[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Colonoscopy for screening the population at an average risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recommended by many leading gastrointestinal associations. Objectives. The objective was to assess the quality, complications and acceptance rate of colonoscopy by patients. Methods. We prospectively gathered data from colonoscopies which were performed between October 2003 and September 2006. Patients were asked to return a follow-up form seven days after the procedure. Those who failed to do so were contacted by phone. Results. 6584 patients were included (50.4% males). The average age of subjects was 57.73 (SD 15.22). CRC screening was the main indication in 12.8%. Cecal intubation was achieved in 92% of patients and bowel preparation was good to excellent in 76.2%. The immediate outcome after colonoscopy was good in 99.4%. Perforations occurred in 3 cases-1 in every 2200 colonoscopies. Significant bleeding occurred in 3 cases (treated conservatively). 94.2% of patients agreed to undergo repeat colonoscopy in the future if indicated. Conclusions. The good quality of examinations, coupled with the low risk for complications and the good acceptance by the patients, encourages us to recommend colonoscopy as a primary screening test for CRC in Israel.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy 01/2012; 2012:612542.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the normal ultrasonographic growth of the fetal superior sinus sagittalis (SSS) throughout gestation.
In a prospective cross-sectional study, measurements of the fetal sinus sagittalis were obtained in patients undergoing elective fetal anatomical surveys or fetal growth scan at between 16.6 and 34.7 weeks of gestation. Special attention was given to the SSS of the fetal brain. On the coronal plane, the SSS may be easily identified immediately below the frontal bone, and anterior to the fetal head parenchyma.
206 fetuses were scanned. A regression line of the SSS was created throughout gestation and a first-degree correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and the SSS height (r = 0.418; p < 0.0001; SSS = -0.015 + 0.0178 × GA). Normal values were established for different gestational weeks.
We provide ultrasonographic dimensions of the fetal SSS across pregnancy. This data potentially allows for prenatal diagnosis of abnormal appearance of the SSS.
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 12/2011; 31(1):26-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the normal ultrasonographic growth of the corpus callosum (CC) in normal and in growth-restricted fetuses throughout gestation.
This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Consecutive routine biometric measurements and fetal organ scans were obtained in patients undergoing elective fetal anatomical surveys or evaluation of the fetal growth between 16 to 33 weeks. Special attention was given to the CC of the fetal brain. In addition, we evaluated the growth of the CC in growth-restricted fetuses throughout pregnancy.
Two hundred and fifty two normal fetuses were scanned between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation. A regression line of the CC was established through gestation and a second-degree correlation was found between gestational age and CC outer margin. Twenty four growth-restricted fetuses were also evaluated in which the growth of the CC was significantly below both the 25(th) and 50(th) percentiles in 77.3% and 95.5%, respectively, for the same gestational age.
We provide nomograms for the ultrasonographic dimensions of the fetal CC that allows for prenatal diagnosis of abnormal dimensions of CC. The significance of abnormal CC growth in growth-restricted fetuses should be further evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The findings of interim fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) predict progression-free survival of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Historically, the assessment was based on a static all-or-none scoring system. However, the clinical significance of any positivity in interim FDG-PET/CT has not been defined.
Ninety-six patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent interim FDG-PET/CT were evaluated using dynamic and visual scores, employing mediastinal or liver blood pool uptake as a comparator. FDG-PET/CT was prospectively defined as positive if any abnormal F(18)FDG uptake was present. In a retrospective analysis dynamic score 0 indicated resolution of all disease sites; score 1 defined a single residual focus; score 2 denoted a reduction in the number of foci; score 3 defined a reduction in intensity with no reduction in number; and score 4 indicated no change in the number and intensity of foci or appearance of new foci.
The dynamic visual score review reduced the number of positive interim studies from 24 to 6 if a score of 2 or less was considered negative, with significantly better specificity (96%) as compared to static visual scores (78%-86%). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates in patients who had a negative dynamic score were 92% and 97%, respectively; the corresponding figures for patients with positive results were 50% and 67%.
