[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of novel invitation strategies on population participation in faecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening.
A community screening programme in Adelaide, South Australia.
In total, 2400 people aged 50-74 years were randomly allocated to one of four CRC screening invitation strategies: (a) Control: standard invitation-to-screen letter explaining risk of CRC and the concept, value and method of screening; (b) Risk: invitation with additional messages related to CRC risk; (c) Advocacy: invitation with additional messages related to advocacy for screening from previous screening programme participants and (d) Advance Notification: first, a letter introducing Control letter messages followed by the standard invitation-to-screen. Invitations included an FIT kit. Programme participation rates were determined for each strategy relative to control. Associations between participation and sociodemographic variables were explored.
At 12 weeks after invitation, participation was: Control: 237/600 (39.5%); Risk: 242/600 (40.3%); Advocacy: 216/600 (36.0%) and Advance Notification: 290/600 (48.3%). Participation was significantly greater than Control only in the Advance Notification group (Relative risk [RR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.43). This effect was apparent as early as two weeks from date of offer; Advance Notification: 151/600 (25.2%) versus Control: 109/600 (18.2%, RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.73).
Advance notification significantly increased screening participation. The effect may be due to a population shift in readiness to undertake screening, and is consistent with the Transtheoretical Model of behaviour change. Risk or lay advocacy strategies did not improve screening participation. Organized screening programmes should consider using advance notification letters to improve programme participation.
Journal of Medical Screening 02/2007; 14(2):73-5. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the personal barriers that limit participation in faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening for colorectal cancer, non-participants from a recent screening initiative were sent detailed questionnaires, defining their reasons for not participating, as well as how to make screening more attractive. The important barrier was procrastination. The type of FOBT kit offered influenced the reasons for not participating. Convenient FOBT and greater general practitioner involvement may be important for optimizing community acceptance of FOBT-based screening.
Internal Medicine Journal 10/2006; 36(9):607-10. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonoscopic based surveillance is recommended for patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer. The appropriate interval between surveillance colonoscopies remains in debate, as is the "miss rate" for colorectal cancer within such screening programmes.
The main aim of this study was to determine whether a one-off interval faecal occult blood test (FOBT) facilitates the detection of significant neoplasia within a colonoscopic based surveillance programme. Secondary aims were to determine if invitees were interested in participating in interval screening, and to determine whether interval lesions were missed or whether they developed rapidly since the previous colonoscopy
Patients enrolled in a colonoscopic based screening programme due to a personal history of colorectal neoplasia or a significant family history.
Patients within the screening programme were invited to perform an immunochemical FOBT (Inform). A positive result was followed by colonoscopy; significant neoplasia was defined as colorectal cancer, adenomas either > or =10 mm or with a villous component, high grade dysplasia, or multiplicity (>/=3 adenomas). Participation rates were determined for age, sex, and socioeconomic subgroups. Colonoscopy recall databases were examined to determine the interval between previous colonoscopy and FOBT offer, and correlations between lesion characteristics and interval time were determined.
A total of 785 of 1641 patients invited (47.8%) completed an Inform kit. A positive result was recorded for 57 (7.3%). Fifty two of the 57 test positive patients completed colonoscopy; 14 (1.8% of those completing the FOBT) had a significant neoplastic lesion. These consisted of six colorectal cancers and eight significant adenomas.
A one off immunochemical faecal occult blood test within a colonoscopy based surveillance programme had a participation rate of nearly 50% and appeared to detect additional pathology, especially in patients with a past history of colonic neoplasia.