A Rauch

The Scripps Research Institute, لا هویا, California, United States

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Publications (27)143.89 Total impact

  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2015; 62:S531. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(15)30781-9 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. A total of 17,954 HIV-positive individuals from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with ≥3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values after 1 January 2004 were included. Baseline was defined as the first eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1 January 2004; individuals with exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, other boosted protease inhibitors before baseline were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 mo apart) eGFR ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poisson regression was used to develop a risk score, externally validated on two independent cohorts. In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7-6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3-9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 count nadir, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted CKD. The adjusted incidence rate ratios of these nine categorical variables were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The median risk score at baseline was -2 (interquartile range -4 to 2). There was a 1:393 chance of developing CKD in the next 5 y in the low risk group (risk score < 0, 33 events), rising to 1:47 and 1:6 in the medium (risk score 0-4, 103 events) and high risk groups (risk score ≥ 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166-3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159-278) and 21 (95% CI 19-23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506-1462), 88 (95% CI 69-121), and 9 (95% CI 8-10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3-12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6-8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD.
    PLoS Medicine 03/2015; 12(3):e1001809. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001809 · 14.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic is evolving rapidly in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We aimed to describe changes in treatment uptake and outcomes of incident HCV infections before and after 2006, the time-point at which major changes in HCV epidemic became apparent. Methods. We included all adults with an incident HCV infection before June 2012 in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, a prospective nationwide representative cohort of individuals infected with HIV. We assessed the following outcomes by time period: the proportion of patients starting an HCV therapy, the proportion of treated patients achieving a sustained virological response (SVR), and the proportion of patients with persistent HCV infection during follow-up. Results. Of 193 patients with an HCV seroconversion, 106 were diagnosed before and 87 after January 2006. The proportion of men who have sex with men increased from 24% before to 85% after 2006 (P < .001). Hepatitis C virus treatment uptake increased from 33% before 2006 to 77% after 2006 (P < .001). Treatment was started during early infection in 22% of patients before and 91% after 2006 (P < .001). An SVR was achieved in 78% and 29% (P = .01) of patients treated during early and chronic HCV infection. The probability of having a detectable viral load 5 years after diagnosis was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.77) in the group diagnosed before 2006 and 0.24 (95% CI, 0.16-0.35) in the other group (P < .001). Conclusions. In recent years, increased uptake and earlier initiation of HCV therapy among patients with incident infections significantly reduced the proportion of patients with replicating HCV.
    01/2015; 2(1):ofv026. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofv026
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    ABSTRACT: IL28B genotype predicts response to treatment against hepatitis C virus (HCV) with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PR) and impacts on the outcome of therapy including telaprevir (TVR). This study aimed to determine the influence of the favorable IL28B genotype on early viral kinetics during therapy with TVR/PR in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. All HIV/HCV genotype 1-coinfected subjects who received TVR/PR for at least 4 weeks were included from populations prospectively followed in 22 centers throughout Germany, Switzerland and Spain. Of the 129 subjects included, 38 (29.5%) presented with IL28B genotype CC and 94 (72.9%) were treatment-experienced. Ninety-six (73.8%) patients showed undetectable plasma HCV-RNA at treatment week (W) 4: 30 (78.9%) of the IL28B-CC carriers and 65 (71.4%) of the non-CC carriers (p=0.377). Among treatment-naïve patients, proportions of undetectable HCV-RNA among IL28B-CC versus non-CC carriers were 8/9 (88.9%) versus 3/9 (33.3%, p=0.016) and 14/17 (82.4%) versus 11/18 (61.1%, p=0.164) at W2 and W4. The decrease of HCV-RNA at W2 and W4 was similar among the IL28B carriers. IL28B genotype does not predict W4 response to TVR/PR in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, regardless of their treatment history. However, there is evidence of an impact on response during the first weeks in treatment-naïve patients.
    Antiviral therapy 12/2014; DOI:10.3851/IMP2921 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The factors that contribute to increasing obesity rates in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons and to body mass index (BMI) increase that typically occurs after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are incompletely characterized. We describe BMI trends in the entire Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) population and investigate the effects of demographics, HIV-related factors, and ART on BMI change in participants with data available before and 4 years after first starting ART. In the SHCS, overweight/obesity prevalence increased from 13% in 1990 (n = 1641) to 38% in 2012 (n = 8150). In the participants starting ART (n = 1601), mean BMI increase was 0.92 kg/m(2) per year (95% confidence interval, .83-1.0) during year 0-1 and 0.31 kg/m(2) per year (0.29-0.34) during years 1-4. In multivariable analyses, annualized BMI change during year 0-1 was associated with older age (0.15 [0.06-0.24] kg/m(2)) and CD4 nadir <199 cells/µL compared to nadir >350 (P < .001). Annualized BMI change during years 1-4 was associated with CD4 nadir <100 cells/µL compared to nadir >350 (P = .001) and black compared to white ethnicity (0.28 [0.16-0.37] kg/m(2)). Individual ART combinations differed little in their contribution to BMI change. Increasing obesity rates in the SHCS over time occurred at the same time as aging of the SHCS population, demographic changes, earlier ART start, and increasingly widespread ART coverage. Body mass index increase after ART start was typically biphasic, the BMI increase in year 0-1 being as large as the increase in years 1-4 combined. The effect of ART regimen on BMI change was limited.
