[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is synthesized by liver and is present at relatively high concentration in the plasma of vertebrates. We have previously described the association of a HRG-like molecule to purified rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD). We also provided the first evidence for the presence of a HRG-like protein in human skeletal muscle where a positive correlation between HRG content and total determined AMPD activity has been shown. In the present paper we investigate the origin of skeletal muscle HRG. The screening of a human skeletal muscle cDNA expression library using an anti-HRG antibody failed to reveal any positive clone. The RT-PCR analysis, performed on human skeletal muscle RNA as well as on RNA from the rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line, failed to show any mRNA specific for the plasma HRG or for the putative muscle variant. When the RD cells were incubated with human plasma HRG, a time-dependent increase of the HRG immunoreactivity was detected both at the plasma membrane level and intracellularly. The internalisation of HRG was inhibited by the addition of heparin. The above data strongly suggest that skeletal muscle cells do not synthesize the muscle variant of HRG but instead can actively internalise it from plasma.
European journal of histochemistry: EJH 01/2011; 55(1):e6. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously provided evidence for a dinuclear zinc site in rabbit skeletal muscle AMPD compatible with a (micro-aqua)(micro-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with an average of two histidine residues at each metal site. XAS of the zinc binding site of the enzyme in the presence of PRN favors a model where PRN is added to the coordination sphere of one of the two zinc ions increasing its coordination number to five. The uncompetitive nature of the inhibition of AMPD by fluoride reveals that the anion probably displaces the nucleophile water molecule terminally coordinated to the catalytic Zn(1) ion at the enzyme C-terminus, following the binding of AMP at the Zn(2) ion located at N-terminus of the enzyme. Thus, the two Zn ions in the AMPD metallocenter operate together as a single catalytic unit, but have independent function, one of them (Zn(1)) acting to polarize the nucleophile water molecule, whilst the other (Zn(2)) acts transiently as a receptor for an activating substrate molecule. The addition of fluoride to AMPD also abolishes the cooperative behaviour induced in the enzyme by the inhibitory effect of ATP at acidic pH that probably resides in the competition with the substrate for an adenine nucleotide specific regulatory site located in the Zn(2) ion binding region and which is responsible for the positive homotropic cooperativity behaviour of AMPD.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2008; 1774(12):1508-18. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: XAS of Zn-peptide binary and ternary complexes prepared using peptides mimicking the potential metal binding sites of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD) strongly suggest that the region 48-61 of the enzyme contains a zinc binding site, whilst the region 360-372 of the enzyme is not able to form 1:1 complexes with zinc, in contrast with what has been suggested for the corresponding region of yeast AMPD. XAS performed on fresh preparations of rabbit skeletal muscle AMPD provides evidence for a dinuclear zinc site in the enzyme compatible with a (mu-aqua)(mu-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with an average of two histidine residues at each metal site and a Zn-Zn distance of about 3.3 Angstrom. The data indicate that zinc is not required for HPRG/AMPD interaction, both zinc ions being bound to the catalytic subunit of the enzyme, one to the three conserved amino acid residues among those four assumed to be in contact with zinc in yeast AMPD, and the other at the N-terminal region, probably to His-52, Glu-53 and His-57. Tryptic digests of different enzyme preparations demonstrate the existence of two different protein conformations and of a zinc ion connecting the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of AMPD.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2007; 1774(2):312-22. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between oncogene activation and appearance of multidrug resistance (MDR) we transfected the human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, negative for the expression of the P-glycoprotein, with c-Ha-ras and/or c-erbB-2 oncogenes. The appearance of the MDR phenotype was then studied by evaluating mdr-1 mRNA expression, the presence of P-glycoprotein on the cell membrane and the onset of doxorubicin resistance, together with the effect of the reversing agent verapamil. We found that only MCF-10A transfected with both c-Ha-ras and c-erbB-2 oncogenes acquired the MDR phenotype.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2006; 59(2):208 - 211. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously described that, in healthy human skeletal muscle, an anti-histidine-proline-rich-glycoprotein (HPRG) antibody selectively binds to type IIB fibers that are well known to contain the highest level of AMP deaminase (AMPD) activity, suggesting an association of the HPRG-like protein to the enzyme isoform M. The present paper reports an immunohistochemical study performed on human skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with AMPD deficiency and carried out utilizing both the anti-HPRG antibody and an anti-AMPD antibody specific for the isoform M. A correlation between the muscle content of the HPRG-like protein and the level of AMPD activity was demonstrated. In the specimens from patients with Acquired AMPD deficiency the HPRG-immunoreactivity was less intense than that shown by the control subjects and was related to the residual AMPD activity. The patients affected by Primary and Coincidental AMPD deficiency, which were characterized by an absence of enzyme activity and AMPD immunoreactivity, showed the lowest HPRG immunoreactivity that was clearly detectable by Western blot analysis, but not by immunohistochemistry. The interpretation of the significance of these observations suggests a physiological mutual dependence between skeletal muscle HPRG and AMPD polypeptides with regard to their stability.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 02/2006; 27(1):83-92. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On storage at 4 degrees C, rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase undergoes limited proteolysis with the conversion of the native 85-kDa enzyme subunit to a 75-kDa core that is resistant to further proteolysis. Further studies have shown that limited proteolysis of AMP deaminase with trypsin, removing the 95-residue N-terminal fragment, converts the native enzyme to a species that exhibits hyperbolic kinetics even at low K+ concentration. The results of this report show that a 21-residue synthetic peptide, when incubated with the purified enzyme, is cleaved with a specificity identical to that reported for ubiquitous calpains. In addition, the cleavage of a specific fluorogenic peptide substrate by rabbit m-calpain is inhibited by a synthetic peptide that corresponds to residues 10-17 of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase; this peptide contains a sequence (K-E-L-D-D-A) that is present in the fourth subdomain A of rabbit calpastatin, suggesting that the N-terminus of AMP deaminase shares with calpastatin a regulatory sequence that might exert a protective role against the fragmentation-induced activation of AMP deaminase. These observations suggest that a calpain-like proteinase present in muscle removes from AMP deaminase a domain that holds the enzyme in an inactive conformation and which also contains a regulatory region that protects against unregulated proteolysis. We conclude that proteolysis of AMP deaminase is the basis of the large ammonia accumulation that occurs in skeletal muscle subjected to strong tetanic contraction or passing into rigor mortis.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2004; 1702(2):191-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) component of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase under denaturing and reducing conditions specifically binds to a Zn(2+)-charged affinity column and is only eluted with an EDTA-containing buffer that strips Zn(2+) from the gel. The isolated protein is homogeneous showing an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 95000 and the N-terminal sequence L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L-A-E-K-A-L-D-L-I, corresponding to that of rabbit plasma HPRG. The incubation with peptide-N-glycosidase F promotes the reduction of the apparent MW of isolated HPRG to 70000, characterizing it as a N-glycosylated protein. The separation from AMP deaminase of an 85-kDa component with a blocked N terminus is observed when the enzyme is applied to the Zn-charged column under nondenaturing conditions. On storage under reducing conditions, this component undergoes an 85- to 95-kDa transition yielding a L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L N-terminal sequence, suggesting that the shift in the migration on SDS/PAGE as well as the truncation of the protein at its N terminus are promoted by the reduction of a disulfide bond present in freshly isolated HPRG. The separation of HPRG induces a marked reduction in the solubility of AMP deaminase, strongly suggesting a role of HPRG in assuring the molecular integrity of the enzyme.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2003; 1645(1):81-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histidine–proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) component of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase under denaturing and reducing conditions specifically binds to a Zn2+-charged affinity column and is only eluted with an EDTA-containing buffer that strips Zn2+ from the gel. The isolated protein is homogeneous showing an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 95000 and the N-terminal sequence L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L-A-E-K-A-L-D-L-I, corresponding to that of rabbit plasma HPRG. The incubation with peptide-N-glycosidase F promotes the reduction of the apparent MW of isolated HPRG to 70000, characterizing it as a N-glycosylated protein. The separation from AMP deaminase of an 85-kDa component with a blocked N terminus is observed