Akira Inoue

Osaka University, Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan

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Publications (8)51.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It has been puzzled that in spite of its single-headed structure, myosin-IX shows the typical character of processive motor in multi-molecule in vitro motility assay, because this cannot be explained by hand-over-hand mechanism of the two-headed processive myosins. Here, we show direct evidence of the processive movement of myosin-IX using two different single molecule techniques. Using optical trap nanometry, we found that myosin-IX takes several large ( approximately 20nm) steps before detaching from an actin filament. Furthermore, we directly visualized the single myosin-IX molecules moving on actin filaments for several hundred nanometers without dissociating from actin filament. Since myosin-IX processively moves without anchoring the neck domain, the result suggests that the neck tilting is not involved for the processive movement of myosin-IX. We propose that the myosin-IX head moves processively along an actin filament like an inchworm via a unique long and positively charged insertion in the loop 2 region of the head.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2006; 343(4):1159-64. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Class V myosin (myosin-V) was first found as a processive motor that moves along an actin filament with large ( approximately 36-nm) successive steps and plays an important role in cargo transport in cells. Subsequently, several other myosins have also been found to move processively. Because myosin-V has two heads with ATP- and actin-binding sites, the mechanism of successive movement has been generally explained based on the two-headed structure. However, the fundamental problem of whether the two-headed structure is essential for the successive movement has not been solved. Here, we measure motility of engineered myosin-V having only one head by optical trapping nanometry. The results show that a single one-headed myosin-V undergoes multiple successive large (approximately 32-nm) steps, suggesting that a novel mechanism is operating for successive myosin movement.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2004; 101(26):9630-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The missense mutation of Cys(442) to Tyr of myosin VI causes progressive postlingual sensorineural deafness. Here we report the affects of the C442Y mutation on the kinetics of the actomyosin ATP hydrolysis mechanism and motor function of myosin VI. The largest changes in the kinetic mechanism of ATP hydrolysis produced by the C442Y mutation are about 10-fold increases in the rate of ADP dissociation from both myosin VI and actomyosin VI. The rates of ADP dissociation from acto-C442Y myosin VI-ADP and C442Y myosin VI-ADP are 20-40 times more rapid than the steady state rates and cannot be the rate-limiting steps of the hydrolysis mechanism in the presence or absence of actin. The 2-fold increase in the actin gliding velocity of C442Y compared with wild type (WT) may be explained at least in part by the more rapid rate of ADP dissociation. The C442Y myosin VI has a significant increase ( approximately 10-fold) in the steady state ATPase rate in the absence of actin relative to WT myosin VI. The steady state rate of actin-activated ATP hydrolysis is unchanged by the C442Y mutation at low (<10(-7) m) calcium but is calcium-sensitive with a 1.6-fold increase at high ( approximately 10(-4) m) calcium that does not occur with WT. The actin gliding velocity of the C442Y mutant decreases significantly at low surface density of myosin VI, suggesting that the mutation hampers the processive movement of myosin VI.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2004; 279(28):28844-54. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The class III myosin is the most divergent member of the myosin superfamily, having a domain with homology to a protein kinase. However, the function of class III myosin at a molecular level is not known at all, and it has been questioned whether it is actually an actin-based motor molecule. Here, we showed that human myosin III has an ATPase activity that is significantly activated by actin (20-fold) with Kactin of 112 microm and Vmax of 0.34 s-1, indicating the mechanoenzymatic activity of myosin III. Furthermore, we found that human myosin III has actin translocating activity (0.11 +/- 0.05 microm/s) using an in vitro actin gliding assay, and it moves toward the plus end of actin filaments. Myosin III containing calmodulin as the light chain subunit showed a protein kinase activity and underwent autophosphorylation. The autophosphorylation was the intramolecular process, and the sites were at the C-terminal end of the motor domain. Autophosphorylation significantly activated the kinase activity, although it did not affect the ATPase activity. The present study is the first report that clearly demonstrates that the class III myosin is an actin-based motor protein having a protein kinase activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2003; 278(24):21352-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Akira Inoue, Mitsuo Ikebe
