[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract An important mediator of tumorigenesis, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in almost all non-transformed cell types, associated with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. The significance of the EGFR as a cancer therapeutic target is underscored by the clinical development of several different classes of EGFR antagonists, including monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Extensive preclinical studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of mAb806 against tumor xenografts overexpressing EGFR. EGF stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Detailed understanding of the intracellular signalling pathways and components modulated by mAbs (such as mAb806) to EGFR, and other growth factor receptors, remain limited. The use of fluorescence 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), coupled with sensitive MS-based protein profiling in A431 tumor (epidermoid carcinoma) xenografts, in combination with mAb806, revealed proteins modulating endocytosis, cell architecture, apoptosis, cell signalling pathways and cell cycle regulation, including Dynamin-1-like protein, cofilin-1 protein, and 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta. Further, we report various proteins, including Interferon-induced protein 53 (IFI53), and Oncogene EMS1 (EMS1) which have roles in the tumor microenvironment, regulating cancer cell invasiveness, angiogenesis and formation of metastases. These findings contribute to understanding the underlying biological processes associated with mAb806 therapy of EGFR-positive tumors, and identifying further potential protein markers that may contribute in assessment of the treatment response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-MET receptor has a function in many human cancers and is a proven therapeutic target. Generating antagonistic or therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting c-MET has been difficult because bivalent, intact anti-Met antibodies frequently display agonistic activity, necessitating the use of monovalent antibody fragments for therapy. By using a novel strategy that included immunizing with cells expressing c-MET, we obtained a range of mAbs. These c-MET mAbs were tested for binding specificity and anti-tumor activity using a range of cell-based techniques and in silico modeling. The LMH 80 antibody bound an epitope, contained in the small cysteine-rich domain of c-MET (amino acids 519-561), that was preferentially exposed on the c-MET precursor. Since the c-MET precursor is only expressed on the surface of cancer cells and not normal cells, this antibody is potentially tumor specific. An interesting subset of our antibodies displayed profound activities on c-MET internalization and degradation. LMH 87, an antibody binding the loop connecting strands 3d and 4a of the 7-bladed β-propeller domain of c-MET, displayed no intrinsic agonistic activity but promoted receptor internalization and degradation. LMH 87 inhibited HGF/SF-induced migration of SK-OV-3 ovarian carcinoma cells, the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells and the growth of human U87MG glioma cells in a mouse xenograft model. These results indicate that c-MET antibodies targeting epitopes controlling receptor internalization and degradation provide new ways of controlling c-MET expression and activity and may enable the therapeutic targeting of c-MET by intact, bivalent antibodies.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34658. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factors affecting the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) remain relatively unknown, especially in glioma.
We examined the efficacy of two EGFR-specific mAbs (mAbs 806 and 528) against U87MG-derived glioma xenografts expressing EGFR variants. Using this approach allowed us to change the form of the EGFR while keeping the genetic background constant. These variants included the de2-7 EGFR (or EGFRvIII), a constitutively active mutation of the EGFR expressed in glioma.
The efficacy of the mAbs correlated with EGFR number; however, the most important factor was receptor activation. Whereas U87MG xenografts expressing the de2-7 EGFR responded to therapy, those exhibiting a dead kinase de2-7 EGFR were refractory. A modified de2-7 EGFR that was kinase active but autophosphorylation deficient also responded, suggesting that these mAbs function in de2-7 EGFR-expressing xenografts by blocking transphosphorylation. Because de2-7 EGFR-expressing U87MG xenografts coexpress the wild-type EGFR, efficacy of the mAbs was also tested against NR6 xenografts that expressed the de2-7 EGFR in isolation. Whereas mAb 806 displayed antitumor activity against NR6 xenografts, mAb 528 therapy was ineffective, suggesting that mAb 528 mediates its antitumor activity by disrupting interactions between the de2-7 and wild-type EGFR. Finally, genetic disruption of Src in U87MG xenografts expressing the de2-7 EGFR dramatically enhanced mAb 806 efficacy.