when the enzyme is applied to the Zn-charged column under nondenaturing conditions. On storage under reducing conditions, this component undergoes an 85- to 95-kDa transition yielding a L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L N-terminal sequence, suggesting that the shift in the migration on SDS/PAGE as well as the truncation of the protein at its N terminus are promoted by the reduction of a disulfide bond present in freshly isolated HPRG. The separation of HPRG induces a marked reduction in the solubility of AMP deaminase, strongly suggesting a role of HPRG in assuring the molecular integrity of the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaction of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase with a low molar excess of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) results in conversion of the enzyme into a species with about six trinitrophenylated lysine residues per molecule which no longer manifests positive homotropic cooperativity at pH 7.1 or at the optimal pH value of 6.5 in the presence of low K+ concentrations. Substitution of the reactive thiol groups with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) does not protect the enzyme from the TNBS-induced changes of the catalytic properties, indicating that cysteine residues modification is not at the basis of the effects of TNBS treatment on AMP deaminase and strongly suggesting the obligatory participation of lysine residues to the constitution of a regulatory anionic site to which AMP must bind to stimulate the enzyme at alkaline pH. The TNBS-treated enzyme is also completely desensitized to inhibition by ATP, but not to inhibition by GTP and stimulation by ADP. This observation suggests a connection between the operation of the hypothesized anionic activating site, responsible for positive homotropic cooperativity, and the inhibition exerted by anionic compounds that compete for the same site, among them the most efficient metabolite being probably ATP.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2001; 1544(1-2):123-32. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) is a protein that is synthesized by parenchimal liver cells. The protein has been implicated in a number of plasma-specific processes, including blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. We have recently reported the association of an HPRG-like protein with rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD). The results of the immunological analysis reported here demonstrate that an antibody against human plasma HPRG reacts with an AMPD preparation from human skeletal muscle. To probe the localization of the putative HPRG-like protein in human skeletal muscle, serial sections from frozen biopsy specimens were processed for immunohistochemical and histoenzymatic stains. A selective binding of the anti-HPRG antibody to Type IIB muscle fibers was detected, suggesting a preferential association of the novel protein to the AMPD isoenzyme contained in the fast-twitch glycolytic fibers.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 03/1999; 47(2):255-60. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Denaturation of rabbit skeletal-muscle AMP deaminase in acidic medium followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose in 8 M urea atpH 8.0 allows separation of two main peptide components of similar apparent molecular mass (75-80 kDa) that we tentatively assume correspond to two different enzyme subunits. Whereas the amino acid composition of one of the two peptides is in good agreement with that derived from the nucleotide sequence of the known rat and human AMPD1 cDNAs, the second component shows much higher contents of proline, glycine and histidine. N-Terminal sequence analysis of the fragments liberated by limited proteolysis with trypsin of the novel peptide reveals a striking similarity to the fragments produced by plasmin cleavage of the rabbit plasma protein called histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG). However, some divergence is observed between the sequence of one of the fragments liberated from AMP deaminase by a more extensive trypsinization and rabbit plasma HPRG in the region containing residues 472-477. A fragment with a blocked N-terminus, which was found among those liberated by proteolysis with pepsin of either whole AMP deaminase or the novel component of the enzyme, shows an amino acid composition quite different from that of the N-terminus of the known subunit of AMP deaminase. By coupling this observation with the detection in freshly prepared AMP deaminase of a low yield of the sequence (LTPTDX) corresponding to that of HPRG N-terminus, it can be deduced that in comparison with HPRG, the putative HPRG-like component of AMP deaminase contains an additional fragment with a blocked N-terminus, which is liberated by a proteolytic process during purification of the enzyme. The implications of the association to rabbit skeletal-muscle AMP deaminase of a HPRG-like protein species are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaction of rabbit skeletal-muscle AMP deaminase with a low molar excess of diethyl pyrocarbonate results in conversion of the enzyme into a species with one or two carbethoxylated histidine residues per subunit that retains