Andrew G Glass

Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, United States

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Publications (117)443.35 Total impact

  • Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11/2015; DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0412 · 4.13 Impact Factor

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    ABSTRACT: A prior analysis of postmenopausal breast cancer patients linked a decline in mammographic density (MD) following the initiation of tamoxifen treatment with improved survival, but excluded premenopausal women, for whom tamoxifen is the primary anti-endocrine therapy. Therefore, we evaluated change in MD after tamoxifen and breast cancer death among patients age 32 to 87 years. This case-control study included 349 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients who were treated with tamoxifen at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (1990-2008): 97 who died from breast cancer (case patients) and 252 who did not (control patients), matched on age and year at diagnosis and disease stage. Percent MD in the unaffected breast was measured at baseline (mean six months before tamoxifen initiation) and follow-up (mean 12 months after initiation). Associations between change in MD and breast cancer death were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Patients in the highest tertile of MD decline had a lower risk of breast cancer death when compared with women in the lowest tertile (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.88); results were similar after adjustment for baseline MD (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.23 to 1.02). Reductions in death were observed only among patients in the middle and upper tertiles of baseline MD. Associations did not differ by age, tamoxifen use duration, estrogen and/or progestin use, body mass index, or receipt of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. These data suggest that younger and older ER-positive breast cancer patients who experience large reductions in MD following tamoxifen initiation have an improved prognosis. Published by Oxford University Press 2015.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/2015; 107(3). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju425 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of endometrial cancer is strongly associated with stage at diagnosis, suggesting that early detection may reduce mortality. Women who are diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma often have a lengthy history of vaginal bleeding, which offers an opportunity for early diagnosis and curative treatment. We performed DNA methylation profiling on population-based endometrial cancers to identify early detection biomarkers and replicated top candidates in two independent studies. We compared DNA methylation values of 1500 probes representing 807 genes in 148 population-based endometrial carcinoma samples and 23 benign endometrial tissues. Markers were replicated in another set of 69 carcinomas and 40 benign tissues profiled on the same platform. Further replication was conducted in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in prospectively collected endometrial brushings from women with and without endometrial carcinomas. We identified 114 CpG sites showing methylation differences with p-values of ≤10(-7) between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. Eight genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, NPY, and SOX1) were selected for further replication. Age-adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer ranged from 3.44 (95%-CI: 1.33-8.91) for ASCL2 to 18.61 (95%-CI: 5.50-62.97) for HTR1B. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 was achieved for discriminating carcinoma from benign endometrium. Replication in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in endometrial brushings from an independent study confirmed the candidate markers. This study demonstrates that methylation markers may be used to evaluate women with abnormal vaginal bleeding to distinguish women with endometrial carcinoma from the majority of women without malignancy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2014; 135(8). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28843 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), consisting of direct contact between a macrophage, an endothelial cell, and a tumor cell, has been associated with metastasis in both rodent mammary tumors and human breast cancer. We prospectively examined the association between TMEM score and risk of distant metastasis and compared risk associated with TMEM score with that associated with IHC4. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a cohort of 3760 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma diagnosed between 1980 and 2000 and followed through 2010. Case patients were women who developed a subsequent distant metastasis; control subjects were matched (1:1) on age at and calendar year of primary diagnosis. TMEM was assessed by triple immunostain and IHC4 by standard methods; slides were read by pathologists blinded to outcome. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for clinical variables. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed, and the area under the curve was estimated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: TMEM score was associated with increased risk of distant metastasis in estrogen receptor (ER)(+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)(-) tumors (multivariable OR high vs low tertile = 2.70; 95% CI = 1.39 to 5.26; P trend = .004), whereas IHC4 score had a borderline positive association (OR10 unit increase = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.13); the association for TMEM score persisted after adjustment for IHC4 score. The area under the curve for TMEM, adjusted for clinical variables, was 0.78. Neither TMEM score nor IHC4 score was independently associated with metastatic risk overall or in the triple negative or HER2(+) subgroups. Conclusions: TMEM score predicted risk of distant metastasis in ER(+)/HER2(-) breast cancer independently of IHC4 score and classical clinicopathologic features.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 08/2014; 106(8). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju136 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine duration of daily filgrastim prophylaxis, and risk and consequences of chemotherapy-induced neutropenic complications (CINC) requiring inpatient care. Using a retrospective cohort design and US healthcare claims data (2001-2010), we identified all cancer patients who initiated >=1 course of myelosuppressive chemotherapy and received daily filgrastim prophylactically in >=1 cycle. Cycles with daily filgrastim prophylaxis were pooled for analyses. CINC was identified based on hospital admissions with a diagnosis of neutropenia, fever, or infection; consequences were characterized in terms of hospital mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and CINC-related healthcare expenditures. Risk of CINC requiring inpatient care--adjusted for patient characteristics--was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.6-3.4) and 1.9 (1.3-2.8) times higher with 1-3 (N = 8371) and 4-6 (N = 3691) days of filgrastim prophylaxis, respectively, versus >=7 days (N = 2226). Among subjects who developed CINC, consequences with 1-3 and 4-6 (vs. >=7) days of filgrastim prophylaxis were: mortality (8.4% [n/N = 10/119] and 4.0% [3/75] vs. 0% [0/34]); LOS (means: 7.4 [N = 243] and 7.1 [N = 99] vs. 6.5 [N = 40]); and expenditures (means: $18,912 [N = 225] and $14,907 [N = 94] vs. $13,165 [N = 39]). In this retrospective evaluation, shorter courses of daily filgrastim prophylaxis were found to be associated with an increased risk of CINC as well as poorer outcomes among those developing this condition. Because of the limitations inherent in healthcare claims databases specifically and retrospective evaluations generally, additional research addressing these limitations is needed to confirm the findings of this study.
    BMC Health Services Research 04/2014; 14(1):189. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-189 · 1.71 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 03/2014; 73(24 Supplement):P2-11-03-P2-11-03. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.SABCS13-P2-11-03 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to document the use of intravenous (IV) bisphosphonates for prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases (BM) due to breast cancer (BC), lung cancer (LC), or prostate cancer (PC). Using data from two large US health systems, we identified all patients aged ≥18 years with primary BC, LC, or PC and newly diagnosed BM between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2009. Starting with the diagnosis of BM, we reviewed medical and administrative records for evidence of receipt of IV bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid or pamidronate) and occurrence of SREs. Initiation of IV bisphosphonates prior to occurrence of an SRE was designated "primary prophylaxis"; use following an SRE was designated "secondary prophylaxis". We identified a total of 1,193 patients with newly diagnosed BM, including 400 with BC, 332 with LC, and 461 with PC. Use of IV bisphosphonates was substantially higher in BC (55.8 % of all patients) than in LC (14.8 %) or PC (20.2 %). Use of IV bisphosphonates was fairly evenly split between primary and secondary prophylaxis in BC (26.3 vs. 29.5 %, respectively) and PC (10.6 vs 9.5 %); in LC, however, primary prophylaxis was much less common than secondary prophylaxis (4.8 vs 9.9 %). Almost one half of all patients with BM due to BC, and substantially more with LC and PC, do not receive IV bisphosphonates. Among patients receiving such therapy, treatment often is not initiated until after the occurrence of an SRE. Our study suggests that IV bisphosphonates may be substantially underutilized in patients with BM due to these common cancers.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 01/2014; 22(5). DOI:10.1007/s00520-013-2094-y · 2.36 Impact Factor

  • European Journal of Cancer 11/2013; 49:S16. DOI:10.1016/S0959-8049(13)70134-5 · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To document the risk of skeletal complications in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer (BC), lung cancer (LC), or prostate cancer (PC) in routine clinical practice. We used data from two large US health systems to identify patients aged ≥18 years with primary BC, LC, or PC and newly diagnosed bone metastases between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009. Beginning with the date of diagnosis of bone metastasis, we estimated the cumulative incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs) (spinal cord compression, pathologic fracture, radiation to bone, bone surgery), based on review of medical records, accounting for death as a competing risk. We identified a total of 621 BC, 477 LC, and 721 PC patients with newly diagnosed bone metastases. SREs were present at diagnosis of bone metastasis in 22.4, 22.4, and 10.0 % of BC, LC, and PC patients, respectively. Relatively few LC or PC patients received intravenous bisphosphonates (14.8 and 20.2 %, respectively); use was higher in patients with BC, however (55.8 %). In BC, cumulative incidence of SREs during follow-up was 38.7 % at 6 months, 45.4 % at 12 months, and 54.2 % at 24 months; in LC, it was 41.0, 45.4, and 47.7 %; and in PC, it was 21.5, 30.4, and 41.9 %. More than one half of patients with bone metastases had evidence of SREs (BC: 62.6 %; LC: 58.7 %; PC: 51.7 %), either at diagnosis of bone metastases or subsequently. SREs are a frequent complication in patients with solid tumors and bone metastases, and are much more common than previously recognized in women with BC.