The effective use of EGFR-specific antibodies in glioma will depend on identifying tumors with activated EGFR. The combination of EGFR and Src inhibitors may be an effective strategy for the treatment of glioma.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2007; 13(6):1911-25. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tyrphostin 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) is a potent and specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase whose favourable preclinical profile supports progression towards clinical trials. Microphysiometric evaluation revealed a short (<24 min) effective inhibition of cellular receptor response to EGF challenge in BaF/ERX cells indicating a need to maintain sustained levels of inhibitor. Initial pharmacokinetic evaluation in mice of novel AG1478 formulations in a beta-cyclodextrin (Captisol) showed monoexponential elimination from plasma (half-life 30 min) following subcutaneous administration. A two-fold dose escalation gave a 2.4-fold increase in the total AUC. Bolus i.v. and 6 h continuous infusion were investigated in rats to mimic a more clinically relevant administration regimen. Drug elimination following bolus i.v. administration was biphasic (terminal elimination half-life 30-48 min). The linear relationship between dose and AUC(0-->infinity) (r2=0.979) enabled the prediction of infusion rates and doses for sustained delivery using continuous 6 h infusions, where steady state was reached in 120 min. Plasma levels of AG1478>10 microM were achieved over the duration of the infusion. At the lowest dose, plasma drug levels after the cessation of infusion declined with a half-life of approximately 43 min. EGFR activity, measured both by autophosphorylation and downstream signalling, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by injection of AG1478 in mice bearing xenografts of the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG.delta2-7, which expresses a constitutively active variant of the EGF receptor. Taken together, these experiments provide essential data to assess the anti-tumour efficacy of AG1478 and will assist in the rational design of dose regimens for clinical studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated functional effects of glycosylation at N(579) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Our previous study showed that the population of cell-surface expressed EGFRs in A431 cells, a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, is composed of two subpopulations that differ by glycosylation at N(579) [Zhen et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 5478-5492]. To characterize the subpopulation of receptors not glycosylated at N(579), we established a 32D cell line expressing a point mutant of the EGFR (N579Q), which cannot be glycosylated at this position. Analysis of epitope accessibility suggests that the lack of glycosylation at N(579) weakens auto-inhibitory tether interactions, and cross-linking experiments suggest a somewhat elevated level of preformed N579Q-EGFR dimers in the absence of ligand relative to wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR). However, ligand drives the majority of N579Q-EGFR dimerization, suggesting that untethering, while necessary, is not sufficient to drive dimerization. Ligand-binding experiments reveal a much greater fraction of N579Q-EGFRs in a high-affinity state compared to the fraction of WT-EGFRs in a high-affinity state. However, differences in the kinetic association and dissociation rates indicate that the high-affinity states of the WT and the N579Q receptors are distinct. EGF-stimulated phosphorylation in cells expressing N579Q-EGFRs results in notable differences in the pattern of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins compared with that obtained in cells expressing WT-EGFRs. Moreover, although WT-EGFRs confer cell survival in 32D cells in the absence of interleukin-3 and EGF, we found that receptors lacking glycosylation at N(579) do not. This is the first study of which we are aware to show that selective glycosylation of a specific N-glycosylation site can produce two functionally distinct receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are found at a relatively high frequency in glioma, with the most common being the de2-7 EGFR (or EGFRvIII). This mutation arises from an in-frame deletion of exons 2-7, which removes 267 amino acids from the extracellular domain of the receptor. Despite being unable to bind ligand, the de2-7 EGFR is constitutively active and imparts a significant in vivo growth advantage to glioma cells. In order to examine the signalling pathways activated by the de2-7 EGFR and its biological effects in an in vitro system, the de2-7 EGFR gene was transfected into the murine IL-3-dependent pro-B-cell line BaF/3. Expression of the de2-7 EGFR enhanced the survival of BaF/3 cells in the absence of IL-3 by reducing apoptosis in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)-dependent manner. Interestingly, while de2-7 EGFR also enhanced proliferation of BaF/3 cells in low levels of IL-3, this effect was independent of PI3-K. Survival and proliferation were further enhanced when BaF/3 cells were cotransfected with the de2-7 and wt EGFR. This was due to heterodimerization between the de2-7 and wt EGFR leading to trans-phosphorylation of the wt EGFR. This observation is directly relevant to glioma where de2-7 and wt EGFR appear to be coexpressed. Thus, expression of de2-7 EGFR in BaF/3 cells provides an in vitro model for evaluating the signalling pathways activated by this receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling with specific inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase retards cellular proliferation and arrests the growth of tumor xenografts. AG1478, an inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase, is used in laboratory studies; however, its therapeutic potential has not been elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated an aqueous form of AG1478 for its antitumor activity in mice bearing human xenografts expressing the WT EGFR or a naturally occurring ligand-independent truncation of the EGFR [delta2-7 (de2-7) EGFR or EGFRvIII]. Parenteral administration of soluble AG1478 blocked phosphorylation of the EGFR at the tumor site and inhibited the growth of A431 xenografts that overexpress the WT EGFR and glioma xenografts expressing the de2-7 EGFR. Strikingly, even subtherapeutic doses of AG1478 significantly enhanced the efficacy of cytotoxic drugs, with the combination of AG1478 and temozolomide displaying synergistic antitumor activity against human glioma xenografts. AG1478 was also examined in combination with mAb 806, an anti-EGFR antibody that was raised against the de2-7 EGFR but unexpectedly also binds a subset of the EGFR expressed in cells exhibiting amplification of the EGFR gene. The combination of AG1478 and mAb 806 displayed additive, and in some cases synergistic, antitumor activity against tumor xenografts overexpressing the EGFR. Here, we demonstrate that different classes of inhibitors to the EGFR can have synergistic antitumor activity in vivo. These results establish the antitumor efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and provide a rationale for its clinical evaluation in combination with both chemotherapy and other EGFR therapeutics.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2004; 100(26):15871-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor