[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urolithiasis is known to be an affliction to mankind from ancient eras and remains a major issue regarding health and well being today. Stone disease affects 10 to 12% of the population in industrialized countries with a peak incidence between 20 and 40 years of age .
There are many theories that explain the pathogenesis of stone formation, for example, the supersaturation theory and the inhibitors theory. Supersaturation occurs when there is an overabundance of solute in a solution . Although, urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease, nutrition, especially fluid intake, with several underlying disorders of metabolism: that is why diet is an important treatment, especially in the prevention of recurrences. [3&4]. Epidemiological studies reveal that about 80% of all kidney stones are composed of calcium salts (75% calcium oxalate), while about 5% are pure uric acid . Kidney stones have previously been linked to higher rates of high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes and other heart disease risk factors. Researchers have speculated that the dietary approaches to hypertension (DASH) style diet could, also prevent kidney stones. The main components of the DASH diet includes fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy, whole grains, and lower intakes of salt, sweetened drinks, red meat and processed meat . The DASH-style diet may reduce stone risk by increasing urinary citrate and volume. The small associations between higher DASH score and lower relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and uric acid suggesting that unidentified stone inhibitors in dairy products and/or plants .
One of the important phenomena that characterizes urolithiasis is its high recurrence. Thus, a protective system is required including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and medicament treatment. Unfortunately, these means remain costly and in most cases are invasive and with side effects. Therefore, great interest has arisen among both physicians and patients towards identifying ef¬fective measures to achieve analgesia during renal colic, promote stone passage or stone dissolution and prevent stone recurrence by natural products (phytotherapy) . Recent years have shown a dramatic expansion in the knowledge of molecular mechanism of phytotherapeutic agents used to treat urolithiasis. The discovery and elucidation of the mechanism of action, in particular the clinical role of these herbal remedies, has made an important contribution to treatment for urinary stone disease as an alternative or adjunct therapy. We present a literature review of edible and herbal products in renal stone manage-ment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgroung: Recent evidence suggests a role for nanobacteria in a number of human diseases, especially renal stone formation. It has become clear that the pathophysiology of renal stone disease cannot be explained by crystallization processes alone. The crystalline components of urinary tract stones can be classified into several types: calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, bacterial related, purine, or cystine. Materials and Methods: To confirm the data, we searched for nanobacteria from 8 aseptically removed upper urinary tract stones. All the samples were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% γ-irradiated fetal calf serum under cell culture conditions. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of the spherical units in the carbonate apatite kidney stones were clearly similar in size and morphology. Detection of nanobacteria was made with a Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) of inoculated cells. Results: Chemical analysis of liquid fraction of the stones with Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectrum (EDX) revealed a simple profile of carbon, oxygen and sodium at atomic C:O:Na ratios of 42:30:0.3. SEM showed nanoparticles in four of eight stones similar to those recently described. TEM of inoculated 3T6 cell monolayers has shown transient intracytoplasmic vacuolar formations containing 200 to 300 nm particles in cell cultures.