sensitivity to ATP at pH 7.1 but, unlike the native enzyme, it is not sensitive to regulation by ATP at pH 6.5. This effect mimics that exerted on the enzyme by limited proteolysis with trypsin, which removes the 95-residue N-terminal region from the 80 kDa enzyme subunit. These observations suggest involvement of some histidine residues localized in the region HHEMQAHILH (residues 51-60) in the regulatory mechanism which stabilizes the binding of ATP to its inhibitory site at acidic pH. Carbethoxylation of two histidine residues per subunit abolishes the inhibition by ATP of the proteolysed enzyme at pH 7.1, suggesting the obligatory participation of a second class of histidine residues, localized in the 70 kDa subunit core, in the mechanism of the pH-dependent inhibition of the enzyme by ATP. At a slightly acidic pH, these histidine residues would be positively charged, resulting in a desensitized form of the enzyme similar to that obtained with the carbethoxylation reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous and culture condition-dependent changes in P-glycoprotein expression and activity have been monitored in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes by using immunoblotting, PCR and fluorimetric techniques. In hepatocytes cultured in basal medium without addition of dexamethasone or 3-methylcholanthrene, mdr mRNA and P-glycoprotein increased progressively throughout a 72 h culture period, in concert with an enhancement in the ability to extrude the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-123. Addition of 1 microM dexamethasone to the culture medium slowed down the increase in mdr mRNA and P-glycoprotein, while inducing a significant increase in the efficiency of R-123 efflux. Addition of either 100 nM or 10 microM DEX produced different changes in mdr mRNA and protein, unrelated to the rate of Rhodamine-123 extrusion. When 50 microM 3-methylcholanthrene was added to the culture medium in the absence of any hormone supplementation, no significant changes in P-glycoprotein activity and expression took place, in comparison with control cultures. On the contrary, in the presence of dexamethasone (100 nM and 1 microM), 3-methylcholanthrene induced an increase in mdr mRNA and in the amount of immunoblottable protein during culture, without producing any concomitant increase in the efficiency to extrude Rhodamine-123. The last phenomenon resulted to be an artefact, since 3-methylcholanthrene was shown to inhibit Rhodamine-123 transport competitively. These results indicate that rat hepatocyte P-glycoprotein may be variously modulated in vitro, by supplementing culture medium with hormones and/or xenobiotics. Functional activity of the P-glycoprotein is not necessarily related with protein amount and/or mdr RNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance is frequently found in patients affected by hematological malignancies and has been related to a poor prognosis of acute leukemia. In the present paper we report results concerning the activity of idarubicin, an anthracycline derivative, on the leukemic P388 and P388 doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. The results clearly show that idarubicin inhibits DNA synthesis in the resistant cell line more actively than doxorubicin.
Annals of Hematology 12/1993; 67(5):227-30. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantitate PCR-amplified DNA. This method was used to measure mRNA for the vitamin D-binding protein (Gc), beta-actin and the transferrin receptor (TR) gene in the Hep3B cell line. Total RNA from Hep3B cells was reverse transcribed to obtain cDNA, which was amplified in the presence of digoxigenin-dUTP by PCR. The PCR products were then hybridized in liquid phase to a biotinylated, nested capture probe for the respective sequences. The hybridized products were bound to a streptavidin-coated ELISA plate and were detected by an alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated antibody to digoxigenin. ELISA standard curves for Gc and control genes, beta-actin and TR, were obtained after PCR amplification of serial dilutions of Hep3B total RNA. As an external standard, an ELISA standard curve for Gc was obtained after PCR amplification of serial dilutions of a full-length Gc cDNA insert obtained from a recombinant plasmid. Thus, we were able to develop a non-isotopic quantitation assay for PCR-amplified DNA that is highly sensitive and has the specificity of hybridization-based methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D binding protein (Gc) is present on the surface of several blood cells and may interfere with the activity of 1,25(OH)2D3. It has previously been reported that Gc may bind to the U-937 line which is known to differentiate upon exposition to 1,25(OH)2D3. In the present paper, we evaluate the expression of Gc on the surface of U-937 and HL-60 lines. Both cell lines did not express Gc on their surface but U-937 cells were able to bind human purified Gc added to the medium whereas HL-60 were not. After culturing with 1,25(OH)2D3, HL-60 became able to bind Gc. This property seems to be related to the monocytic differentiation induced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conversely, when present together, 1,25(OH)2D3 reduces binding on U-937.
