIM
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1998
    • Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
    • University of Ljubljana
      • Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 1996–1998
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Chemistry
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • Colorado State University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States