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 07/2013; 21(12). DOI:10.1007/s00520-013-1887-3 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening has been firmly established in reproductive-age women, its usefulness in older women is unclear. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of cervical cancer screening in older women. Methods: We conducted a case-control study within two integrated health care systems in the northwestern United States. Cases (n = 69) were women aged 55-79 years who were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer during 1980-1999. Controls (n = 208) were women with an intact uterus and no diagnosis of cervical cancer, but otherwise similar to cases in terms of age and length of enrollment in the health plan. We reviewed medical records to ascertain screening history during the 7 years prior to reference date. Results: Compared to cases, controls were more likely to have received a Pap test. After adjustment for age and current smoking status, screening prior to an estimated 1-year duration of the occult invasive phase of cervical cancer was associated with a substantial reduction in risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.23; 95% CI 0.11-0.44]. Similar results were obtained using different estimates of the duration of the occult invasive phase. Analysis of the relative incidence of invasive cervical cancer in relation to the time following a negative screening test suggested a large reduction during the first year (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.03-0.24). The incidence remained low for several years thereafter, returning to the incidence among unscreened women after 5-7 years. Conclusions: Cervical cancer screening by means of cytology is highly efficacious in older women. Our findings also suggest that five-yearly screening is approximately as efficacious as more frequent screening.
    Cancer Causes and Control 06/2013; 24(9). DOI:10.1007/s10552-013-0239-4 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently established the rationale that NRBP1 (nuclear receptor binding protein 1) has a potential growth-promoting role in cell biology. NRBP1 interacts directly with TSC-22, a potential tumor suppressor gene that is differently expressed in prostate cancer. Consequently, we analyzed the role of NRBP1 expression in prostate cancer cell lines and its expression on prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMA). The effect of NRBP1 expression on tumor cell growth was analyzed by using RNAi. NRBP1 protein expression was evaluated on two TMAs containing prostate samples from more than 1,000 patients. Associations with clinico-pathological features, the proliferation marker Ki67 and survival data were analyzed. RNAi mediated silencing of NRBP1 expression in prostate cancer cell lines resulted in reduced cell growth (P < 0.05). TMA analysis revealed NRBP1 protein expression in benign prostate hyperplasia in 6% as compared to 60% in both, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer samples. Strong NRBP1 protein expression was restricted to prostate cancer and correlated with higher expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 (P < 0.05). Further, patients with strong NRBP1 protein expression showed poor clinical outcomes (P < 0.05). Analysis of matched localized cancer tissues before and after castration revealed that post-therapy-related repression of NRBP1 expression was significantly associated with better overall survival. We demonstrate that expression of NRBP1 is up-regulated during the progression of prostate cancer and that high NRBP1 expression is linked with poor prognosis and enhanced tumor cell growth. Prostate 72:1678-1687, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 11/2012; 72(15):1678-87. DOI:10.1002/pros.22521 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity strongly increases the risk of endometrial cancer and is projected to increase current and future endometrial cancer incidence. In order to fully understand endometrial cancer incidence, one should also examine both hysterectomy, which eliminates future risk of endometrial cancer, and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), a precursor that prompts treatment (including hysterectomy). Hysterectomy and EH are more common than endometrial cancer, but data on simultaneous temporal trends of EH, hysterectomy and endometrial cancer are lacking. We used linked pathology, tumor registry, surgery and administrative datasets at the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan to calculate age-adjusted and age-specific rates, 1980-2003, of EH only (N = 5,990), EH plus hysterectomy (N = 904), hysterectomy without a diagnosis of EH or cancer (N = 14,926) and endometrial cancer (N = 1,208). Joinpoint regression identified inflection points and quantified annual percentage changes (APCs). The EH APCs were -5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -7.4% to -3.2%) for 1980-1990, -12.9% (95% CI = -15.6% to -10.1%) for 1990-1999 and 2.4% (95% CI = -6.6% to 12.2%) for 1999-2003. The EH-plus-hysterectomy APCs were -8.6% (95% CI = -10.6% to -6.5%) for 1980-2000 and 24.5% (95% CI = -16.5% to 85.7%) for 2000-2003. Hysterectomy rates did not significantly change over time. The endometrial cancer APCs were -6.5% (95% CI = -10.3% to -2.6%) for 1980-1988 and 1.4% (95% CI = -0.2% to 3.0%) for 1988-2003. Hysterectomy rates were unchanged, but increased endometrial cancer incidence after 1988 and the reversal, in 1999, of the longstanding decline in EH incidence could reflect the influence of obesity on endometrial neoplasia.