A dynamic visual score may be a better indicator for tailoring therapy than static visual scoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematologica 2010 [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.3324/haematol.2009.016105 Publisher's Disclaimer. E-publishing ahead of print is increasingly important for the rapid dissemination of science. Haematologica is, therefore, E-publishing PDF files of an early version of manuscripts that have completed a regular peer review and have been accepted for publication. E-publishing of this PDF file has been approved by the authors. After having E-published Ahead of Print, manuscripts will then undergo technical and English editing, typesetting, proof correction and be presented for the authors' final approval; the final version of the manuscript will then appe-ar in print on a regular issue of the journal. All legal disclaimers that apply to the journal also pertain to this production process. Haematologica (pISSN: 0390-6078, eISSN: 1592-8721, NLM ID: 0417435, www.haemato-logica.org) publishes peer-reviewed papers across all areas of experimental and clinical hematology. The journal is owned by the Ferrata Storti Foundation, a non-profit organiza-tion, and serves the scientific community with strict adherence to the principles of open access publishing (www.doaj.org). In addition, the journal makes every paper published immediately available in PubMed Central (PMC), the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background In many countries there is a gap between the clinical evidence for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and implementation in clinical practice. Inadequate control of cardiovascular risk factors and underutilization of aspirin, statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers are well-established examples. The optimal approach to implementation of CVD prevention in clinical practice is still under debate. The screening and monitoring (SaM) approach is based on cyclic monitoring and individual treatment of patients with cardiovascular risk factors in the primary care setting. After achieving improvements in risk factor levels and in the use of preventive medications in a pilot study, it was decided to test the efficacy of this approach in a larger population at risk.Methods Five primary care clinics adopted the SaM approach. A total of 1622 patients with established CVD, diabetes mellitus or hypertension were assessed by their family physicians for cardiovascular risk factors and use of medications for cardiovascular risk reduction. Interventions were made according to accepted clinical guidelines. Cardiovascular risk factor levels and the use of medications for CVD prevention were retrospectively analyzed.Results The results demonstrated significant reductions in blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as well as significant increases in the use of medications for CVD prevention.Conclusion A systematic approach to CVD reduction, with an emphasis on multiple risk factor assessment and use of preventive medications in patients at cardiovascular risk, yielded significant improvements in measures of the quality of preventive care.
Primary Health Care Research & Development 12/2009; 11(01):29 - 40.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine sonographic dimensions of the fetal facial profile in normal pregnancy.
This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 397 normal healthy fetuses at 14-33 weeks of gestation. After exclusion of the small numbers of patients at the upper GAs, 379 patients between 14.0 and 26.9 weeks of gestation were included in the analyses. The sagittal plane of the fetal facial profile was evaluated using transvaginal and transabdominal ultrasound. Distances from the tip of the nose to the mouth (the line between the lips), from the mouth to the gnathion (lower chin), from the upper philtrum to the mouth, and from the mouth to the upper concavity of the chin were measured and are presented according to gestational age (GA).
There was a significant linear correlation between GA and the distance from the tip of the nose to the mouth (r = 0.943; P < 0.00001; y = -37.98 + 7.54 x GA), from the mouth to the gnathion (r = 0.946; P < 0.00001; y = -46.34 + 7.95 x GA), from the upper level of the philtrum to the mouth (r = 0.71; P < 0.00001; y = 0.22 + 3.33 x GA) and from the mouth to the upper concavity of the chin (r = 0.665; P < 0.00001; y = 1.65 + 2.95 x GA). The ratio between the distance from the tip of the nose to the mouth and that from the mouth to the gnathion was also almost constant throughout gestation, as was the ratio between the distance from the upper philtrum to the mouth and that from the mouth to the upper concavity of the chin.
We provide normative data of the fetal facial profile across GA. Our data offer a potential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal fetal facial profile.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2009; 35(2):191-4. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Term-born children conceived by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are reportedly taller than naturally conceived (NC) children. High levels of growth promoting hormones and epigenetic imprinting have been suggested as pathogenetic mechanisms.
Tall stature in prematurely born IVF-conceived (IVF-C) children suggests pre- or early implantation imprinting rather than a postnatal effect.
We studied 334 very low birthweight (VLBW: birth weight <1500 g) children born prematurely during 1995-1999 and obtained their anthropometric measures at 6-10 years of age. Perinatal and neonatal data were obtained from the Israeli VLBW database. We compared IVF-C, ovulating agents conceived (OA-C) and naturally conceived (NC) groups of children with respect to their and their parents' anthropometry and their perinatal/neonatal variables.
Childhood height standard deviation scores (SDSs) were greatest in IVF-C (-0.12 (SD 1.25); p<0.022) and insignificantly greater in OA-C (-0.37 (SD 1.02)) as compared to NC (-0.58 (SD 1.36)) children. The IVF-C and NC groups were significantly different regarding 17 parental and perinatal variables; however, multiple regression analysis including these variables showed that, as compared with NC, IVF-C children had significantly older mothers at birth with earlier follow-up during pregnancy and more multi-fetal pregnancies.
IVF-C and to a lesser extent OA-C prematurely born children are taller than otherwise NC children. After ruling out postnatal and parental causes, we speculate that pre- or early implantation factors might have contributed to the taller stature of IVF-C children.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 09/2009; 94(5):F355-9. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perinatal-neonatal course of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants might affect their childhood growth. We evaluated the effect of parental anthropometry and perinatal and neonatal morbidity of VLBW neonates on their childhood growth.
We obtained parental anthropometry, height and weight at age 6-10.5 years of 334 children born as VLBW infants. Parental, perinatal and neonatal data of these children were tested for association with childhood anthropometry.
(1) Maternal and paternal weight standard deviation score (SDS) and discharge weight (DW) SDS were associated with childhood weight SDS (R(2)= 0.111, p < 0.00001); (2) Maternal and paternal height SDS, corrected gestational age (GA) at discharge, maternal assisted reproduction and SGA status were associated with childhood height SDS (R(2)= 0.208, p < 0.00001); (3) paternal weight SDS, DW SDS and surfactant therapy were associated with childhood body mass index (BMI) SDS (R(2)= 0.096, p < 0.00001). 31.1% of VLBW infants had DW SDS < -1.88, and are to be considered small for gestational age ('SGA'). One quarter of these infants did not catch up by age 6-10.5 years.
Childhood anthropometry of VLBW infants depends on parental anthropometry, postnatal respiratory morbidity and growth parameters at birth and at discharge. Almost one-third of VLBW premature infants had growth restriction at discharge from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), a quarter of whom did not catch up by age 6-10.5 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Disease behavior in Crohn’s disease (CD) may be modified by disease location and genotype. Disease behavior may change over
time, and thus analysis requires follow-up. To date, there have been few pediatric studies that have evaluated the association
between disease behavior and genotype with prolonged follow-up. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of genotype,
phenotype, and ethnicity on disease behavior in pediatric CD. Methods Evaluation of 128 pediatric CD was followed by analysis of 232 pediatric and adult-onset CD patients. Inclusion required
at least 2 years of follow-up. Phenotype, ethnicity, and disease duration were recorded. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms
in the NOD2/CARD15 gene. Results Colonic involvement was more frequent in younger patients. Pediatric disease at end of follow-up was classified as inflammatory
(78%), penetrating (7%), and stricturing (17%). Duration of follow-up (mean 4.9 pediatric and 6.4years mixed) was associated
with more stricturing and penetrating disease. There was no association between mean age of onset and NOD2/CARD15, or either of these with disease behavior. These observations were replicated in the mixed cohort. Sephardic Jewish origin
was inversely correlated with inflammatory behavior (P=0.006), independent of NOD2/CARD15 genotype. Conclusions Duration of disease and ethnicity, irrespective of NOD2/CARD15 genotype and age of onset, were the only predictors for penetrating or stricturing disease.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2008; 54(1):142-150. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polymeric diet rich in transforming growth factor-beta 2 used as a single nutrient has been shown to induce remission in 79% of children with Crohn's disease.
To summarize the experience of several pediatric gastroenterology units in Israel using a TGFbeta2-enriched polymeric diet (Modulen IBD) supplementation in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease.
In a retrospective study we reviewed the charts of 28 children with Crohn's disease (10 girls, 18 boys) who received, in addition to conventional treatment, Modulen IBD as a supplement to their regular nutrition. These children were compared with 18 children supplemented with standard polymeric formula (Ensure Plus) and 18 children without formula supplementation. We recorded clinical manifestations, growth, and the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index before and after initiation of the polymeric diet.
The Modulen-treated children showed a significant decrease in PCDAI from 34.3 to 15.7 (P< 0.0001). A significant decrease in PCDAI was recorded also in the Ensure Plus group, from 35 to 22 (P= 0.02) but not in the non-supplemented group. Significant improvements in body mass index (P = 0.01) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P= 0.03) were recorded at follow-up (median 3.4 months) only in the Modulen IBD group.
In this cohort of children with Crohn's disease, supplementation of the diet with Modulen IBD as well as supplementation with Ensure Plus was associated with a decrease in PCDAI. The children supplemented with Modulen IBD also showed improvement in BMI, suggesting an additional advantage of nutritional therapy in children with this disease.
The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ 08/2008; 10(7):503-7. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the reliability of visual assessment of bilirubin levels (BiliEye) in newborns as a screening tool to detect significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
5 neonatologists and 17 nurses estimated 3,532 BiliEye in 1,129 term and late preterm (> or = 35 weeks) infants before discharge from the nursery, at 62 +/- 24 hours. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels were measured concomitantly.
Mean TSB and BiliEye were 6.7 +/- 2.9 mg/dL (range, 0.4-18.2 mg/dL) and 6.6 +/- 3.2 mg/dL (range, 0.0-17.2 mg/dL), respectively, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.752, P < .0001), but other measures of agreement were poor. 61.5% of the 109 babies with TSB levels in high-risk zones were clinically misclassified. The area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristics plotted for these high-risk zones was 0.825, but became low for early discharge (< or = 36 hours; AUC = 0.638) and late preterm (35-37 weeks; AUC = 0.613). There was significant interobserver variation (low weighted kappa, 0.363).
Although there was good correlation between BiliEye and actual TSB level, visual assessment was unreliable as a screening tool to detect significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia before discharge. Babies with TSB levels within high-risk zones may be clinically misdiagnosed as low-risk, resulting in inadequate follow-up.
The Journal of pediatrics 06/2008; 152(6):782-7, 787.e1-2. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the recent advances in methods for culturing bacteria, at least 24 hours are needed for most pathogens to be recognized. This period may be critical for the differentiation of a true bacteremia from a contaminated culture. We studied the value of CRP compared to total leukocytes (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in differentiating positive, contaminated and negative blood cultures in various pediatric infectious diseases (pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis (AGE), urinary tract infection (UTI) and acute otitis media (AOM)).
Data was collected retrospectively from patients who were admitted or discharged from to the pediatric ward with one of the above diagnoses. Children with chronic diseases or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study.
CRP levels were significantly higher in the positive culture group versus contaminated and negative groups (101 mg/L, 30.9 mg/L, 34.3 mg/L, respectively). The total leukocytes and ANC were not of value. When divided into diagnostic subgroups, CRP levels were significantly higher in the positive blood culture groups in patients with pneumonia and AGE. The sensitivity of a CRP value above 85 mg/L for pneumonia and UTI and above 30 mg/L for AGE and AOM in discriminating true positive versus contaminated culture was 70% with a specificity of 67.6% and a positive predictive value of 60.3%.
CRP may be used for differentiation between positive and contaminated blood cultures in children and have been shown to be a better predictor than WBC or ANC for this purpose.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 06/2008; 14(5):CR255-261. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) develops mostly in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. Besides prematurity and hyperoxia, other variables have been brought up as risk factors for ROP. We aimed to search risk factors for ROP by comparing two groups of preemies, one with and the other without ROP.
During 2004-2006, 27 VLBW premature infants developed ROP (ROP group). For each neonate in the ROP group, we chose a neonate born at similar gestational age (GA) (+/-1 week) but without ROP (control group). For each neonate of both groups, we recorded demographic, maternal, gestational, intrapartum, neonatal, interventional, growth and ophthalmologic data from patients' medical records.
Eleven of the tested variables were significantly different between the ROP and control groups in univariate analysis. However, only seven of these variables remained significantly different between groups when controlling each variable for GA: bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, p=0.04), duration of hospitalization (p=0.017), high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV, p=0.033), duration of oxygen therapy (p=0.023), surfactant therapy (p=0.045), inhaled steroids (p=0.015) and systemic steroids for BPD (p=0.007). These seven significant variables were related to respiratory morbidity and interventions. Multiple stepwise logistic regression including all significant variables in the univariate analysis showed that only systemic steroids remained significantly different between groups (p=0.007, OR 5.42, 95% CI 1.60-18.34).
Significantly more neonates in the ROP group received late postnatal systemic steroids as compared to controls. We speculate that steroids, by altering insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, might contribute to the pathogenesis of ROP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptic ulcers and erosions (PU&E) are thought to be uncommon in children. Patients with early exposure to Helicobacter pylori may be at a higher risk for early onset PU&E. Children in Israel have a high prevalence and early acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and have easy access to pediatric gastroenterologists and endoscopy. Our aim was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of PU&E in this population referred by Pediatric Gastroenterologists for an upper endoscopy.
We conducted a retrospective study over the years January 2003-May 2006. Over these years we had information on 751 diagnostic upper endoscopies. PU&E was regarded as erosive gastritis/duodenitis or ulcer in either the stomach or duodenum. H. pylori status was assessed using rapid urease test and gastric biopsies.
PU&E was detected in 169 (22.5%) patients (ulcers 51 (6.8%), erosions 118 (15.7%)). One hundred twenty-four had gastric PU&E and 58 had duodenal PU&E. H. pylori was positive in 112 (66.3%). H. pylori-associated PU&E becomes common after age 10 years, with gastric PU&E presenting much earlier than duodenal disease. Most of the H. pylori-negative PU&E were idiopathic and improved symptomatically on PPI treatment. Interestingly, 43% of patients with PU&E in our cohort were either immigrants from the former Soviet Union or of Israeli Arab origin.
PU&E appears to be common in this selected population with a relatively high incidence of gastric PU&E. H. pylori associated PU&E becomes common after age 10 years with gastric PU&E presenting much earlier than duodenal disease. Non H. pylori PU&E in children comprises approximately a third of all PU&E, are mostly idiopathic and appear earlier than H. pylori associated PU&E.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance and prognosis of a prolonged isolated elevation of serum aminotransferases without cholestasis (>3 months) in infants and young children, investigated for a variety of conditions, and to determine a protocol for their follow-up and investigation.
A combined prospective-retrospective analysis of apparently healthy babies and young children with isolated elevation of serum aminotransferases of at least 1.5 times above the norm for age which persisted for at least 3 months and whose creatine phosphokinase (CK), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels remained normal throughout the study duration. The children underwent the following investigations: abdominal ultrasound and infectious, metabolic and/or immunological investigation depending on the duration of the abnormality.
Six children were eliminated following the finding of positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen in the urine. 72 children were investigated (47 males and 25 females). The duration of serum aminotransferases elevation was 3-36 months (average 12.4, median 11.5 months). The initial, maximal and final alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were 85.5, 140.5 and 39.8 IU/l, respectively. Of seven children who had liver biopsies performed, three (42.8%) were suspected of having a glycogen storage disease which was not confirmed enzymatically. Four biopsies revealed non-specific histological changes.
Isolated elevation of serum aminotransferases in healthy looking young children is mostly a benign condition that usually resolves within a year. If no pathology is found during routine investigation, these children can be followed conservatively. Liver biopsy does not contribute much to the diagnosis and is probably unnecessary.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 01/2008; 92(12):1109-12. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the usefulness of 3-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound in distinguishing painful leiomyomas from focal myometrial contractions or nonpainful leiomyomas in pregnancy.
A 2D section of the area of interest in the uterine wall was first obtained in 29 patients to determine whether the pain originated from a myoma or a uterine contraction. Then, volume acquisition was activated and Doppler indices (vascularization index, flow index, and vascularization-flow index) were calculated for thickened and normal uterine wall.
Of 15 patients found to have uterine myomas, 11 had multiple tumors and 4 had single tumors. In the remaining 14 patients the painful uterine thickening proved to be a focal contraction. Painful segments of uterine thickening were associated with lower Doppler indices. Painful myomas were found to have significantly lower indices than normal uterine wall (P=0.008, 0.03, and 0.01 for VI, FI, and VFI, respectively, vs. 0.001, 0.003, and 0.01). However, the differences in indices between nonpainful myomas and uterine wall on the one hand, and nonpainful myomas and focal uterine contractions on the other, were not statistically significant.
Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound may be a sensitive and reliable tool for distinguishing painful uterine myomas from focal myometrial contractions and nonpainful myomas.
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 12/2007; 99(2):122-6. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-six term neonates born after maternal intrapartum fever, with premature rupture of membranes <18 hours and unknown maternal group B Streptococcus status had blood samples for complete blood count, C-reactive protein, culture, and 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification. Only 2 neonates were symptomatic and none had leukopenia, C-reactive protein >1.0 mg/dL, bacteremia, or positive polymerase chain reaction.