    09/2014; 1(2):ofu040. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu040
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in HIV-infected individuals and vitamin D supplementation is proposed according to standard care. This study aimed at characterizing the kinetics of 25(OH)D in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals of European ancestry to better define the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on 25(OH)D levels. These data were used for the optimization of vitamin D supplementation in order to reach therapeutic targets. METHODS: 1,397 25(OH)D plasma levels and relevant clinical information were collected in 664 participants during medical routine follow up visits. They were genotyped for 7 SNPs in 4 genes known to be associated with 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic approach. The percentage of individuals with 25(OH)D concentrations within the recommended range of 20-40ng/ml during 12 months of follow up and several dosage regimens were evaluated by simulation. RESULTS: A one-compartment model with linear absorption and elimination was used to describe 25(OH)D pharmacokinetics, while integrating endogenous baseline plasma concentrations. Covariate analyses confirmed the effect of seasonality, body mass index, smoking habits, the analytical method, darunavir/r and the genetic variant in GC (rs2282679) on 25(OH)D concentrations. 11% of the interindividual variability in 25(OH)D levels was explained by seasonality and other non-genetic covariates and 1% by genetics. The optimal supplementation for severe vitamin D deficient patients was 300000 IU two times per year. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis allowed identifying factors associated with 25(OH)D plasma levels in HIV-infected individuals. Improvement of dosage regimen and timing of vitamin D supplementation is proposed based on those results.
    Antiviral therapy 07/2014; DOI:10.3851/IMP2823 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The efficacy of current hepatitis C virus (HCV) triple therapy, including a protease inhibitor, is limited in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis and nonresponse to previous peginterferon-ribavirin. These patients have a low chance (only 30%) of achieving a sustained virological response (SVR) during triple therapy and cannot wait for next-generation anti-HCV drugs. In a pilot study, we investigated the efficacy of a lead-in therapy with silibinin before triple therapy in difficult-to-treat patients.Methods Inclusion criteria were HIV/HCV coinfection with advanced liver fibrosis and documented failure of previous peginterferon-ribavirin treatment. Intervention was lead-in therapy with intravenous silibinin 20 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Subsequently, peginterferon-ribavirin combined with telaprevir was initiated for 12 weeks, followed by peginterferon-ribavirin dual therapy until week 48 after initiation of triple therapy. The outcome measurements were HCV RNA after silibinin lead-in, at weeks 2, 4 and 12 of triple therapy, and SVR at week 24 after the end of treatment.ResultsWe examined six HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (four infected with genotype 1a). All had fibrosis grade METAVIR ≥F3 and were on fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Mean HCV RNA decline after silibinin therapy was 2.6 log10 IU/mL (range 2–3 log10 IU/mL). Five of the six patients were virologically suppressed at weeks 2 and 4, and all six at week 12 of triple therapy. One experienced a viral breakthrough thereafter. Four of five patients (80%) showed an SVR 24. One patient had an SVR 12 but has not yet reached week 24.ConclusionsA lead-in with silibinin before triple therapy is highly effective and increases the probability of HCV treatment success in difficult-to-treat HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis and previous failure of peginterferon-ribavirin.
    HIV Medicine 07/2014; 15(10). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12166 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: High-risk sexual behaviors have been suggested as drivers of the recent dramatic increase of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: We assessed the association between the genetic bottleneck of HIV at transmission and the prevalence and incidence of HCV coinfection in HIV-infected MSM from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). As a proxy for the width of the transmission bottleneck, we used the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides detected by genotypic resistance tests sampled during early HIV infection. We defined a broad bottleneck as a fraction of ambiguous nucleotides exceeding a previously established threshold (0.5%). Results: From the SHCS, we identified 671 MSM with available results of HCV serologic tests and with an HIV genotypic resistance test performed during early HIV infection. Of those, 161 (24.0%) exhibited a broad HIV transmission bottleneck, 38 (5.7%) had at least 1 positive HCV test result, and 26 (3.9%) had an incident HCV infection. Individuals with broad HIV transmission bottlenecks exhibited a 2-fold higher odds of having ever experienced an HCV coinfection (odds ratio, 2.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1–4.3]) and a 3-fold higher hazard of having an incident HCV infection (hazard ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.4–6.6]) than individuals with narrow HIV transmission bottlenecks. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the currently occurring sexual spread of HCV is focused on MSM who are prone to exhibit broad HIV transmission bottlenecks. This is consistent with an important role of high-risk behavior and mucosal barrier impairment in the transmission of HCV among MSM.
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-975. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)63543-5 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: The study of HIV-1 rapid progressors has been limited to specific case reports. Nevertheless, identification and characterization of the viral and host factors involved in rapid progression are crucial when attempting to uncover the correlates of rapid disease outcome. DESIGN:: We carried out comparative functional analyses in rapid progressors (n = 46) and standard progressors (n = 46) early after HIV-1 seroconversion (≤1 year). The viral traits tested were viral replicative capacity, co-receptor usage, and genomic variation. Host CD8 T-cell responses, humoral activity, and HLA immunogenetic markers were also determined. RESULTS:: Our data demonstrate an unusual convergence of highly pathogenic HIV-1 strains in rapid progressors. Compared with standard progressors, rapid progressor viral strains show higher in-vitro replicative capacity (81.5 vs. 67.9%; P = 0.025) and greater X4/DM co-receptor usage (26.3 vs. 2.8%; P = 0.006) in early infection. Limited or absent functional HIV-1 CD8 T-cell responses and neutralizing activity were measured in rapid progressors. Moreover, the increase in common HLA allele-restricted CD8 T-cell escape mutations in rapid progressors acts as a signature of uncontrolled HIV-1 replication and early impairment of adaptive cellular responses. CONCLUSION:: Our data support a dominant role for viral factors in rapid progressors. Robust HIV-1 replication and intrinsic viral properties limit host adaptive immune responses, thus driving rapid disease progression.
    AIDS 04/2014; · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; 60(1):S469. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(14)61317-9 · 10.40 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; 60(1):S50. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(14)60122-7 · 10.40 Impact Factor
  • Conference on AIDS Vaccine; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background. HIV-positive persons have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. Methods. In the general population, 23 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the metabochip, we genotyped 1875 HIV-positive, white individuals enrolled in 24 HIV observational studies, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on gender and cohort. Results. A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P=2.9x10-4). In the final, multivariable model, participants with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR=1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.96), diabetes (OR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.49), >1 year lopinavir exposure (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.73) and current abacavir treatment (OR=1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.07). The effect of the genetic risk score was additive to the effect of non-genetic CAD risk factors, and did not change after adjustment for family history. Conclusions. In the setting of HIV infection, the effect of an unfavorable genetic background was similar to traditional CAD risk factors and certain adverse antiretroviral exposures. Genetic testing may provide prognostic information complementary to family history of CAD.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 03/2013; DOI:10.1093/cid/cit196 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Low CD4+ T-cell counts are the main factor leading to clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We aimed to investigate factors affecting CD4+ T-cell counts after triple-class virological failure. Methods. We included individuals from the COHERE database who started antiretroviral therapy from 1998 onward and who experienced triple-class virological failure. CD4+ T-cell counts obtained after triple-class virologic failure were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Results. The analyses included 2424 individuals with a total of 23 922 CD4+ T-cell count measurements. In adjusted models (excluding current viral load and year), CD4+ T-cell counts were higher with regimens that included boosted protease inhibitors (increase, 22 cells/µL [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.9–41]; P = .017) or drugs from the new classes (increase, 39 cells/µL [95% CI, 15–62]; P = .001), compared with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor–based regimens. These associations disappeared when current viral load and/or calendar year were included. Compared with viral levels of <2.5 log10 copies/mL, levels of 2.5–3.5, 3.5–4.5, 4.5–5.5, and >5.5 log10 copies/mL were associated with CD4+ T-cell count decreases of 51, 84, 137, and 186 cells/µL, respectively (P < .001). Conclusions. The approximately linear inverse relationship between log10 viral load and CD4+ T-cell count indicates that there are likely immunologic benefits from lowering viral load even by modest amounts that do not lead to undetectable viral loads. This is important for patients with low CD4+ T-cell counts and few drug options.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2013; 207(5):759-767. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jis752 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: After structured treatment interruption (STI) of treatment for HIV-1, a fraction of patients maintain suppressed viral loads. Prospective identification of such patients might improve HIV-1 treatment, if selected patients are offered STI. METHODS: We analysed the effect of previously identified genetic modulators of HIV-1 disease progression on patients' ability to suppress viral replication after STI. Polymorphisms in the genes killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DLI (KIR3DL1)/KIR3DS1, human leucocyte antigen B (HLA-B) and HLA Complex P5 (HCP5), and a polymorphism affecting HLA-C surface expression were analysed in 130 Swiss HIV Cohort Study patients undergoing STI. Genotypes were correlated with viral load levels after STI. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant reduction in viral load after STI in carriers of HLA-B alleles containing either the Bw480Thr or the Bw480Ile epitope (mean adjusted effect on post-STI viral load: -0.82 log HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, P < 0.001; and -1.12 log copies/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant effects were detected for the other polymorphisms analysed. The likelihood of being able to control HIV-1 replication using a prespecified cut-off (viral load increase < 1000 copies/ml) increased from 39% in Bw4-negative patients to 53% in patients carrying Bw4-80Thr, and to 65% in patients carrying Bw4-80Ile (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: These data establish a significant impact of HLA-Bw4 on the control of viral replication after STI.
    HIV Medicine 11/2012; 13(10):589-595. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01019.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV viraemia, thereby reducing the antigenic drive for T cells to proliferate. Accordingly, selected HIV-specific T-cell responses have been described to contract within weeks of ART initiation. Here, we sought to investigate whether these findings apply to the entire repertoire of HIV-specific T cells. METHODS: Using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme linked immuno spot (ELISpot), we performed retrospective 2-year proteome-wide monitoring of HIV-specific T cells in 17 individuals with undetectable viral loads during ART. The sample pool for each study subject consisted of one pre-ART time-point and at least two time-points after initiation of therapy. RESULTS: Peripheral pools of HIV-specific T cells decreased nonsignificantly within the first 2 years under ART in our cohort of patients, in terms of both breadth and magnitude. However, in most cases, the seeming decrease masked ongoing expansion of individual HIV-specific T-cell responses. We detected synchronous contraction and expansion of T-cell responses - with different peptide specificities - in 12 out of 17 study participants during follow-up. Importantly, the observed expansions and contractions of individual HIV-specific T-cell responses reached similar ranges, supporting the biological relevance of our findings. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that successful ART enables both contraction and expansion of HIV-specific T-cell responses. Our results should prompt a renewed interest in HIV-specific T-cell dynamics under ART, in particular to elucidate the mechanisms that uncouple, to some extent, particular HIV-specific T-cell responses from variations in circulating antigen load and functionally characterize expanding/contracting T-cell populations beyond IFN-γ secretion. Assuming that expanding HIV-specific T-cell responses under ART are protective and functional, harnessing those mechanisms may provide novel opportunities for assisting viral control in chronically infected individuals.
    HIV Medicine 08/2012; 14(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01040.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 109(8):3035-3040. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1111573109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have shown that a patient's antibody reaction in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics) provides information on the duration of infection. Here, we sought to further investigate the diagnostic specificity of various Inno-Lia algorithms and to identify factors affecting it. Plasma samples of 714 selected patients of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study infected for longer than 12 months and representing all viral clades and stages of chronic HIV-1 infection were tested blindly by Inno-Lia and classified as either incident (up to 12 m) or older infection by 24 different algorithms. Of the total, 524 patients received HAART, 308 had HIV-1 RNA below 50 copies/mL, and 620 were infected by a HIV-1 non-B clade. Using logistic regression analysis we evaluated factors that might affect the specificity of these algorithms. HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL was associated with significantly lower reactivity to all five HIV-1 antigens of the Inno-Lia and impaired specificity of most algorithms. Among 412 patients either untreated or with HIV-1 RNA ≥ 50 copies/mL despite HAART, the median specificity of the algorithms was 96.5% (range 92.0-100%). The only factor that significantly promoted false-incident results in this group was age, with false-incident results increasing by a few percent per additional year. HIV-1 clade, HIV-1 RNA, CD4 percentage, sex, disease stage, and testing modalities exhibited no significance. Results were similar among 190 untreated patients. The specificity of most Inno-Lia algorithms was high and not affected by HIV-1 variability, advanced disease and other factors promoting false-recent results in other STARHS. Specificity should be good in any group of untreated HIV-1 patients.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 11:254. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-11-254 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate. To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated. Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L. HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States. 20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis. Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist. Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
    Annals of internal medicine 04/2011; 154(8):509-15. DOI:10.1059/0003-4819-154-8-201104190-00001 · 16.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

307 Citations
143.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      لا هویا, California, United States
  • 2012–2014
    • Universität Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2011
    • University of Zurich
      • Institute of Virology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • St. Paul's Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada