Akinosun O.M

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria

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Publications (11)3.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to cement dust is one of the most common occupational dust exposures worldwide, but the mechanism of toxicity has not been fully elucidated. Cement dust (N) and clinker (C) samples collected from Nigeria and another sample of cement dust (U) collected from USA were evaluated using alveolar macrophage (NR8383) cell culture to determine the contribution of different sources of cement dust in the severity of cement dust toxicity. Cement dust particles internalization and morphologic alterations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity, apoptotic cells induction, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione reduction, TNF-α, IL-1β, and CINC-3 secretion in alveolar macrophages (NR8383) exposed to cement dust and clinker samples were determined. Particles were internalized into the cytoplasmic vacuoles, with cells exposed to U showing increased cell membrane blebbing. Also, NR8383 exposed to U show more significant ROS generation, apoptotic cells induction and decreased glutathione. Interleukin-1β and TNF-α secretion were significantly more in cells exposed to both cement dust samples compared with clinker, while CINC-3 secretion was significantly more in cells exposed to clinker (p<0.05). Endocytosis, oxidative stress induced-apoptosis and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines may be key mechanisms of cement dust immunotoxicity in the lung and toxicity may be factory dependent.
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 04/2014; 37(3):1060-1070.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The systemic effects of adrenaline administered during dental local anesthesia have been the subject of many studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the haemodynamic and metabolic effects attributable to adrenaline injected during local anesthesia in dental extraction patients. Methods Apparently medically fit patients were included and randomized into two groups. Participants had breakfast before coming in for tooth extraction. The weight, height, blood pressure and pulse rate were measured and blood sample taken before administration of local anaesthetic injections. Blood pressure, pulse and blood sample were again taken at 15 and 30 min. Results While the adrenaline group showed a modest increase between pre- and post-drug administration states, the control group showed no difference in median systolic blood pressures. Both groups showed a slight increase in diastolic blood pressure observed between pre- and post-drug administration states. Also both groups showed no significant difference in median pulse rate throughout. Although blood glucose values were widely dispersed in the pre-drug administration state in both groups, the control group showed no difference in median values throughout. However, a modest increase was observed in the adrenaline group between pre- and post-drug administration states, which persisted beyond 30 min. Conclusion The patients treated with local anesthesia with adrenaline showed a response similar to that observed in the control group.
    Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers.
    Chemosphere 12/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    Arinola O.G, Akinosun O.M, Olaniyi J.A
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    ABSTRACT: The levels of plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgG, A and M) and acute phase proteins (α 2-macroglobulin (A2MG), C-reactive protein (CRP)) were determined using single radial immunodiffusion method. Also, determined in the plasma of the subjects were antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C and E) using spectrophotometric method. The participants were 30 subjects who had never smoked and not exposed to cigarette smoke (non smokers), 30 who had smoked at least 15 cigarettes per day for at least five years (active smokers) and 30 who had been exposed to cigarette smoke at least 2 cigarette/day on ≥5 days/wk for at least 5 years (passive smokers). Plasma levels of IgG, IgM, CRP and A2MG were significantly raised (p<0.05), while vitamins C and E (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in active smokers when compared with the controls. The plasma levels of CRP and A2MG were significantly raised (p<0.05), while vitamins C and E were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in passive smokers when compared with the controls. The levels of CRP and antioxidant vitamins were similar in active and passive smokers. This study suggested that, exposure to passive as well as active cigarette smoking cause's inflammation as well as vitamin deficiency.
    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 08/2011; 10:6130-6132. · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    Ogunbileje J.O, Akinosun O.M
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    ABSTRACT: Cement dust exposures has been reported to result in various occupational health problems and long term complications. However, effects of cement dust exposures on biochemical, oxidative stress indicators and Haematological profiles in Nigerians cement factory workers are scarce, therefore the present study is aimed at determining the effects of cement dust exposure on uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, copper and selenium levels and Haematological profile in forty-five cement factory workers and thirty controls office workers. Uric acid, creatinine, albumin and total protein were determined using Hitachi 902 auto analyser, total globulin was computed by subtracting albumin level from total protein concentration while haematological parameters were determined using Sysmex. Uric acid, copper and creatinine levels were significantly higher in cement factory workers compared with controls (p<0.05). Also, haemoglobulin, haematocrite concentration, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), lymphocytes and eosinophils are significantly higher in exposed group compared with controls while neutrophils were significantly lower in cement factory workers. Significantly higher creatinine suggests nephrotoxic effects while uric acid probably in part up regulated to combat oxidative stress. Uric acid was also significantly positively correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = 0.38, p<0.05), probably to match the body cement dust burdens. Higher haematological profile probably support the report that cement mill workers are exposed to metals that enhance haematopoietic system while the insignificant difference of total protein, albumin suggest that cement dust does not have effects on the synthetic functions of liver. Other variables did not differ significantly.
    Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology 03/2011; 5:133-140.
  • Arinola O.G, Akinosun O.M, Olaniyi J.A
    Afri J Biotechnology. 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Crystalline silica has recently been reported to act as an adjuvant which increases inflammation and antibody production. On the basis of new knowledge, it is possible that cement dust may have effects on the immune functions of cement factory workers. Previous studies on Nigerian cement factory workers were concentrated on the pulmonary function tests, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), prevalence of chest infections and liver function tests neglecting the immune parameters of the cement workers. The present study determines the levels of serum immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgM, IgG & IgE) and Alanine aminotransaminase, Alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase in 45 male cement factory workers that are occupationally exposed to cement dust compared with 30, age and sex-matched, office workers that were not resident in the town of study. Immunodiffusion method was used to determine serum IgA, IgM, IgG while ELISA method was used to determine serum IgE. Alkaline phosphatase(ALP), alanine amino transferase(ALT), bilirubin were determined using Hitachi 902 auto analyser while gamma glutamyl transferase(GGT) was determined using colorimetric method. The levels of IgM and IgA were not statistically different in cement factory workers compared with control (p>0.05) while IgG and IgE were significantly higher in cement factory workers (p<0.05) when compared with corresponding levels in the controls. Also, ALP and bilirubin were higher in the test subjects than in control group (p<0.05). Though the mean levels of ALT and GGT were not statistically significantly higher cement factory workers when compared with control group (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that higher level of IgG may be a mechanism to block anaphylaxis reaction of IgE in Nigerian cement factory workers. The raised ALP and bilirubin levels may suggest hepatotoxic effects of cement dust. [Researcher 2010;2(4):55-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9865). Key-words: Silica, Cement dust, Nigeria, Immunoglobulin, Liver.
    RESEARCHER. 01/2010; 2:55-58.
  • Report and Opinion. 01/2010;
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    (5TH Biennial Scientific Conference of Association of Clinical Chemists of Nigeria and Inauguration of African Federation of Clinical Chemistry, Ibadan, Nigeria; 01/2009
  • Akinosun OM, Arinola OG, Salimonu LS
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin) and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM) in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spectrophotometry and single radial immuno-diffusion method respectively for determining the functions. All the liver function tests were similar in both petrol attendants and the controls except for significantly lower levels of ALP ( P =0.02). Also, the levels of IgG and IgA were similar in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls, while the levels of IgM were significantly raised in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls ( P =0.02). This study shows that parameters of liver functions are within normal range in Nigerian petrol attendants.
    Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: ObjectiveProstate cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the predisposing factors are not fully understood, African descent is an important risk factor, and prostate cancer has become the number-one cancer in Nigerian men. This was a retrospective study of the correlation between serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason grade and score in patients of Nigerian descent. Patients and MethodsThe University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan Cancer Registry was used to identify and quantify the incidence of prostate cancers occurring between 1998 and 2000. The histological slides of appropriate cases were reviewed to confirm the Gleason grade and score. The serum PSA values were retrieved from the patients' case notes and laboratory files. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis to look for associations and correlations. ResultsThe study included 67 men with prostate adenocarcinoma and PSA measurements who were diagnosed and treated at the UCH Ibadan between January 1998 and December 2000. There was a positive correlation between serum PSA and Gleason grade, as well as between serum PSA and Gleason score in our cohort of Nigerian African men with prostate cancer. PSA levels were significantly lower in patients with stage B disease than in patients with stage D disease. ConclusionSerum PSA is significantly higher in metastatic than in localized disease. Further studies are necessary to determine biomarkers that complement serum PSA and the Gleason grading system in the prognostication of prostate cancer in African patients.
    African Journal of Urology 14(1):15-22.