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    ABSTRACT: Myosin VIIA was cloned from rat kidney, and the construct (M7IQ5) containing the motor domain, IQ domain, and the coiled-coil domain as well as the full-length myosin VIIA (M7full) was expressed. The M7IQ5 contained five calmodulins. Based upon native gel electrophoresis and gel filtration, it was found that M7IQ5 was single-headed, whereas M7full was two-headed, suggesting that the tail domain contributes to form the two-headed structure. M7IQ5 had Mg(2+)-ATPase activity that was markedly activated by actin with K(actin) of 33 microm and V(max) of 0.53 s(-1) head(-1). Myosin VIIA required an extremely high ATP concentration for ATPase activity, ATP-induced dissociation from actin, and in vitro actin-translocating activity. ADP markedly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity. ADP also significantly inhibited the ATP-induced dissociation of myosin VIIA from actin. Consistently, ADP decreased K(actin) of the actin-activated ATPase. ADP decreased the actin gliding velocity, although ADP did not stop the actin gliding even at high concentration. These results suggest that myosin VIIA has slow ATP binding or low affinity for ATP and relatively high affinity for ADP. The directionality of myosin VIIA was determined by using the polarity-marked dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments. It was found that myosin VIIA is a plus-directed motor.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2003; 278(7):5478-87. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myosins are motor proteins that interact with actin filaments and convert energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical force. In addition to the well-characterized conventional, filament forming, two-headed myosin II of muscle and non-muscle cells, a number of myosin-like proteins have recently been discovered. Based upon their amino acid sequences, these newly found “myosins” do not seem to form myosin filaments, thus they are often called “unconventional” myosins. The discovery of these “myosin-like motor proteins” has fundamentally expanded the potential physiological importance of myosins in diverse biological processes such as chemotactic motility, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, vesicular trafficking, secretion, etc. The myosins are classified based upon phylogenetie sequence comparisons of the motor domain (Cheney et al, 1993; Goodson and Spudich, 1993; Mooseker and Cheney, 1995; Cope et al, 1996; Titus, 1997; Hodge and Cope, 2000) and divided into at least 18 classes. In vertebrates, it has been shown that eleven classes of myosin, (including conventional filament forming myosin) are expressed. The N-terminal domains of these classes of unconventional myosins are relatively conserved and contain the primary force production machinery, whereas the C-terminal tail domains are highly divergent and are thought to function as targeting sites that bind to the cellular partner molecules. Between the motor and the diverse tail domains of myosin, there are neck regions that are composed of various numbers of light chain binding motifs (Mermall et al, 1998).
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2003; 538:143-56; discussion 157. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myosin is an actin-based molecular motor that constitutes a diverse superfamily. In contrast to conventional myosin, which binds to actin for only a short time during cross-bridge cycling, recent studies have demonstrated that class V myosin moves along actin filaments for a long distance without dissociating. This would make it suitable for supporting cargo movement in cells. Because myosin V has a two-headed structure with an expanded neck domain, it has been postulated to 'walk' along the 36-nm helical repeat of the actin filament, with one head attached to the actin and leading the other head to the neighbouring helical pitch. Here, we report that myosin IXb, a single-headed myosin, moves processively on actin filaments. Furthermore, we found that myosin IXb is a minus-end-directed motor. In addition to class VI myosin, this is the first myosin superfamily member identified that moves in the reverse direction. The processive movement of the single-headed myosin IXb cannot be explained by a 'hand-over-hand' mechanism. This suggests that an alternative mechanism must be operating for the processive movement of single-headed myosin IXb.
    Nature Cell Biology 05/2002; 4(4):302-6. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myosin VI is a molecular motor that moves processively along actin filaments and is believed to play a role in cargo movement in cells. Here we found that DOC-2/DAB2, a signaling molecule inhibiting the Ras cascade, binds to myosin VI at the globular tail domain. DOC-2/DAB2 binds stoichiometrically to myosin VI with one molecule per one myosin VI heavy chain. The C-terminal 122 amino acid residues of DOC-2/DAB2, containing the Grb2 binding site, is identified to be critical for the binding to myosin VI. Actin gliding assay revealed that the binding of DOC-2/DAB2 to myosin VI can support the actin filament gliding by myosin VI, suggesting that it can function as a myosin VI anchoring molecule. The C-terminal domain but not the N-terminal domain of DOC-2/DAB2 functions as a myosin VI anchoring site. The present findings suggest that myosin VI plays a role in transporting DOC-2/DAB2, a Ras cascade signaling molecule, thus involved in Ras signaling pathways.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2002; 292(2):300-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor