[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is synthesized by liver and is present at relatively high concentration in the plasma of vertebrates. We have previously described the association of a HRG-like molecule to purified rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD). We also provided the first evidence for the presence of a HRG-like protein in human skeletal muscle where a positive correlation between HRG content and total determined AMPD activity has been shown. In the present paper we investigate the origin of skeletal muscle HRG. The screening of a human skeletal muscle cDNA expression library using an anti-HRG antibody failed to reveal any positive clone. The RT-PCR analysis, performed on human skeletal muscle RNA as well as on RNA from the rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line, failed to show any mRNA specific for the plasma HRG or for the putative muscle variant. When the RD cells were incubated with human plasma HRG, a time-dependent increase of the HRG immunoreactivity was detected both at the plasma membrane level and intracellularly. The internalisation of HRG was inhibited by the addition of heparin. The above data strongly suggest that skeletal muscle cells do not synthesize the muscle variant of HRG but instead can actively internalise it from plasma.
European journal of histochemistry: EJH 01/2011; 55(1):e6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously provided evidence for a dinuclear zinc site in rabbit skeletal muscle AMPD compatible with a (micro-aqua)(micro-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with an average of two histidine residues at each metal site. XAS of the zinc binding site of the enzyme in the presence of PRN favors a model where PRN is added to the coordination sphere of one of the two zinc ions increasing its coordination number to five. The uncompetitive nature of the inhibition of AMPD by fluoride reveals that the anion probably displaces the nucleophile water molecule terminally coordinated to the catalytic Zn(1) ion at the enzyme C-terminus, following the binding of AMP at the Zn(2) ion located at N-terminus of the enzyme. Thus, the two Zn ions in the AMPD metallocenter operate together as a single catalytic unit, but have independent function, one of them (Zn(1)) acting to polarize the nucleophile water molecule, whilst the other (Zn(2)) acts transiently as a receptor for an activating substrate molecule. The addition of fluoride to AMPD also abolishes the cooperative behaviour induced in the enzyme by the inhibitory effect of ATP at acidic pH that probably resides in the competition with the substrate for an adenine nucleotide specific regulatory site located in the Zn(2) ion binding region and which is responsible for the positive homotropic cooperativity behaviour of AMPD.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2008; 1774(12):1508-18. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: XAS of Zn-peptide binary and ternary complexes prepared using peptides mimicking the potential metal binding sites of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD) strongly suggest that the region 48-61 of the enzyme contains a zinc binding site, whilst the region 360-372 of the enzyme is not able to form 1:1 complexes with zinc, in contrast with what has been suggested for the corresponding region of yeast AMPD. XAS performed on fresh preparations of rabbit skeletal muscle AMPD provides evidence for a dinuclear zinc site in the enzyme compatible with a (mu-aqua)(mu-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with an average of two histidine residues at each metal site and a Zn-Zn distance of about 3.3 Angstrom. The data indicate that zinc is not required for HPRG/AMPD interaction, both zinc ions being bound to the catalytic subunit of the enzyme, one to the three conserved amino acid residues among those four assumed to be in contact with zinc in yeast AMPD, and the other at the N-terminal region, probably to His-52, Glu-53 and His-57. Tryptic digests of different enzyme preparations demonstrate the existence of two different protein conformations and of a zinc ion connecting the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of AMPD.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2007; 1774(2):312-22. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between oncogene activation and appearance of multidrug resistance (MDR) we transfected the human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, negative for the expression of the P-glycoprotein, with c-Ha-ras and/or c-erbB-2 oncogenes. The appearance of the MDR phenotype was then studied by evaluating mdr-1 mRNA expression, the presence of P-glycoprotein on the cell membrane and the onset of doxorubicin resistance, together with the effect of the reversing agent verapamil. We found that only MCF-10A transfected with both c-Ha-ras and c-erbB-2 oncogenes acquired the MDR phenotype.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2006; 59(2):208 - 211. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously described that, in healthy human skeletal muscle, an anti-histidine-proline-rich-glycoprotein (HPRG) antibody selectively binds to type IIB fibers that are well known to contain the highest level of AMP deaminase (AMPD) activity, suggesting an association of the HPRG-like protein to the enzyme isoform M. The present paper reports an immunohistochemical study performed on human skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with AMPD deficiency and carried out utilizing both the anti-HPRG antibody and an anti-AMPD antibody specific for the isoform M. A correlation between the muscle content of the HPRG-like protein and the level of AMPD activity was demonstrated. In the specimens from patients with Acquired AMPD deficiency the HPRG-immunoreactivity was less intense than that shown by the control subjects and was related to the residual AMPD activity. The patients affected by Primary and Coincidental AMPD deficiency, which were characterized by an absence of enzyme activity and AMPD immunoreactivity, showed the lowest HPRG immunoreactivity that was clearly detectable by Western blot analysis, but not by immunohistochemistry. The interpretation of the significance of these observations suggests a physiological mutual dependence between skeletal muscle HPRG and AMPD polypeptides with regard to their stability.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 02/2006; 27(1):83-92. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On storage at 4 degrees C, rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase undergoes limited proteolysis with the conversion of the native 85-kDa enzyme subunit to a 75-kDa core that is resistant to further proteolysis. Further studies have shown that limited proteolysis of AMP deaminase with trypsin, removing the 95-residue N-terminal fragment, converts the native enzyme to a species that exhibits hyperbolic kinetics even at low K+ concentration. The results of this report show that a 21-residue synthetic peptide, when incubated with the purified enzyme, is cleaved with a specificity identical to that reported for ubiquitous calpains. In addition, the cleavage of a specific fluorogenic peptide substrate by rabbit m-calpain is inhibited by a synthetic peptide that corresponds to residues 10-17 of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase; this peptide contains a sequence (K-E-L-D-D-A) that is present in the fourth subdomain A of rabbit calpastatin, suggesting that the N-terminus of AMP deaminase shares with calpastatin a regulatory sequence that might exert a protective role against the fragmentation-induced activation of AMP deaminase. These observations suggest that a calpain-like proteinase present in muscle removes from AMP deaminase a domain that holds the enzyme in an inactive conformation and which also contains a regulatory region that protects against unregulated proteolysis. We conclude that proteolysis of AMP deaminase is the basis of the large ammonia accumulation that occurs in skeletal muscle subjected to strong tetanic contraction or passing into rigor mortis.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2004; 1702(2):191-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) component of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase under denaturing and reducing conditions specifically binds to a Zn(2+)-charged affinity column and is only eluted with an EDTA-containing buffer that strips Zn(2+) from the gel. The isolated protein is homogeneous showing an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 95000 and the N-terminal sequence L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L-A-E-K-A-L-D-L-I, corresponding to that of rabbit plasma HPRG. The incubation with peptide-N-glycosidase F promotes the reduction of the apparent MW of isolated HPRG to 70000, characterizing it as a N-glycosylated protein. The separation from AMP deaminase of an 85-kDa component with a blocked N terminus is observed when the enzyme is applied to the Zn-charged column under nondenaturing conditions. On storage under reducing conditions, this component undergoes an 85- to 95-kDa transition yielding a L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L N-terminal sequence, suggesting that the shift in the migration on SDS/PAGE as well as the truncation of the protein at its N terminus are promoted by the reduction of a disulfide bond present in freshly isolated HPRG. The separation of HPRG induces a marked reduction in the solubility of AMP deaminase, strongly suggesting a role of HPRG in assuring the molecular integrity of the enzyme.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2003; 1645(1):81-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the reactivity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) sera with human chondrocyte populations isolated from normal cartilage and expanded in vitro.
Human articular chondrocytes were cultured as adherent (non-differentiated) cells on plastic dishes or in suspension (differentiated) on dishes previously coated with a thin layer of 1% agarose. Sera from 28 RA patients and 5 paired synovial fluids were tested on lysates from chondrocytes and fibroblasts as control by immunoblot. Antigen expression on the cell membrane was evaluated by flow cytometry in a few sera.
In 9/28 RA sera IgG antibodies specific for chondrocyte antigens (97 kDa, 74 kDa, 67 kDa, 60 kDa, 54 kDa, 48 kDa and 37 kDa) were detected. Twelve sera reacted with proteins expressed both on chondrocytes and fibroblasts and 7 with fibroblasts only; two sera had no reactivity. When lysates from adherent or suspension chondrocytes were compared, RA sera reacted with higher intensity and detected more antigens on chondrocytes cultured in suspension. Flow cytometry assay demonstrated that RA sera are able to recognize antigens expressed on the cell membrane of the human chondrocytes.
Our data indicate that: a) 32% of the RA sera contain antibodies reactive with antigens expressed exclusively by chondrocytes, but this value rises to 75% if antigens expressed both by chondrocytes and fibroblasts are considered; b) the reactivity of fully differentiated chondrocytes in suspension culture is higher than the reactivity of chondrocytes cultured in monolayer; and c) some of the chondrocyte-specific antigens identified are associated with the chondrocyte membrane. Thus, in vitro cultured chondrocytes may be used to study both the specificity and the biological activity of autoantibodies in RA.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 01/2003; 21(5):587-92. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histidine–proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) component of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase under denaturing and reducing conditions specifically binds to a Zn2+-charged affinity column and is only eluted with an EDTA-containing buffer that strips Zn2+ from the gel. The isolated protein is homogeneous showing an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 95000 and the N-terminal sequence L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L-A-E-K-A-L-D-L-I, corresponding to that of rabbit plasma HPRG. The incubation with peptide-N-glycosidase F promotes the reduction of the apparent MW of isolated HPRG to 70000, characterizing it as a N-glycosylated protein. The separation from AMP deaminase of an 85-kDa component with a blocked N terminus is observed when the enzyme is applied to the Zn-charged column under nondenaturing conditions. On storage under reducing conditions, this component undergoes an 85- to 95-kDa transition yielding a L-T-P-T-D-X-K-T-T-K-P-L N-terminal sequence, suggesting that the shift in the migration on SDS/PAGE as well as the truncation of the protein at its N terminus are promoted by the reduction of a disulfide bond present in freshly isolated HPRG. The separation of HPRG induces a marked reduction in the solubility of AMP deaminase, strongly suggesting a role of HPRG in assuring the molecular integrity of the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaction of rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase with a low molar excess of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) results in conversion of the enzyme into a species with about six trinitrophenylated lysine residues per molecule which no longer manifests positive homotropic cooperativity at pH 7.1 or at the optimal pH value of 6.5 in the presence of low K+ concentrations. Substitution of the reactive thiol groups with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) does not protect the enzyme from the TNBS-induced changes of the catalytic properties, indicating that cysteine residues modification is not at the basis of the effects of TNBS treatment on AMP deaminase and strongly suggesting the obligatory participation of lysine residues to the constitution of a regulatory anionic site to which AMP must bind to stimulate the enzyme at alkaline pH. The TNBS-treated enzyme is also completely desensitized to inhibition by ATP, but not to inhibition by GTP and stimulation by ADP. This observation suggests a connection between the operation of the hypothesized anionic activating site, responsible for positive homotropic cooperativity, and the inhibition exerted by anionic compounds that compete for the same site, among them the most efficient metabolite being probably ATP.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2001; 1544(1-2):123-32. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In systemic autoimmune diseases, autoantibodies specific for alpha-enolase are detected more frequently in patients with active renal involvement. To analyze the properties of anti-alpha-enolase antibodies and the distribution of the enzyme in the cell, mouse monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were obtained from mice immunized with a glutathione-S-transferase-alpha-enolase fusion protein. Anti-alpha-enolase antibodies were purified from patient sera on enolase from human kidney. Using these antibodies, the distribution of alpha-enolase in the cell was analyzed in subcellular fractions and in the cell membrane by flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Plasminogen binding was studied by an immunoenzymatic assay. We observed that alpha-enolase was present in the cytosol and membrane fractions obtained from kidney and U937 cells. By flow cytometry, mouse polyclonal anti-enolase antibodies, one monoclonal and 7/9 human anti-enolase antibodies bound the membrane of U937 cells. One monoclonal antibody and mouse polyclonal anti-enolase antibodies immunoprecipitated a 48-kDa molecule from surface-labeled U937 cells and this molecule was recognized by rabbit anti-enolase antibodies. Both immunization-induced antibodies and 7/9 autoantibodies from patient sera inhibited the binding of plasminogen to alpha-enolase. The results show that alpha-enolase, an autoantigen in connective tissue diseases, is a cytoplasmic enzyme which is also expressed on the cell membrane, with which it is strongly associated. Anti-alpha-enolase autoantibodies isolated from patient sera recognize the membrane-associated form of the enzyme and/or interfere with its receptor function, thus inhibiting the binding of plasminogen. Autoantibodies specific for alpha-enolase could play a pathogenic role, either by a cytopathic effect or by interfering with membrane fibrinolytic activity.
European Journal of Immunology 01/2001; 30(12):3575-84. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the presence and specificity of anti-alpha-enolase antibodies in various systemic autoimmune diseases.
Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were tested by immunoblot on partially purified a-enolase from human kidney and on beta- and gamma-enolase. The isotype of anti-enolase antibodies was determined by means of isotype-specific monoclonal antibodies.
IgG anti-alpha-enolase antibodies were detected in 9/33 (27%) SLE sera (6/9 patients had active renal disease), in 6/19 sera from patients with MC and nephritis, in 0/15 sera from MC patients without renal involvement, in 6/20 (30%) SSc sera, in 2/35 (6%) disease controls with RA, and in 2/32 (6%) healthy controls. The antibodies were not species-specific, but in most cases were specific for the alpha isoform of enolase. The anti-enolase immune response was not isotypically restricted. In half of the patients with SLE the anti-alpha-enolase and anti-DNA antibodies constituted distinct antibody populations, while in the other half a partial overlap of the 2 antibody specificities was observed.
Anti-alpha-enolase antibodies can frequently be detected in systemic autoimmune disorders. In SLE and MC they are associated with nephritis and in SSc they are associated with severe endothelial damage. Alpha-enolase is ubiquitous, but is highly expressed in the kidney and also on the membrane of several cell types including endothelial cells. Thus, anti-alpha-enolase antibodies could contribute to renal injury not only by the local formation of immune complexes, but also by direct damage to endothelial cells.
The Journal of Rheumatology 02/2000; 27(1):109-15. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) is a protein that is synthesized by parenchimal liver cells. The protein has been implicated in a number of plasma-specific processes, including blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. We have recently reported the association of an HPRG-like protein with rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD). The results of the immunological analysis reported here demonstrate that an antibody against human plasma HPRG reacts with an AMPD preparation from human skeletal muscle. To probe the localization of the putative HPRG-like protein in human skeletal muscle, serial sections from frozen biopsy specimens were processed for immunohistochemical and histoenzymatic stains. A selective binding of the anti-HPRG antibody to Type IIB muscle fibers was detected, suggesting a preferential association of the novel protein to the AMPD isoenzyme contained in the fast-twitch glycolytic fibers.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 03/1999; 47(2):255-60. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Denaturation of rabbit skeletal-muscle AMP deaminase in acidic medium followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose in 8 M urea atpH 8.0 allows separation of two main peptide components of similar apparent molecular mass (75-80 kDa) that we tentatively assume correspond to two different enzyme subunits. Whereas the amino acid composition of one of the two peptides is in good agreement with that derived from the nucleotide sequence of the known rat and human AMPD1 cDNAs, the second component shows much higher contents of proline, glycine and histidine. N-Terminal sequence analysis of the fragments liberated by limited proteolysis with trypsin of the novel peptide reveals a striking similarity to the fragments produced by plasmin cleavage of the rabbit plasma protein called histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG). However, some divergence is observed between the sequence of one of the fragments liberated from AMP deaminase by a more extensive trypsinization and rabbit plasma HPRG in the region containing residues 472-477. A fragment with a blocked N-terminus, which was found among those liberated by proteolysis with pepsin of either whole AMP deaminase or the novel component of the enzyme, shows an amino acid composition quite different from that of the N-terminus of the known subunit of AMP deaminase. By coupling this observation with the detection in freshly prepared AMP deaminase of a low yield of the sequence (LTPTDX) corresponding to that of HPRG N-terminus, it can be deduced that in comparison with HPRG, the putative HPRG-like component of AMP deaminase contains an additional fragment with a blocked N-terminus, which is liberated by a proteolytic process during purification of the enzyme. The implications of the association to rabbit skeletal-muscle AMP deaminase of a HPRG-like protein species are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of Gc (vitamin D binding protein) has been consistently demonstrated on the membrane of B lymphocytes. This protein appears to be spatially associated with surface immunoglobulins. The origin of this surface protein has not yet been determined and the purpose of the present paper was to investigate if Gc may bind to human lymphocytes after immunoglobulin (Ig) capping. For this purpose the presence of Gc on B lymphocytes was examined by three different approaches. First, when cells were examined by immunofluorescence and quantified by flow cytometry, membrane Ig capping was followed by a dramatic decrease in positivity for Gc when compared to native cells. In addition, incubation of capped cells with purified Gc was followed by a significant increase in fluorescence, indicating that this protein had been able to bind again. Second, analysis of solubilized lymphocytes by Western blotting showed that native lymphocytes and capped cells incubated with purified Gc contained a large quantity of a 56kDa protein which was immunoreactive with anti Gc antibodies. This protein band was much weaker on blots from capped cells not treated with Gc. Third, radiobinding assays indicated that, following capping, cells were able to bind Gc in saturable fashion. These results suggest that membrane Gc could play a role in the entry of vitamin D metabolites into lymphocytes.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 10/1995; 18(8):630-7. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaction of rabbit skeletal-muscle AMP deaminase with a low molar excess of diethyl pyrocarbonate results in conversion of the enzyme into a species with one or two carbethoxylated histidine residues per subunit that retains sensitivity to ATP at pH 7.1 but, unlike the native enzyme, it is not sensitive to regulation by ATP at pH 6.5. This effect mimics that exerted on the enzyme by limited proteolysis with trypsin, which removes the 95-residue N-terminal region from the 80 kDa enzyme subunit. These observations suggest involvement of some histidine residues localized in the region HHEMQAHILH (residues 51-60) in the regulatory mechanism which stabilizes the binding of ATP to its inhibitory site at acidic pH. Carbethoxylation of two histidine residues per subunit abolishes the inhibition by ATP of the proteolysed enzyme at pH 7.1, suggesting the obligatory participation of a second class of histidine residues, localized in the 70 kDa subunit core, in the mechanism of the pH-dependent inhibition of the enzyme by ATP. At a slightly acidic pH, these histidine residues would be positively charged, resulting in a desensitized form of the enzyme similar to that obtained with the carbethoxylation reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of a multidrug resistance (MDR) related protein, P-170, in normal and pathological lymphoid cells has been described. The present report evaluates the expression of the mdr 1 gene by using the reverse Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on cells obtained from the thymus and bursa of chicken embryos starting from day 12 until hatching. Results show that the thymic cells are positive from day 12 to the end of the observation period. In contrast, mdr mRNA was detected in the bursa from day 14 to day 17 of embryonic life. Possible relationships between the expression of mdr and the development of T and B lymphocytes are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) is a disorder characterized by the presence of large amounts of cryoprecipitating IgM-IgG complexes. An immune complex glomerulonephritis develops in one third of all patients, but its occurrence does not seem related to the amount of cryoglobulins in the sera, nor to their complement-fixing ability. In this study we investigated the presence of IgG antibodies reactive with kidney antigens in 33 MC patients (11 with glomerulonephritis, 22 without renal involvement). A total glomerular extract was run on a 10% acrylamide gel, blotted to nitrocellulose and probed with the patients' sera. Sera from half of the patients without renal involvement reacted with several glomerular antigens whose molecular weight ranged between 200 and 29 kD. In the group with renal involvement, sera from 7/11 patients reacted with an antigen of 50 kD, which is also expressed in thymus, but not in the heart or liver. In a follow-up study of four patients with renal involvement, the amount of serum antibody specific for the 50-kD antigen fluctuated, either spontaneously or in response to therapy. These results show that antibodies specific for glomerular antigens are detectable in MC sera. The immune response against a 50-kD antigen expressed in the kidney and thymus seems to be restricted to a subset of MC patients with renal involvement. Circulating autoantibodies specific for glomerular antigens might contribute to the induction of glomerulonephritis in MC forming immune complexes in situ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with production of autoantibodies. The N-terminal 35-58 sequence of EBNA I, one of the nuclear antigens encoded by EBV, is highly homologous to the C-terminal 95-119 region of the ribonucleoprotein SmD. Autoantibodies specific for SmD are present only in systemic lupus (SLE) sera and are therefore considered a serological marker of SLE. We measured antibodies to the EBNA I 35-58 sequence in EBV-related diseases and in autoimmune disorders. Antibodies to the EBNA I 35-58 peptide were present in 30% of normal sera, 12% Burkitt lymphoma, 22% infectious mononucleosis, 25% rheumatoid arthritis, 38% SLE and 33% Sjogren's syndrome. Antibodies to the SmD 95-119 peptide were detectable in 32% of SLE sera, 17% infectious mononucleosis and 12% Burkitt lymphoma. The specificity of anti-EBNA I 35-58 antibodies affinity-purified from nine sera was analysed by means of an inhibition assay. Only anti-EBNA I 35-58 antibodies affinity-purified from SLE sera have a similar affinity for the viral peptide and the SmD C-terminal one; they also bind the recombinant SmD in western blot. The results indicate that antibodies to EBNA I 35-58 are produced in normals, in EBV-related diseases and in autoimmune disorder, but only SLE sera contain anti-viral antibodies cross-reactive with an autoantigen.
Journal of Autoimmunity 05/1994; 7(2):179-91. · 8.15 Impact Factor