[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may provide donor cytotoxic T cell-/NK cell-mediated disease control in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). However, little is known about the prevalence of graft-vs-RMS effects and only a few case experiences have been reported.Methods:We evaluated allo-SCT outcomes of 30 European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)-registered patients with advanced RMS regarding toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after allo-SCT. Twenty patients were conditioned with reduced intensity and ten with high-dose chemotherapy. Twenty-three patients were transplanted with HLA-matched and seven with HLA-mismatched grafts. Three patients additionally received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs). Median follow-up was 9 months.Results:Three-year OS was 20% (s.e.±8%) with a median survival time of 12 months. Cumulative risk of progression was 67% (s.e.±10%) and 11% (s.e.±6%) for death of complications. Thirteen patients developed acute graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) and five developed chronic GvHD. Eighteen patients died of disease and four of complications. Eight patients survived in complete remission (CR) (median: 44 months). No patients with residual disease before allo-SCT were converted to CR.Conclusion:The use of allo-SCT in patients with advanced RMS is currently experimental. In a subset of patients, it may constitute a valuable approach for consolidating CR, but this needs to be validated in prospective trials.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 22 October 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.630 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV-infected B cells may not respond to rituximab treatment and may lead to a life-threatening post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy using EBV-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) as stimulating antigen has proved effective in restoring specific immunity. However, EBV presents several immunodominant antigens, and developing a swift and effective clinical-grade immunotherapy relies on the definition of a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) universal stimulating antigen.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six donors with a cellular immune response against EBV were immunoselected after stimulation with a new EBV antigen associated with an EBNA3 peptide pool.
After immunoselection, a mean of 0.53 ± 0.25 × 10(6) cells was recovered consisting of a mean of 24.77 ± 18.01% CD4(+)-secreting interferon (IFN)-γ and 51.42 ± 26.92% CD8(+)-secreting IFN-γ. The T memory stem cell sub-population was identified. EBV-specific T cells were expanded in vitro, and their ability to secrete IFN-γ and to proliferate after re-stimulation with EBV antigen was confirmed. A specific lysis was observed against autologous target cells pulsed with EBV peptide pools (57.6 ± 11.5%) and against autologous EBV-LCL (18.3 ± 7.3%). A mean decrease of 94.7 ± 3.3% in alloreactivity against third-party donor mononuclear cells with EBV-specific T cells was observed compared with PBMCs before selection.
Our results show that a combination of peptide pools including EBNA3 is needed to generate EBV-specific T cells with good specific cytotoxicity and devoid of alloreactivity, but as yet GMP grade is not fully achieved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is susceptible to latency and reactivation in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We investigated the incidence of HHV-6 DNAemia and factors related to HHV-6 DNAemia and death after allogeneic stem cell transplantations. We also explored the relationship between HHV-6 viral load and the presence of clinical signs. METHODS: Data concerning age, sex, transplantation conditions, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), treatments, clinical signs, outcome, HHV-6, and other infections were collected for a historical cohort of 390 HSCT performed between 1999 and 2008 in the Transplant Unit of Nancy University Hospital Center. Univariate analysis was used to evaluate influences between the different parameters. RESULTS: The study included 220 of the 390 allogeneic HSCTs. For the analyzed period, 44 patients (n=44/220, 20%) presented HHV-6 DNAemia in whole blood, including three integrated forms. Fifteen percent (7/41) of HHV-6-positive patients presented clinical signs not related to higher viral load (P=0.164). The factors associated with HHV-6 DNAemia were as follows: cord blood transplantation (P<0.001), conditioning regimen (P=0.030), acute GVHD (P=0.003), and the type of prophylactic treatment for GVHD (P=0.001). HHV-6 DNAemia was not significantly associated with cytomegalovirus infection (P=0.937). HHV-6 DNAemia was not associated with death (P=0.151). CONCLUSIONS: HHV-6 DNAemia was not so frequent after allogeneic transplantation. Factors associated with HHV-6 DNAemia were similar to those for other infections. No abnormally high death rate was observed in the HHV-6 positive population. The presence of clinical signs did not appear to be statistically related to HHV-6 viral load.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease is an inherited disorder in which phagocytes lack a functional NADPH oxidase and cannot produce superoxide anions. The most common form is caused by mutations in CYBB encoding gp91phox. We investigated 24 CGD patients and their families. Twenty-one mutations in CYBB were classified as X91(0), X91(+) or X91(-) variants according to cytochrome b (558) expression. Point mutations in encoding regions represented 50 % of the mutations found in CYBB, splice site mutations 27 %, deletions and insertions 23 %. Eight mutations in CYBB were novel leading to X91(0)CGD cases. Two of these were point mutations: c493G>T and a double mutation c625C>G in exon 6 and c1510C>T in exon 12 leading to a premature stop codon at Gly165 in gp91phox and missense mutations His209Arg/Thr503Ile respectively. Two novel splice mutations in 5'intronic regions of introns 1 and 6 were found. A novel deletion/insertion c1024_1026delCTG/insT results in a frameshift introducing a stop codon at position 346 in gp91phox. The last novel mutation was the insertion of a T at c1373 leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 484 in gp91phox. For the first time the precise size of two large mutations in CYBB was determined by array-comparative genomic hybridization and carriers' status were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. No clear correlation between clinical severity and CYBB mutations could be established. Of three mutations in CYBA, NCF1 and NCF2 leading to rare autosomal recessive CGD, one nonsense mutation c29G>A in exon 1 of NCF2 was new.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 05/2012; 32(5):942-58. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies lead to recurrent bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and bronchiectasis, even with adequate immunoglobulin replacement therapy. It is not known whether patients able to secrete IgM (eg, those with hyper-IgM [HIgM] syndrome) are as susceptible to these infections as patients who lack IgM production (eg, those with panhypogammaglobulinemia [PHG]).
This study is aimed at identifying specific microbiological and clinical (infections) characteristics that distinguish immunoglobulin-substituted patients with PHG from patients with HIgM syndrome.
A cohort of patients with HIgM syndrome (n = 25) and a cohort of patients with PHG (n = 86) were monitored prospectively for 2 years while receiving similar polyvalent immunoglobulin replacement therapies. Regular bacterial analyses of nasal swabs and sputum were performed, and clinical events were recorded. In parallel, serum and saliva IgM antibody concentrations were measured.
When compared with patients with PHG, patients with HIgM syndrome were found to have a significantly lower risk of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae carriage in particular (relative risk, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21-0.63). Moreover, patients with HIgM syndrome (including those unable to generate somatic hypermutations of immunoglobulin genes) displayed anti-nontypeable H influenzae IgM antibodies in their serum and saliva. Also, patients with HIgM syndrome had a lower incidence of acute respiratory tract infections.
IgM antibodies appear to be microbiologically and clinically protective and might thus attenuate the infectious consequences of a lack of production of other immunoglobulin isotypes in patients with HIgM syndrome. Polyvalent IgG replacement therapy might not fully compensate for IgM deficiency. It might thus be worth adapting long-term antimicrobial prophylactic regimens according to the underlying B-cell immunodeficiency phenotype.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2011; 129(3):770-7. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring of EBV DNAemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary, but not sufficient, to identify patients at risk of EBV-induced post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). Combining this with quantifying EBV-specific cellular immunity was shown to be helpful. In this study, we evaluated the value of IFNγ-Elispot assay in monitoring EBV DNAemia after HSCT.
EBV-DNA load in whole blood was monitored at least weekly using real-time PCR in 40 recipients of HSCT. Quantitative and qualitative T-cell recoveries, including EBV-specific T-cell quantification by Elispot assay, were studied 60, 100, 180 and 360 days after HSCT.
Among the 35 evaluable patients, 14 (35%) presented EBV DNAemia, only 2/14 (14%) needing pre-emptive treatment with rituximab. The greatest risk factor for EBV DNAemia was the presence of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (p=0.005). EBV-specific cellular immune recovery was monitored by IFNγ-Elispot assay. Using multivariate analysis, four factors were found to significantly influence IFNγ-Elispot results at defined times post-HSCT: EBV DNAemia, young age, global T-cell recovery and severe acute GVHD. In those cases where EBV DNAemia occurred and cleared spontaneously, Elispot results gave more than 1000 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6)PBMC.
Elispot assay may be usefully combined with EBV-DNA load monitoring to determine when a patient should receive pre-emptive treatment, or when the clinician should avoid Rituximab use which severely immunocompromises patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus (AdV) infections constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent guidelines recommend repeated screening for AdV in whole blood (WB), with quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the reference standard. Despite pre-emptive antiviral treatment based on qPCR in WB, the mortality rate after disseminated AdV infection remains very high. The aim of our study was to advance early screening for AdV, using a standardized method, so as to enable the earlier initiation of antiviral treatment or adoptive immunotherapy. The diagnostic value of AdV DNA quantification in stool samples was investigated retrospectively and compared with antigen detection and cell culture in 21 patients with AdV infection, from 182 patients followed in the Transplant Unit of Nancy University Hospital Centre, including 18 patients with systemic infection. In 16/18 patients with positive AdV viraemia, AdV DNA was present in stool samples earlier than in WB (median, 42 days; range, 3-199 days), whereas both antigen detection and cell culture were still negative for 11/18 patients with systemic AdV infection. The course of AdV viral loads in stool samples was predictive of adenoviraemia (sensitivity, 89%). Very late and lethal AdV infections were observed in cord blood transplant recipients, and would have been detected much earlier with the use of qPCR on stool samples. This study confirmed that quantification of AdV in stool samples by qPCR is beneficial for the management of transplant recipients, with or without antigen detection.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 02/2011; 17(11):1674-80. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcomes of Ewing tumor (ET) patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) were compared regarding the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and high-intensity conditioning (HIC) regimens as well as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched and HLA-mismatched grafts.
We retrospectively analyzed data of 87 ET patients from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Pediatric Registry for Stem Cell Transplantations, Asia Pacific Blood and Marrow Transplantation and MetaEICESS registries treated with allo-SCT. Fifty patients received RIC (group A) and 37 patients received HIC (group B). Twenty-four patients received HLA-mismatched grafts and 63 received HLA-matched grafts.
Median overall survival was 7.9 months [±1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.44-10.31] for group A and 4.4 months (±1.06, 95% CI 2.29-6.43) for group B patients (P = 1.3). Death of complications (DOC) occurred in 4 of 50 (0.08) and death of disease (DOD) in 33 of 50 (0.66) group A and in 16 of 37 (0.43) and 17 of 37 (0.46) group B patients, respectively. DOC incidence was decreased (P < 0.01) and DOD/relapse increased (P < 0.01) in group A compared with group B. HLA mismatch was not generally associated with graft-versus-Ewing tumor effect (GvETE).
There was no improvement of survival with RIC compared with HIC due to increased DOD/relapse incidence after RIC despite less DOC incidence. This implicates general absence of a clinically relevant GvETE with current protocols.
Annals of Oncology 01/2011; 22(7):1614-21. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two cases of invasive infections due to Geosmithia argillacea, an emerging mold, in patients with chronic granulomatous disease receiving prolonged azole antifungal prophylaxis. One patient died despite receiving a combination of four antifungals, and the other developed cerebral and medullary lesions under a combination of caspofungin, posaconazole, terbinafine, and gamma interferon.
Journal of clinical microbiology 01/2011; 49(4):1681-3. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, adenovirus infections are associated with relevant mortality and morbidity. Detection of adenovirus DNA by quantitative PCR is the "gold standard" for these patients. A total of 150 samples, namely, 78 whole-blood, 22 cerebrospinal fluid, 24 digestive biopsy, and 26 stool samples, from 29 patients, including 24 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, were tested for the detection of adenovirus using an in-house real-time quantitative PCR assay (A. Heim, C. Ebnet, G. Harste, and P. Pring-Akerblom, J. Med. Virol. 70:228-239, 2003) and the commercially available Adenovirus R-Gene kit. Adenovirus DNA was automatically isolated from whole-blood samples (Magna Pure LC system; Roche) or was manually extracted from other specimens (QIAamp; Qiagen) using the appropriate kit. The intra- and interassay reproducibilities and sensitivities were evaluated with cell culture supernatant dilutions. Of the 150 samples tested, 86 were found to be positive and 55 were found to be negative using both techniques. Nine (6%) discordant results were obtained. In most cases, discrepant results concerned samples with low viral loads. Quantitative results for all concordant positive samples were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. A good correlation between the results of the in-house assay and those of the kit assay was obtained (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). Regarding the threshold cycle value for internal control spiked samples, none of the 150 samples tested contained a PCR inhibitor. In conclusion, a relevant correlation of results between the in-house assay and the kit assay, as well as the high-quality reproducibility and sensitivity of the kit assay, warranted its use for follow-up of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.
Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2010; 48(9):3132-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus (ADV) infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, despite new antiviral treatment strategies. We describe here a complete clinical-grade generation of human anti-ADV cytotoxic T cells to propose an adoptive immunotherapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 7 healthy donors, known for their good cellular immunity against ADV, were stimulated for 6 hours with a synthetic peptide pool covering the ADV5 Hexon protein interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secreting cells were isolated on a clinical device. After immunoselection, a mean number of 1.01 +/- 0.84 x 10(6) total nucleated cells was obtained. The isolated ADV-specific T cells were mainly CD4+ (mean=56% +/- 20.8%, yield=51% +/- 32.4%) but also CD8+ (mean=42% +/- 27%, yield = 56% +/- 39.3%). Isolated T lymphocytes (CTL) were expanded to carry out functional tests. Ability of the expanded CTL to secrete IFN-gamma and to proliferate after restimulation with the ADV peptide pool was confirmed. A high cytotoxicity against autologous target cells loaded with ADV antigens was observed but not against nonloaded target cells. We observed a decrease of 1.27 log of the allogeneic reaction against non HLA identical healthy donor PBMC with CTL compared with the PBMC before selection. Clinical-grade generation of ADV-specific T cells was achieved with a synthetic antigen. This technology has the advantage of being fast, and is sufficiently reactive to be proposed for immunotherapy if antiviral treatment fails.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fatal case of disseminated Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection in an allogeneic stem cell transplant recipient is described. The patient was initially thought to have pulmonary aspergillosis, on the basis of clinical signs and antigenaemia, but Aspergillus was not isolated by culture. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was subsequently isolated from skin and then from sputum and stool. Further investigation revealed that the infection had spread from a primary pulmonary site to the skin. A review of the literature underscores the difficulty of diagnosing infections caused by such emerging fungal pathogens and the poor outcome of immunocompromised patients with non-Aspergillus mould infections.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 08/2009; 16(5):508-12. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is susceptible to latency and recurrence. A less-frequent form of HHV-6 persistence is the integration of viral DNA into host chromosomes.
To investigate HHV-6 viral load after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in whole blood (WB) and serum with regard to integrated HHV-6 transmission diagnosis.
HHV-6 DNA quantitation in serum and WB was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the follow-up of a 16-year-old girl after HSCT. In whole blood, results were expressed as HHV-6 genomic equivalent copies (gec) per milliliter of WB or per million cells.
HHV-6 viral load (undetectable before HSCT) increased up to 3.05 x 10(7)gec/10(6)cells. HHV-6 viral load in the donor sample (3.44 x 10(6)gec/10(6)cells) was in favor of viral transmission through HSCT. The correlation between viral load in WB and serum was significant (p=0.0005). Viral load results expressed as gec/10(6)cells in WB was more reliable than results expressed as gec/ml of whole blood.
These findings indicate that HHV-6 may be transmitted during HSCT as integrated virus contained in the graft. This reiterates that in the setting of HSCT, HHV-6 viral load must be correctly interpreted. Using HHV-6 viral load expressed as gec/10(6) cells may be more suitable for the follow-up of patients with integrated HHV-6.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 04/2009; 45(1):43-6. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report results of RIC AHSCT in four adolescents with aggressive refractory HL. They all received three or four lines of therapy prior to RIC-AHSCT including autografts. At the time of RIC, they were in partial response except for one patient who had progressive chemoresistant disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabin, busulfan and ATG. They all had a matched related donor. The median follow-up was 12-16-month post-allograft. All patient transplants engrafted rapidly. The median time of hospitalization was 35 days. The median time to neutrophil recovery (>or=500/muL) was 19 days. All the patients were in complete donor chimerism at day 60. Four patients developed skin (grade <or= II) acute GvHD. All responded and all are alive. Two patients are in CR, one in PR and one relapsed six months after grafting after a PR. Each of the patients in PR received two DLI. These observations, together with the responses after DLI, suggest the presence of a graft vs. lymphoma effect in patients with advanced active HL. Prospective studies are needed to identify the patients likely to benefit most from this treatment approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidental hepatic regenerating nodules rarely occur after haematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is one of these unusual benign tumors with characteristic imaging features. To determine the incidence and the outcome of FNH of the liver and improve the understanding of its pathogenesis, we prospectively surveyed a total of 138 patients who had undergone serial prospective pre- and post-transplantation evaluations of iron biomarkers, including ferritin and liver iron concentration assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventeen patients with a median delay of 6.4 years (2.2-13.6) developed FNH of the liver. All were children at the time of transplantation. MR images were typical for FNH in 16 patients; only one patient needed a confirmatory biopsy. Sixteen had received a myeloablative conditioning; six received a BU-based preparation and 10 TBI. Three patients experienced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Neither complication nor malignant transformation has been reported to date. FNH of the liver seems to be a frequent delayed benign complication following HSCT, probably of iatrogenic vascular origin. Basic clinical and diagnostic imaging follow-up is warranted.
Bone marrow transplantation 10/2008; 43(2):127-32. · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A young boy with a confirmed complete DiGeorge Syndrome (cDGS) underwent a peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplantation (PBMCT) from his HLA-identical sister at 4.5 years of age, without a conditioning regimen. Eight years later, he is healthy with good immunological functions in the presence of a stable mixed T-cell chimerism. Absence of recent thymic emigrants is confirmed. We observe an inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio, related to the CD8 subset expansion, a skewing of the TCR repertoire, especially on the CD8+ subset and a telomere loss on the CD8+ cells compared to the donor. However, these anomalies do not seem to have an impact on functional immunity. PBMCT in cDGS using an HLA-matched sibling donor provides good long-lasting immunity and is an easy alternative to bone marrow transplantation and to thymic transplantation.