Natural Products : An Indian Journal [NPAIJ]. 01/2012; 8:276-283.
Insight Nanotechnology. 01/2012; 2:1-6.
Natural Products : An Indian Journal [NPAIJ]. 01/2012; 8:168-174.
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ABSTRACT: Backgroung: Recent evidence suggests a role for nanobacteria in a number of human diseases, especially renal stone formation. It has become clear that the pathophysiology of renal stone disease cannot be explained by crystallization processes alone. The crystalline components of urinary tract stones can be classified into several types: calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, bacterial related, purine, or cystine. Materials and Methods: To confirm the data, we searched for nanobacteria from 8 aseptically removed upper urinary tract stones. All the samples were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% γ-irradiated fetal calf serum under cell culture conditions. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of the spherical units in the carbonate apatite kidney stones were clearly similar in size and morphology. Detection of nanobacteria was made with a Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) of inoculated cells. Results: Chemical analysis of liquid fraction of the stones with Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectrum (EDX) revealed a simple profile of carbon, oxygen and sodium at atomic C:O:Na ratios of 42:30:0.3. SEM showed nanoparticles in four of eight stones similar to those recently described. TEM of inoculated 3T6 cell monolayers has shown transient intracytoplasmic vacuolar formations containing 200 to 300 nm particles in cell cultures.
Insight Nanotechnology. 01/2011; 1:9-14.