Akihiro Sato

Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan

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Publications (5)16.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of the fulminant or severe form of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear, although both host- and virus-specific factors are considered to have a great impact on the c course. We aimed to define possible viral factors implicated in the severe form of acute HBV infection. We investigated viral factors in 42 patients with acute HBV infection: 11 had fulminant hepatitis (FH); 9 had a severe form of acute hepatitis (SAH), defined as having a prothrombin activity of less than 40% without encephalopathy; and 22 had acute self-limited hepatitis (AH). Although there was no significant difference in serum HBV DNA levels on admission among the three groups, the level decreased more rapidly in patients with SAH or FH than in those with AH. In patients with SAH or FH, the HBV load on admission was higher in patients who died than in those who recovered (7.0 +/- 1.6 vs 5.6 +/- 1.0 log copies/ml; P=0.0293). In univariate analysis, seronegativity for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and mutations in both the precore (G1896A and/or G1899A) and core promoter (T1753A/C and/or T1754C/G and/or A1762T/G1764A) were associated with FH (odds ratio [OR], 5.60; P=0.0269 and OR, 52.0; P=0.0006; respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the presence of precore/core promoter mutations was associated with FH (OR, 42.8; P=0.0020). The rapid decrease in viral load in the early phase of acute HBV infection was associated with the severity of the disease. A high viral load on admission and the presence of both precore and core promoter mutations in patients with severe coagulopathy closely correlated with mortality.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2007; 42(3):241-9. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although all eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains are circulating in Japan, no cases of acute hepatitis with foreign HBV strains of genotype H have thus far been reported in Japan. Here, we report a 35-year-old Japanese patient with severe acute hepatitis who was domestically infected with genotype H HBV. On admission, he had a high HBV load of 1.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, elevated levels of total bilirubin (7.0 mg/dl) and alanine aminotransferase (3606 IU/l), and reduced prothrombin activity of 39.0%. The HB-JAIW05 isolate obtained in the present study was composed of 3215 nucleotides and had the highest similarity of 99.7% with the reported genotype H HBV isolate recovered from a Japanese blood donor. The HB-JAIW05 isolate had neither precore (A1896) nor core promoter (T1762/A1764) mutations. However, upon comparison with the consensus sequence of ten reported HBV isolates of the same genotype, the HB-JAIW05 isolate had 17 nucleotide substitutions including five missense mutations in the P gene, which may be related to vigorous replication of HBV in this case. He had no history of traveling abroad, but had had extramarital sexual contact with two Japanese women living in Iwate, Japan, 2 weeks and 2 months before the disease onset, respectively. Our results suggest that rare HBV genotypes such as H may be spreading in Japan via sexual contact. Further molecular epidemiological studies on HBV to clarify the exact changing profiles of de novo HBV infection in Japan in relation to genotype and genomic variability are warranted.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2007; 42(2):168-75. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 65-year-old Japanese man was hospitalized because of acute hepatitis and severe cholestasis due to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection combined with a drug reaction to a cold preparation. He died of disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe intestinal bleeding due to systemic cytomegalovirus reactivation following the development of severe eruptions with marked eosinophilia due to drug hypersensitivity to taurine and ursodeoxycholate preparations. The close interaction between viral infection or reactivation and drug hypersensitivity was considered as a pathophysiology in this case, which emphasizes the need for further study of the immunological mechanism of the interaction.
    Hepatology Research 02/2007; 37(2):158 - 165. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activin A-follistatin system is known to play a critical role in hepatocyte regeneration during the repair of liver tissue. However, the relationship between blood levels of these compounds and the severity and prognosis of acute liver injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of circulating activin A and follistatin in patients with acute liver disease. Serum activin A and plasma follistatin levels were determined on admission by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 32 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 23 patients with acute severe hepatitis (ASH) and 16 patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Both serum activin A and plasma follistatin levels were significantly elevated in patients with ASH and ALF when compared with those in patients with AH and normal controls (NC). Although plasma follistatin levels were significantly and positively correlated with serum activin A levels (r = 0.413, P < 0.001), the follistatin and activin A (F/A) ratio showed distinct deviation from NC between AH and ALF patients. The F/A ratio in AH patients was significantly elevated when compared with NC, but was significantly reduced in ALF patients. Furthermore, the F/A ratio in non-surviving ALF patients was significantly lower than that in survivors. Levels of serum activin A and plasma follistatin were significantly and negatively correlated with prothrombin time (PT) and normotest (NT) levels, while the F/A ratio showed significant and positive correlations with PT and NT. Decreased blood F/A ratio in ALF patients may be a reliable indicator of the severity of acute liver injury and prognosis in ALF.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2006; 21(2):374-80. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is synthesized by hepatocytes and excreted into urine. Plasma and urine UTI levels have been measured to evaluate whether these levels may be useful markers in various pathological conditions. However, there has been no study on plasma and urine UTI levels in patients with acute liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma and urine UTI levels and their relationship with the severity of hepatic damage in patients with acute liver diseases. Plasma and urine UTI levels were measured by newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 15 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 12 patients with acute severe hepatitis (ASH) and 10 patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH), as assessed on admission. The serial changes in plasma and urine UTI were also observed in some patients with AH and ASH. Plasma UTI levels (U/mL, median [25-75th percentile]) were: 11.0, (9.5-16.1) in patients with AH; 7.8 (5.6-11.5) in those with ASH; 6.5 (4.0-9.5) in patients with FH; and 9.7 (7.3-11.0) in normal controls. Plasma UTI levels in patients with FH were significantly lower than in those with AH. Plasma UTI levels showed significant positive correlations with the levels of prothrombin time (PT), hepaplastin test, antithrombin III, alpha2-plasmin inhibitor, plasminogen (Plg) and fibrinogen. After the recovery of liver dysfunction, increased plasma UTI levels in patients with AH were decreased, whereas previously decreased plasma UTI levels in patients with ASH were increased. Urine UTI levels were significantly increased in patients with AH compared with those of normal controls. In patients with ASH and FH, urine UTI levels were increased but not significantly. Urine UTI levels significantly positively correlated with PT and Plg. After the recovery of liver dysfunction, previously increased urine UTI levels in patients with AH were decreased. The correlation between plasma UTI and urine UTI levels was not significant. The findings of the present study suggested that the levels of plasma and urine UTI changed in patients with AH and were closely related to the abnormalities of coagulo-fibrinolysis, including PT. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these levels may be useful markers to predict the prognosis of acute hepatitis.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2002; 17(2):140-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor