Angela Vincent

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (411)2554.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency and range of paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PNDs) and neuronal antibodies in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Two hundred sixty-four consecutive patients with biopsy-proven SCLC were recruited at the time of tumor diagnosis. All patients underwent full neurologic examination. Serum samples were taken prior to chemotherapy and analyzed for 15 neuronal antibodies. Thirty-eight healthy controls were analyzed in parallel. PNDs were quite prevalent (n = 24, 9.4%), most frequently Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (3.8%), sensory neuronopathy (1.9%), and limbic encephalitis (1.5%). Eighty-seven percent of all patients with PNDs had antibodies to SOX2 (62.5%), HuD (41.7%), or P/Q VGCC (50%), irrespective of their syndrome. Other neuronal antibodies were found at lower frequencies (GABAb receptor [12.5%] and N-type VGCC [20.8%]) or very rarely (GAD65, amphiphysin, Ri, CRMP5, Ma2, Yo, VGKC complex, CASPR2, LGI1, and NMDA receptor [all <5%]). The spectrum of PNDs is broader and the frequency is higher than previously appreciated, and selected antibody tests (SOX2, HuD, VGCC) can help determine the presence of an SCLC. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001721 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To optimize sensitivity and disease specificity of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody assay. Consecutive sera (n = 1,109) sent for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody testing were screened for MOG antibodies (Abs) by cell-based assays using either full-length human MOG (FL-MOG) or the short-length form (SL-MOG). The Abs were initially detected by Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) and subsequently by Alexa Fluor mouse antibodies to human IgG1. When tested at 1:20 dilution, 40/1,109 sera were positive for AQP4-Abs, 21 for SL-MOG, and 180 for FL-MOG. Only one of the 40 AQP4-Ab-positive sera was positive for SL-MOG-Abs, but 10 (25%) were positive for FL-MOG-Abs (p = 0.0069). Of equal concern, 48% (42/88) of sera from controls (patients with epilepsy) were positive by FL-MOG assay. However, using an IgG1-specific secondary antibody, only 65/1,109 (5.8%) sera were positive on FL-MOG, and AQP4-Ab- positive and control sera were negative. IgM reactivity accounted for the remaining anti-human IgG (H + L) positivity toward FL-MOG. The clinical diagnoses were obtained in 33 FL-MOG-positive patients, blinded to the antibody data. IgG1-Abs to FL-MOG were associated with optic neuritis (n = 11), AQP4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 4), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 1). All 7 patients with probable multiple sclerosis (MS) were MOG-IgG1 negative. The limited disease specificity of FL-MOG-Abs identified using Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) is due in part to detection of IgM-Abs. Use of the FL-MOG and restricting to IgG1-Abs substantially improves specificity for non-MS demyelinating diseases. This study provides Class II evidence that the presence of serum IgG1- MOG-Abs in AQP4-Ab-negative patients distinguishes non-MS CNS demyelinating disorders from MS (sensitivity 24%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-45%; specificity 100%, 95% CI 88%-100%).
    06/2015; 2(3):e89. DOI:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000089
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    06/2015; 2(3):e88. DOI:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000088
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological disorders affecting between 0.5% and 1% of the population, but in many the aetiology is unknown. A recent population-based study reported a fivefold increase in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).1 Autoantibodies that recognise neuronal proteins have been identified in a number of immunotherapy-responsive seizure-related neurological disorders.2 High-titre autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an intracellular enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been detected in neurological diseases including epilepsy although these patients show a less clear response to immunotherapies.3 ,4 GAD is also expressed by pancreatic β cells and is a major autoantigen in T1DM. Antibodies to GAD (GAD Abs) are present in up to 80% of patients with newly diagnosed T1DM, although not considered causative. There have been studies examining the incidence of GAD Abs in patients with epilepsy;5 however, we compare GAD and other Abs in patients with T1DM, with and without epilepsy.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2015-310512 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Sarosh R Irani, Angela Vincent
    05/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.0579
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-based assays (CBAs) were shown to improve detection of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Herein, we asked whether these assays were able to help determine the diagnosis in patients studied in routine clinical practice. To determine the diagnostic usefulness of CBAs in the diagnosis of MG and to compare the clinical features of patients with antibodies only to clustered AChRs with those of patients with seronegative MG (SNMG). All patients with clinical suspicion of MG who were seen within the Division of Clinical Neurology at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, England, between November 1, 2009, and November 30, 2013. Their serum antibodies and clinical features were studied. Radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and CBA were used to test for standard AChR antibodies and antibodies to clustered AChRs in 138 patients. All available samples from patients with SNMG were retrospectively tested for lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) antibodies. Demographic, clinical, neurophysiological, and laboratory data. In total, 138 patients were tested for antibodies to clustered AChRs, and 42 had a final diagnosis of MG. The clustered AChR CBA detected antibodies in 38.1% (16 of 42) of RIPA-negative patients with MG with 100% specificity. All patients with SNMG who were tested for LRP4 antibodies (21 of 26) were negative by CBA. Compared with patients with SNMG, patients with antibodies only to clustered AChRs had frequent prepubertal onset (62.5% [median age, 6 years; age range, 1-52 years] vs 11.5% [median age, 38 years; age range, 2-72 years], P ≤ .05), high prevalence of ocular MG (62.5% vs 42.3%), milder disease severity with less bulbar involvement (25.0% vs 46.2%), and absence of respiratory symptoms (0% vs 23.1%). Response to treatment and prognosis was good, with a reduced need for thymectomy (6.3% vs 19.2%) and a high proportion of patients going into remission (50.0% vs 8.3%, P ≤ .05). These observations also apply to the classic AChR MG phenotype seen in large series. Cell-based assay is a useful procedure in the routine diagnosis of RIPA-negative MG, particularly in children. Patients with antibodies only to clustered AChRs appear to be younger and have milder disease than other patients with MG. These observations will have implications in planning treatment.