Leukemia Research 08/1993; 17(7):561-5. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The revertant activity of different compounds has been assayed on a multidrug-resistant human breast-cancer cell line (MCF 7/Dx). The calcium-channel blocker nicardipine showed the higher revertant ability when compared to cefoperazone or cyclosporin A at concentrations close to the pharmacological range. Interestingly, nicardipine was able to increase the revertant activities of both cefoperazone and cyclosporin A, but these latter were not able to enhance each other over a plateau. However, a limit of about 70% of growth inhibition of the line cultured in the presence of 60 microM doxorubicin seems to be insuperable at the concentrations employed. The combination of the three drugs brings the concentrations of drugs to the point at which the maximum possible inhibition is reached in the pharmacological range, but the complete reversion of chemoresistance is not reached when the doxorubicin is added at the concentration capable of reducing the cell proliferation by 50%.
International journal of tissue reactions 02/1993; 15(1):17-23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A monoclonal antibody, E12, to human Gc globulin was raised in murine somatic cell using purified Gc. The antibody was subtyped IgG2bκ and had a kd of 3.0β10−8 M for antigen Gc. Monospecificity for Gc was demonstrated by Western blotting of normal human serum using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. As judged by ELISA, actin inhibitted binding of E12 to Gc in dose-dependent fashion. Affinity chromatography studies further showed that ternary complexes of actin-Gc-E12 were not formed, and actin displaced Gc from Gc-E12 complexes. Proteolytic digestion of Gc with trypsin showed that the monoclonal antibody E12 reacted with the major 30-kDa tryptic fragment containing the amino terminal fragment of Gc, but actin did not react with this fragment. These results indicate that interaction of actin with Gc causes conformational changes which inhibit binding of E12.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/1992; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of 533 patients over 65 years old (153 males and 380 females), admitted to geriatric units for various medical diseases, 111 (20.8%) were anemic. Among males the prevalence of anemia was 30.1%, among females 17.1%. Three principal causes of anemia were revealed. The most frequent (42.3%) was microcytic, hypochromic anemia, with low levels of serum iron concentrations, related to gastrointestinal diseases (with chronic occult blood loss). 38.7% of anemic elderly people was affected by chronic diseases. In 19.0% a folate (16 case) and iron (5 cases) deficiency was revealed. These results suggest that anemia in the elderly is always pathological; hemoglobin values lower than 12 g/dl should be considered abnormal and investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Vitamin D3 metabolites have been shown to be able to induce monocytic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. In this paper we report the preliminary results of an uncontrolled clinical trial where low doses of ARA-C and 1(OH)D3 were administered to patients affected by acute non lymphoid leukemia. The achievement of complete or partial remission was recorded. Morphological and cytochemical studies were performed in order to control the blastic populations under therapy. Immunocytochemical studies were also performed in some patients in order to detect the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors in the blast population. Seventeen percent reached complete remission and 45% reached only a partial remission. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results are in line with those showing that low doses of ARA-C are an effective treatment in this type of leukemia. In some cases (7/11), a monocytic/monoblastic shift was detected. The demonstration of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors in some blasts is also reported. Thus it is possible to suggest that the vitamin D metabolite displays "in vivo" the differentiating activity already shown "in vitro".