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 131(8):1921-9. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27457 · 5.09 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 08/2012; 21(8):1390-1391. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0618 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the long-term (≥ 10 years) benefits of clinical human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing for cervical precancer and cancer risk prediction. Cervicovaginal lavages collected from 19,512 women attending a health maintenance program were retrospectively tested for HPV using a clinical test. HPV positives were tested for HPV16 and HPV18 individually using a research test. A Papanicolaou (Pap) result classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or more severe was considered abnormal. Women underwent follow-up prospectively with routine annual Pap testing up to 18 years. Cumulative incidence rates (CIRs) of ≥ grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3+) or cancer for enrollment test results were calculated. A baseline negative HPV test provided greater reassurance against CIN3+ over the 18-year follow-up than a normal Pap (CIR, 0.90% v 1.27%). Although both baseline Pap and HPV tests predicted who would develop CIN3+ within the first 2 years of follow-up, only HPV testing predicted who would develop CIN3+ 10 to 18 years later (P = .004). HPV16- and HPV18-positive women with normal Pap were at elevated risk of CIN3+ compared with other HPV-positive women with normal Pap and were at similar risk of CIN3+ compared with women with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial Pap. HPV testing to rule out cervical disease followed by Pap testing and possibly combined with the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 among HPV positives to identify those at immediate risk of CIN3+ would be an efficient algorithm for cervical cancer screening, especially in women age 30 years or older.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2012; 30(25):3044-50. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2011.38.8389 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize healthcare resource utilization and costs in patients with metastatic lung cancer receiving chemotherapy in the US. Using data from a large private multi-payer health insurance claims database (2000-2006), we identified all patients beginning chemotherapy for metastatic lung cancer. Healthcare resource use (inpatient, outpatient, medications) and costs were tallied over time from date of therapy initiation ("index date") to date of disenrollment from the health plan (in most instances, presumably due to death) or the end of the study period, whichever occurred first. Healthcare utilization and costs were characterized using Kaplan-Meier sample average methods. The study population consisted of 4068 patients; mean (SD) age was 65 (11) years. Over a median follow-up of 334 days, study subjects averaged 1.5 hospital admissions, 8.9 total inpatient days, and 69 physician office and hospital outpatient visits. Mean (95% CI) cumulative total healthcare costs were $125,849 ($120,228, $131,231). Costs of outpatient medical services and inpatient care constituted 34% and 20% of total healthcare costs, respectively; corresponding estimates for outpatient chemotherapy and other medication were 22% and 24%. Our study sheds additional light on the burden of metastatic lung cancer among patients receiving chemotherapy, in terms of total cost thru end of life as well as component costs by setting and type of service, and may be useful in informing medical resource allocation in this patient population.
    BMC Health Services Research 11/2011; 11(1):305. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-11-305 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and accumulation of its protein in breast tissue are thought to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, few studies have prospectively investigated the association of p53 immunopositivity and/or p53 alterations in women with benign breast disease in relation to the subsequent risk of invasive breast cancer. We carried out a case-control study nested within a large cohort of women biopsied for benign breast disease in order to address this question. After exclusions, 491 breast cancer cases and 471 controls were available for analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Neither p53 immunopositivity nor genetic alterations in p53 (either missense mutations or polymorphisms) was associated with altered risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, the combination of both p53 immunopositivity and any p53 nucleotide change was associated with an approximate 5-fold nonsignificant increase in risk (adjusted OR 4.79, 95% CI 0.28-82.31) but the confidence intervals were extremely wide. Our findings raise the possibility that the combination of p53 protein accumulation and the presence of genetic alterations may identify a group at increased risk of breast cancer.
    Journal of Oncology 08/2011; 2011:970804. DOI:10.1155/2011/970804
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    ABSTRACT: The economic costs of treating patients with metastatic breast cancer have been examined in several studies, but available estimates of economic burden are at least a decade old. In this study, we characterize healthcare utilization and costs in the US among women with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy as their principal treatment modality. Using a large private health insurance claims database (2000-2006), we identified all women initiating chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer with no evidence of receipt of concomitant or subsequent hormonal therapy, or receipt of trastuzumab at anytime. Healthcare utilization and costs (inpatient, outpatient, medication) were estimated on a cumulative basis from date of chemotherapy initiation ("index date") to date of disenrollment from the health plan or the end of the study period, whichever occurred first. Study measures were cumulated over time using the Kaplan-Meier Sample Average (KMSA) method; 95% CIs were generated using nonparametric bootstrapping. Findings also were examined among the subgroup of patients with uncensored data. The study population consisted of 1444 women; mean (SD) age was 59.1 (12.1) years. Over a mean follow-up of 532 days (range: 3 to 2412), study subjects averaged 1.7 hospital admissions, 10.7 inpatient days, and 83.6 physician office and hospital outpatient visits. Mean (95% CI) cumulative total healthcare costs were $128,556 ($118,409, $137,644) per patient. Outpatient services accounted for 29% of total costs, followed by medication other than chemotherapy (26%), chemotherapy (25%), and inpatient care (20%). Healthcare costs-especially in the outpatient setting--are substantial among women with metastatic breast cancer for whom treatment options other than chemotherapy are limited.
    BMC Cancer 06/2011; 11(1):250. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-11-250 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is more sensitive than cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and cancer (≥CIN3). Adding HPV testing to cytology is recommended for women ≥30 but long-term prospective studies of HPV testing are rare. Beginning in 1989-1990, ~20,000 women in a prepaid health maintenance organization (median age = 34) were followed passively by recommended annual cytology. We tested archived cervicovaginal lavage specimens collected at enrollment, primarily by MY09-MY11 PCR-based methods, for carcinogenic HPV types. We calculated positive and negative predictive values for the entire study period, and Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative probability for ≥CIN3, up to 18 years of follow-up. We observed 47 cases of invasive cervical cancer during the study period, and 156 cases of CIN3. Predictive values and Kaplan-Meier analyses yielded the same conclusions. In women 30 and older, the reassurance against ≥CIN3 following a single negative HPV test was long-lasting (cumulative probability = 0.7% during follow-up). In this age group, a single HPV test (positive vs. negative, hazard ratio of 8.5, 95% CI = 4.8-15.1) provided greater long-term risk stratification than a single cytologic result (abnormal vs. normal, HR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-6.6). The risk for ≥CIN3 was higher for HPV16 than for the average of the other carcinogenic types (hazard ratio = 2.7). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT: The data from this cohort study show the long-term predictive value of HPV testing, particularly in women ≥30, and a possible role for distinguishing particularly carcinogenic types like HPV16.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 05/2011; 20(7):1398-409. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0206 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We used a nested case-control design within a large, multi-center cohort of women who underwent a biopsy for benign breast disease (BBD) to assess the association of broad histologic groupings and specific histologic entities with risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Cases were all women who had a biopsy for BBD and who subsequently developed breast cancer; controls were individually matched to cases and were women with a biopsy for BBD who did not develop breast cancer in the same follow-up interval as that for the cases. After exclusions, 1,239 records (615 cases and 624 controls) were available for analysis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Relative to non-proliferative BBD/normal pathology, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for proliferative lesions without atypia was 1.45 (95% CI 1.10-1.90), and that for atypical hyperplasia was 5.27 (95% CI 2.29-12.15). The presence of multiple foci of columnar cell hyperplasia and of complex fibroadenoma without atypia was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of breast cancer, whereas sclerosing adenosis, radial scar, and papilloma showed no association with risk. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that, compared to women with normal pathology/non-proliferative disease, women with proliferative disease without atypia have a modestly increased risk of breast cancer, whereas women with atypical hyperplasia have a substantially increased risk.
    Cancer Causes and Control 06/2010; 21(6). DOI:10.1007/s10552-010-9508-7 · 2.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
443.35 Total Impact Points


  • 1991-2015
    • Kaiser Permanente
      • • Center for Health Research (Oregon, Hawaii, and Georgia)
      • • Department of Pathology
      Oakland, California, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1991-2008
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology
      • • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • County of Los Angeles Public Health
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Population Health Sciences
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2003
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1994
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1990
    • National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1984-1988
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States