    04/2015; 72(6). DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.0203
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric encephalitis has a wide range of etiologies, clinical presentations, and outcomes. This study seeks to classify and characterize infectious, immune-mediated/autoantibody-associated and unknown forms of encephalitis, including relative frequencies, clinical and radiologic phenotypes, and long-term outcome. By using consensus definitions and a retrospective single-center cohort of 164 Australian children, we performed clinical and radiologic phenotyping blinded to etiology and outcomes, and we tested archived acute sera for autoantibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, voltage-gated potassium channel complex, and other neuronal antigens. Through telephone interviews, we defined outcomes by using the Liverpool Outcome Score (for encephalitis). An infectious encephalitis occurred in 30%, infection-associated encephalopathy in 8%, immune-mediated/autoantibody-associated encephalitis in 34%, and unknown encephalitis in 28%. In descending order of frequency, the larger subgroups were acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (21%), enterovirus (12%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (7%), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (6%), herpes simplex virus (5%), and voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody (4%). Movement disorders, psychiatric symptoms, agitation, speech dysfunction, cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, MRI limbic encephalitis, and clinical relapse were more common in patients with autoantibodies. An abnormal outcome occurred in 49% of patients after a median follow-up of 5.8 years. Herpes simplex virus and unknown forms had the worst outcomes. According to our multivariate analysis, an abnormal outcome was more common in patients with status epilepticus, magnetic resonance diffusion restriction, and ICU admission. We have defined clinical and radiologic phenotypes of infectious and immune-mediated/autoantibody-associated encephalitis. In this resource-rich cohort, immune-mediated/autoantibody-associated etiologies are common, and the recognition and treatment of these entities should be a clinical priority. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2015; 135(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2702 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing demand on diagnostic assays that are sensitive and specific for pathogenic antibodies, and the interest in identifying new antigens, prompted the development of cell-based assays for the detection of autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune disorders. Cell-based assays were initially used to show that clustering the AChR improved the positivity in myasthenia gravis, and similar assays have now been applied to detection of antibodies to neuromuscular junction candidate proteins such as LRP4 and agrin. In addition cell-based assays have been used in the routine detection of antibodies to proteins expressed on the surface of neurons (NMDAR, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR, GABA-A/B, GlyR, and DPPX) and glia (AQP4, MOG). Here, we summarize the findings in myasthenia and discuss the advantages, disadvantages and controversial issues of using cell-based assays in the detection of these antibodies, and their relevance to the testing of preclinical models of disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Neurology 03/2015; 270. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.01.011 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies against the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) are the most common cause of myasthenia gravis (MG). Passive transfer of AChR antibodies from MG patients into animals reproduces key features of human disease, including antigenic modulation of the AChR, complement-mediated damage of the neuromuscular junction, and muscle weakness. Similarly, AChR antibodies generated by active immunization in experimental autoimmune MG models can subsequently be passively transferred to other animals and induce weakness. The passive transfer model is useful to test therapeutic strategies aimed at the effector mechanism of the autoantibodies. Here we summarize published and unpublished experience using the AChR passive transfer MG model in mice, rats and rhesus monkeys, and give recommendations for the design of preclinical studies in order to facilitate translation of positive and negative results to improve MG therapies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Neurology 03/2015; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.02.025 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To optimize sensitivity and disease specificity of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
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    ABSTRACT: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS with severe involvement of the optic nerve and spinal cord. Highly specific serum IgG autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) that react with aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most abundant CNS water channel protein, are found in patients with NMO. However, in vivo evidence combining the results of AQP4 antibody serum levels and brain pathology is lacking. We report a patient with NMO whose AQP4 antibody levels decreased simultaneously with clinical deterioration caused by the development of a tumor-like brain lesion. In the seminecrotic biopsied brain lesion, there was activated complement complex, whereas only very scattered immunoreactivity to AQP4 protein was detectable. The decrease in serum AQP4 antibody levels and the loss of AQP4 in the tumor-like lesion could represent a "serum antibody-consuming effect" during lesion formation.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 02/2015; 74(3). DOI:10.1097/NEN.0000000000000173 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transient neonatal myasthenia gravis (TNMG) affects a proportion of infants born to mothers with myasthenia gravis (MG). Symptoms usually resolve completely within the first few months of life, but persistent myopathic features have been reported in a few isolated cases. Here we report 8 patients from 4 families born to mothers with clinically manifest MG or mothers who were asymptomatic but had elevated acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody levels. Clinical features in affected infants ranged from a mild predominantly facial and bulbar myopathy to arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Additional clinical findings included hearing impairment, pyloric stenosis, and mild CNS involvement. In all cases, antibodies against the AChR were markedly elevated, although not always specific for the fetal AChR γ subunit. There was a correlation between maternal symptoms; the timing, intensity, and frequency of maternal treatment; and neonatal outcome. These findings suggest that persistent myopathic features following TNMG may be more common than currently recognized. Fetal AChR inactivation syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants presenting with unexplained myopathic features, in particular marked dysarthria and velopharyngeal incompetence. Correct diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion if the mother is asymptomatic but is crucial considering the high recurrence risk for future pregnancies and the potentially treatable nature of this condition. Infants with a history of TNMG should be followed up for subtle myopathic signs and associated complications.
    02/2015; 2(1):e57. DOI:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000057
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    ABSTRACT: Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a component of the voltage-gated potassium channel complex. IgG antibodies against LGI1 are associated with immunotherapy-responsive encephalitis and epilepsies. LGI1-antibody concentrations are 10-100 times greater in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Oligoclonal IgG bands are rarely found in patients with LGI1-antibody encephalitis or epilepsy. These observations raise questions about the sources of the B cells that result in production of LGI1 antibodies and how the IgGs reach the brain. We aimed to investigate the migration and expansions of peripheral and central B cells to the production of LGI1-specific IgG.
    The Lancet 02/2015; 385:S46. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60361-0 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR-Ab) encephalitis is a well-recognised clinico-immunological syndrome that presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms cognitive decline, movement disorder and seizures. This study reports the clinical features, management and neurological outcomes of paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease in the UK. A prospective surveillance study. Children with NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological diseases were voluntarily reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BPNSU) from November 2010 to December 2011. Initial and follow-up questionnaires were sent out to physicians. Thirty-one children fulfilled the criteria for the study. Eight presented during the study period giving an incidence of 0.85 per million children per year (95% CI 0.64 to 1.06); 23 cases were historical. Behavioural change and neuropsychiatric features were present in 90% of patients, and seizures and movement disorders both in 67%. Typical NMDAR-Ab encephalitis was reported in 24 children and partial phenotype without encephalopathy in seven, including predominantly psychiatric (four) and movement disorder (three). All patients received steroids, 22 (71%) received intravenous immunoglobulin, 9 (29%) received plasma exchange,and 10 (32%) received second-line immunotherapy. Of the 23 patients who were diagnosed early, 18 (78%) made a full recovery compared with only 1 of 8 (13%) of the late diagnosed patients (p=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Seven patients relapsed, with four needing additional second-line immunotherapy. Paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease appears to be similar to adult NMDAR-Ab encephalitis, but some presented with a partial phenotype. Early treatment was associated with a quick and often full recovery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 01/2015; 100(6). DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306795 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025), and showed no defined subunit specificity. Incubation of primary hippocampal neurons with GABAAR IgG1 sera reduced surface GABAAR membrane expression. The clinical features of 15 patients (GABAAR α1 n = 6, γ2 n = 5, undefined n = 4) included seizures (47%), memory impairment (47%), hallucinations (33%), or anxiety (20%). Most patients had not been given immunotherapies, but one with new-onset treatment-resistant catatonia made substantial improvement after plasma exchange. The GABAAR α1 and γ2 are new targets for antibodies in autoimmune neurologic disease. The full spectrum of clinical features, treatment responses, correlation with antibody specificity, and in particular the role of the IgM antibodies will need to be assessed in future studies. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 01/2015; 84(12). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001326 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) were predictive of a demyelination phenotype in children presenting with acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). Sixty-five children with a first episode of ADS (12 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 24 optic neuritis, 18 transverse myelitis, 11 other clinically isolated syndrome) were identified from 2 national demyelination programs in the United Kingdom and France. Acute serum samples were tested for MOG-Abs by cell-based assay. Antibodies were used to predict diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) at 1 year. Twenty-three of 65 (35%) children had MOG-Abs. Antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients were not clinically different at presentation, but identification of MOG-Abs predicted a non-MS course at 1-year follow-up: only 2/23 (9%) MOG-Ab-positive patients were diagnosed with MS compared to 16/42 (38%) MOG-Ab-negative patients (p = 0.019, Fisher exact test). Antibody positivity at outset was a useful predictor for a non-MS disease course, with a positive predictive value of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72-99), negative predictive value of 38% (95% CI 24-54), positive likelihood ratio of 4.02 (CI 1.0-15.4), and odds ratio of 6.5 (CI 1.3-31.3). MOG-Abs are found at presentation in 35% of patients with childhood ADS, across a range of demyelinating disorders. Antibody positivity can be useful in predicting a non-MS disease course at onset.
    01/2015; 2(2):e81-e81. DOI:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000081
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) decreases action potential-evoked synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and whether the effect is mediated by P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). IgG was obtained from 4 patients with LEMS (3 males, 1 female), including 2 patients with lung malignancy. Antibodies against P/Q-type VGCCs were detected in all 4 patients, and against N-type VGCCs in 2. We incubated neuronal cultures with LEMS IgG and determined the size of the total recycling pool of synaptic vesicles and the rate of action potential-evoked exocytosis using fluorescence imaging of the amphiphilic dye SynaptoRed C1. Pooled IgG from healthy volunteers was used as a control. We repeated the experiments on synapses lacking P/Q-type calcium channels from a Cacna1a knockout mouse to determine whether these channels account for the pathogenic effect of LEMS IgG. LEMS IgG had no effect on the total recycling pool size but significantly reduced the rate of action potential-evoked synaptic exocytosis in wild-type neurons when compared with neurons treated with control IgG. In contrast, LEMS IgG had no effect on the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons lacking P/Q-type channels. These data provide direct evidence that LEMS IgG inhibits neurotransmitter release by acting on P/Q-type VGCCs. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 01/2015; 84(6). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001225 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) autoantibodies are the hallmark of a form of myasthenia gravis (MG) that can challenge the neurologist and the experimentalist. The clinical disease can be difficult to treat effectively. MuSK autoantibodies affect the neuromuscular junction in several ways. When added to muscle cells in culture, MuSK antibodies disperse acetylcholine receptor clusters. Experimental animals actively immunized with MuSK develop MuSK autoantibodies and muscle weakness. Weakness is associated with reduced postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor numbers, reduced amplitudes of miniature endplate potentials and endplate potentials, and failure of neuromuscular transmission. Similar impairments have been found in mice injected with IgG from MG patients positive for MuSK autoantibody (MuSK-MG). The active and passive models have begun to reveal the mechanisms by which MuSK antibodies disrupt synaptic function at the neuromuscular junction, and should be valuable in developing therapies for MuSK-MG. However, translation into new and improved treatments for patients requires procedures that are not too cumbersome but suitable for examining different aspects of MuSK function and the effects of potential therapies. Study design, conduct and analysis should be carefully considered and transparently reported. Here we review what has been learnt from animal and culture models of MuSK-MG, and offer guidelines for experimental design and conduct of studies, including sample size determination, randomization, outcome parameters and precautions for objective data analysis. These principles may also be relevant to the increasing number of other antibody-mediated diseases that are now recognized. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Neurology 12/2014; 270. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.12.013 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against the GluN1 subunit are considered highly specific for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, a severe clinical syndrome characterized by seizures, psychiatric symptoms, orofacial dyskinesia and autonomic dysfunction. Here we report a 33 year old Caucasian male patient with clinically definite multiple sclerosis who was found to be positive for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies. Rituximab therapy was initiated. On the 18 months follow-up visit the patient was found to be clinically stable, without typical signs of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Our findings add to the growing evidence for a possible association between anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and demyelinating diseases.
    BMC Research Notes 12/2014; 7(1):948. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-948

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,554.43 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2015
    • University of Oxford
      • • Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      • • Neurosciences Research Group
      • • Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2015
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Department of Clinical Neurology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1982–2013
    • Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Papyrology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2008
    • Cardiff University
      • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Tongji Hospital
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2006–2007
    • Khon Kaen University
      • Department of Medicine
      Khon Kaen, Changwat Khon Kaen, Thailand
    • Institute of Molecular Medicine (India)
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2002–2007
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Institute for Pathology
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • Maastricht University
      • MHeNS School for Mental Health and Neuroscience
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1987
    • The Royal Society of Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom