[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATRIPLA is licensed for use only in HIV-positive persons whose viral loads <50 for ≥3 months. We investigated the use of ATRIPLA as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in EuroSIDA using a web-based survey performed in Autumn 2012. 96/112 clinics (85.7 %) completed the survey. Recommendations when initiating first-line ART was TRUVADA plus efavirenz in 36 (37.5 %), ATRIPLA in 35 (36.5 %), a different first-line regimen in 12 clinics (12.5 %), and no recommendation in 7 clinics (7.3 %). ATRIPLA was commonest in Northern (15/21 clinics; 71.4 %), and least common in Eastern Europe (2/31 clinics; 6.5 %; p < 0.0001). Over one-third of the participating clinics in this survey were using ATRIPLA as first-line antiretroviral therapy, despite EMA recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The aim of the study was to statistically model the relative increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) per year older in Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) and to compare this with the relative increased risk of CVD per year older in general population risk equations.Methods
We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores.ResultsA total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and CVD event rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40–45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60–65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age2 for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population.Conclusions
We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk of CVD with age in D:A:D compared with the general population. The absolute risk of CVD associated with HIV infection remains uncertain.
HIV Medicine 06/2014; 15(10). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12162 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:
To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow-up analyses of stored plasma samples demonstrated increased activation of both inflammatory and coagulation pathways after stopping ART.
SMART patients from sites that determined platelets routinely.
Platelet counts were retrospectively collected from 2206 patients from visits at study entry, and during follow-up. D-dimer levels were measured at study entry, month 1, and 2.
Platelet levels decreased in the drug conservation group following randomization, but remained stable in the viral suppression group [median (IQR) decline from study entry to month 4: -24 000/μl (-54 000 to 4000) vs. 3000 (-22 000 to 24 000), respectively, P < 0.0001)] and the rate of developing thrombocytopenia (<100 000/μl) was significantly higher in the drug conservation vs. the viral suppression arm (unadjusted drug conservation/viral suppression [HR (95%CI) = 1.8 (1.2-2.7)]. The decline in platelet count among drug conservation participants on fully suppressive ART correlated with the rise in D-dimer from study entry to either month 1 or 2 (r = -0.41; P = 0.02). Among drug conservation participants who resumed ART 74% recovered to their study entry platelet levels.
Interrupting ART increases the risk of thrombocytopenia, but reinitiation of ART typically reverses it. Factors contributing to declines in platelets after interrupting ART may include activation of coagulation pathways or HIV-1 replication itself. The contribution of platelets in HIV-related procoagulant activity requires further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can substantially reduce the chance of acquiring HIV infection. However, PrEP efficacy has been found to be compromised in macaque studies if the challenge virus is antiretroviral therapy (ART)-resistant. Our objective was to evaluate the likelihood that a UK man who has sex with men (MSM) would be exposed to PrEP-resistant HIV in a homosexual encounter with an HIV-infectious partner.
Data from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study were linked to the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database for HIV-1-positive MSM patients seen between 2005 and 2008. Patients were categorized as undiagnosed; diagnosed but ART-naïve; ART-experienced and on treatment; and ART-experienced and on a treatment interruption. Considering current PrEP regimens, resistance to (a) tenofovir (TDF) alone, (b) TDF and emtricitabine (FTC), and (c) TDF or FTC was estimated. Patients without resistance tests had PrEP resistance imputed using bootstrapping and logistic regression models.
The population-level prevalence of PrEP resistance in HIV-infectious individuals in 2008 was estimated to be 1.6, 0.9 and 4.1% for PrEP resistance definitions a, b and c, respectively. Prevalence in ART-experienced patients was highest, with negligible circulating resistance amongst ART-naïve individuals. The levels of resistance declined over the period of study.
Our analysis indicates low levels of resistance to proposed PrEP drugs. The estimated PrEP resistance prevalence in UK HIV-infected MSM is towards the lower range of values used in simulation studies which have suggested that circulating PrEP drug resistance will have a negligible impact on PrEP efficacy at the population level.
HIV Medicine 12/2011; 13(5):309-14. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00968.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines recommend that all patients with a CD4 count <350 cells/μL are offered highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We identified risk factors for delayed initiation of HAART following a CD4 count <350 cells/μL.
All adults under follow-up in 2008 who had a first confirmed CD4 count <350 cells/μL from 2004 to 2008, who had not initiated treatment and who had >6 months of follow-up were included in the study. Characteristics at the time of the low CD4 cell count and over follow-up were compared to identify factors associated with delayed HAART uptake. Analyses used proportional hazards regression with fixed (sex/risk group, age, ethnicity, AIDS, baseline CD4 cell count and calendar year) and time-updated (frequency of CD4 cell count measurement, proportion of CD4 counts <350 cells/μL, latest CD4 cell count, CD4 percentage and viral load) covariates.
Of 4871 patients with a confirmed low CD4 cell count, 436 (8.9%) remained untreated. In multivariable analyses, those starting HAART were older [adjusted relative hazard (aRH)/10 years 1.15], were more likely to be female heterosexual (aRH 1.13), were more likely to have had AIDS (aRH 1.14), had a greater number of CD4 measurements < 350 cells/μL (aRH/additional count 1.18), had a lower CD4 count over follow-up (aRH/50 cells/μL higher 0.57), had a lower CD4 percentage (aRH/5% higher 0.90) and had a higher viral load (aRH/log(10) HIV-1 RNA copies/ml higher 1.06). Injecting drug users (aRH 0.53), women infected with HIV via nonsexual or injecting drug use routes (aRH 0.75) and those of unknown ethnicity (aRH 0.69) were less likely to commence HAART.
A substantial minority of patients with a CD4 count < 350 cells/μL remain untreated despite its indication.
HIV Medicine 11/2011; 13(1):73-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00956.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virological failure of first-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) can compromise the efficacy of etravirine as a result of the accumulation of NNRTI resistance mutations. How quickly NNRTI resistance accumulates in patients with a delayed switch from nevirapine or efavirenz despite virological failure, when these drugs are used as a component of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), remains unclear.
The rate of NNRTI resistance accumulation was estimated in patients in EuroSIDA with at least two available genotypic resistance tests (GRTs), provided that (1) the date of the first GRT (t0) was after the date of the first virological failure (VF) of an NNRTI, and (2) patients were receiving an NNRTI and HIV RNA was >500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL in all measurements between GRTs.
A total of 227 patients were included in the study, contributing 467 GRT pairs. At baseline-t0, a median of 3 months after VF, 66% of patients had at least one NNRTI mutation: 103N (34%), 181C (22%) and 190A (20%) were the most common mutations. Overall, 180 additional NNRTI mutations were found to have accumulated over 295 years [1 new/1.6 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-1.8]. The rate of accumulation was faster in the first 6 months from VF (1 new/1.1 years), and slower in patients exposed to nevirapine vs. those receiving efavirenz [relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.95; P=0.03].
There is an initial phase of rapid accumulation of NNRTI mutations close to the time of VF followed by a phase of slower accumulation. We predict that it should take approximately one year of exposure to a virologically failing first-generation NNRTI-based cART regimen to reduce etravirine activity from fully susceptible to intermediate resistant, and possibly longer in patients kept on a failing nevirapine-containing regimen.
HIV Medicine 08/2011; 13(1):62-72. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00943.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe trends in CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), according to CD4 cell count at initiation (baseline), and to quantify the implications of virological failure for these trends.
Eligible participants from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) were antiretroviralnaïve and started cART after 1997. Random effects were used to model CD4 cell count trends, accounting for multiple measurements within participants. We assessed whether CD4 cell count trends varied according to baseline CD4 cell count and separately in participants with and without post-cART virological failure. Effects of post-cART virological failure (>1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) on subsequent CD4 cell counts were evaluated.
A total of 7069 participants were included in the analysis (median follow-up in all baseline CD4 cell count groups was ≥ 35 months). Among participants without virological failure ≥ 6 months after the start of cART, CD4 cell counts continued to increase up to 8 years, with little evidence that differences between baseline CD4 cell count groups diminished over time. Virological failure ≥ 6 months after the start of cART was associated with lower subsequent CD4 cell counts, with greater CD4 cell count reduction for more recent virological failure and higher viral load.
Post-cART CD4 cell counts are strongly related to pre-cART CD4 cell counts. CD4 cell count recovery is greatest in individuals who can avoid viral loads >1000 copies/mL while on cART.
HIV Medicine 05/2011; 12(10):583-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00929.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT), a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs. cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ≥300cells/μL, offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine that increases the risk of some bacterial infections.
Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Information on smoking/pneumococcal vaccination history was not collected.
IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1-2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 [rate 0.67/100 person-years (PY)] and 86 control (rate 0.63/100 PY) patients experienced a pneumonia event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.42; P=0.68]. Median CD4 counts prior to pneumonia were 570cells/μL (IL-2 arm) and 463cells/μL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, injecting drug use, detectable HIV viral load (VL) and previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log(10) higher VL 1.28; 95% CI 1.11, 1.47; P<0.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4 count prior to the event (HR per 100 cells/μL higher 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 1.0; P=0.04) decreased risk. Compared with controls, the hazard for a pneumonia event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days previously (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.07, 2.60; P=0.02) vs.≥180 days previously (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.70, 1.37; P=0.9). Compared with the control group, pneumonia risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time, with HRs of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7, respectively.
Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate immunodeficiency are high. The mechanism of the association between bacterial pneumonia and recent IL-2 receipt and/or detectable HIV viraemia warrants further exploration.
HIV Medicine 04/2011; 12(4):219-227. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of different antiretroviral agents on the risk of developing or surviving CNS disease remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using antiretroviral regimens with higher CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) scores was associated with reduced incidence of CNS disease and improved survival in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study.
Adults without previous CNS disease, who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) between 1996 and 2008, were included (n = 22,356). Initial and most recent cART CPE scores were calculated. CNS diseases were HIV encephalopathy (HIVe), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cerebral toxoplasmosis (TOXO), and cryptococcal meningitis (CRYPTO). Incidence rates and overall survival were stratified by CPE score. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to identify independent associations.
The median (interquartile range) CPE score for initial cART regimen increased from 7 (5-8) in 1996-1997 to 9 (8-10) in 2000-2001 and subsequently declined to 6 (7-8) in 2006-2008. Differences in gender, HIV acquisition risk group, and ethnicity existed between CPE score strata. A total of 251 subjects were diagnosed with a CNS disease (HIVe 80; TOXO 59; CRYPTO 56; PML 54). CNS diseases occurred more frequently in subjects prescribed regimens with CPE scores ≤ 4, and less frequently in those with scores ≥ 10; however, these differences were nonsignificant. Initial and most recent cART CPE scores ≤ 4 were independently associated with increased risk of death.
Clinical status at time of commencing cART influences antiretroviral selection and CPE score. This information should be considered when utilizing CPE scores for retrospective analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Life expectancy of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now estimated to approach that of the general population in some successfully treated subgroups. However, to attain these life expectancies, viral suppression must be maintained for decades.
METHODS: We studied the rate of triple-class virologic failure (TCVF) in patients within the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) from 1998 onwards. We also focused on TCVF in patients who started a PI/r-containing regimen after a first-line NNRTI-containing regimen failed.
RESULTS: Of 45 937 patients followed up for a median (interquartile range) of 3.0 (1.5-5.0) years, 980 developed TCVF (2.1%). By 5 and 9 years after starting ART, an estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-3.6%) and 8.6% (95% CI, 7.5%-9.8%) of patients, respectively, had developed TCVF. The incidence of TCVF rose during the first 3 to 4 years on ART but plateaued thereafter. There was no significant difference in the risk of TCVF according to whether the initial regimen was NNRTI or PI/r based (P = .11). By 5 years after starting a PI/r regimen as second-line therapy, 46% of patients had developed TCVF.
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of virologic failure of the 3 original drug classes is low, but not negligible, and does not appear to diminish over time from starting ART. If this trend continues, many patients are likely to need newer drugs to maintain viral suppression. The rate of TCVF from the start of a PI/r regimen after NNRTI failure provides a comparator for studies of response to second-line regimens in resource-limited settings.
Archives of internal medicine 03/2010; 170(5-5):410-9. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.472 · 17.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess whether a simple, routinely available measure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence predicts viral rebound at the next HIV viral load (VL) measurement in virally suppressed patients.
The analysis was performed on the Royal Free HIV Cohort, London, UK. Each 'drug coverage-viral load episode' (DCVL episode) was defined as a 6-month period immediately prior to a VL < or =50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (time-zero), during which the patient had been continuously on HAART, with all measured VLs < or =50 copies/mL. The next VL after time-zero was used to assess whether VL rebound (defined as >200 copies/mL) had occurred. Drug coverage, our measure of adherence, was calculated as the proportion of days in the 6-month period covered by a valid prescription for at least three antiretroviral drugs.
A total of 376 (2.4%) VL rebounds occurred in 15 660 DCVL episodes among 1632 patients. Drug coverage was 100% for 32% of episodes, 95-99% for 16% of episodes and < or =60% for 10% of episodes. The risk ratio of rebound associated with a 10% increase in drug coverage, adjusted for potential confounding variables, was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.98).
Antiretroviral drug coverage assessed at the time of VL measurement in patients with undetectable VL is potentially clinically useful for predicting VL rebound at the next VL measurement.
HIV Medicine 12/2009; 11(3):216-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00771.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were examined.
Inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD.
The 91 patients who developed an OD were matched to 182 control subjects. Patients with an hsCRP level > or =5 microg/mL at baseline had a 3.5 higher odds of OD (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-8.1) than did those with an hsCRP level <1 microg/mL (P=.003, by test for trend) and patients with an IL-6 level > or =3 pg/mL at baseline had a 2.4 higher odds of OD (95% CI, 1.0-5.4) than did those with an IL-6 level <1.5 pg/mL (P=.02, by test for trend). No other baseline biomarkers predicted development of an OD. Latest follow-up hsCRP level for those with an hsCRP level > or =5 microg/mL (compared with a level <1 microg/mL; odds ratio [OR], 7.6; 95% CI, 2.0-28.5; [P=.002, by test for trend), latest amyloid-A level for those with an amyloid-A level > or =6 mg/L (compared with a level <2 mg/L; OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.4; P=.03, by test for trend), and latest IL-6 level for those with an IL-6 level > or =3 pg/mL (compared with a level <1.5 pg/mL; OR 2.4; 95% CI, 0.7-8.8; P=.04, by test for trend) were also associated with development of an OD.
Higher IL-6 and hsCRP levels independently predicted development of OD. These biomarkers could provide additional prognostic information for predicting the risk of OD.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2009; 15(200):973-983.. · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Interruption of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use.
Patients in the drug-conservation arm of the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by a staggered interruption, in which the NNRTI was stopped before the NRTIs, or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous interruption of all antiretrovirals was discouraged. Resuppression rates 4-8 months after reinitiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within 2 months of the treatment interruption in a subset (N = 141).
Overall, 601/688 (87.4%) patients who restarted an NNRTI achieved viral resuppression. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for achieving resuppression was 1.94 (1.02-3.69) for patients with a staggered interruption and 3.64 (1.37-9.64) for those with a switched interruption compared with patients with a simultaneous interruption. At least one NNRTI-mutation was detected in the virus of 16.4% patients with simultaneous interruption, 12.5% patients with staggered interruption and 4.2% patients with switched interruption. Fewer patients with detectable mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA of 400 copies/ml or less compared with those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%; P = 0.05).
In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption strategy may influence resuppression rates when restarting a similar regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered or switched interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs.
AIDS 11/2008; 12(22):2279-89. · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between age and the time to treatment discontinuation in the absence of virological failure as well as the development of specific laboratory abnormalities, in patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the first time.
Analyses included 8708 antiretroviral-naïve patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study who started HAART from 1998 onwards. We considered time to the first discontinuation of any drug in the initial HAART regimen for reasons other than virological failure; the association between this and age at the start of HAART was determined using proportional hazards regression after adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of specific laboratory abnormalities in the first year after starting HAART was compared in those of different ages using multiple logistic regression.
A total of 2650 patients discontinued at least one drug in their HAART regimen in the first year for reasons other than virological failure; after controlling for confounders, those aged < 30 years at the time of starting HAART were more likely to discontinue than those aged 30-39 years [relative hazard (RH) 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.24] as were those aged > or = 50 years (RH 1.14; 95% CI 1.00, 1.31). There were strong associations between greater age and raised total cholesterol, decreased haemoglobin and raised triglycerides over the first year, although the latter disappeared after adjustment for pre-HAART levels, suggesting that this finding reflected higher pre-HAART triglyceride levels in older individuals.
Continued attempts to improve the tolerability of HAART regimens may help to sustain the good outcomes in all age groups over the longer term.
HIV Medicine 11/2008; 10(1):35-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00654.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More and more highly treatment-experienced patients are achieving viral suppression. However, the durability of suppression remains unclear.
Patients from Royal Free Hospital (London, UK) and JW Goethe University Hospital (Frankfurt, Germany) who had failed > or = 1 antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in all three main drug classes and > or = 3 previous ARV regimens and subsequently achieved viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL were included. They were followed until stopping pre-combination antiretroviral therapy, end of follow-up or viral rebound (two viral loads >400 copies/mL).
Two hundred and forty-seven patients contributed 723 person-years and 114 viral rebounds [rate=15.8 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-18.7]. More recent calendar years of viral suppression [relative risk (RR)=0.90 per year later; 95% CI 0.81-1.00; P=0.05] and greater number of ARVs in the regimen not previously failed (RR=0.78 per 1 ARV more; 95% CI 0.65-0.95; P=0.01) were associated with lower viral rebound rates. At 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and > 3 years after achieving suppression, the rebound rates were 30.9, 9.2, 4.3 and 3.5 per 100 person-years, respectively. Compared to 0-1 years, the adjusted RRs (95% CIs) after 1-2, 2-3 and > 3 years were 0.33 (0.18-0.58), 0.21 (0.09-0.48) and 0.14 (0.06-0.33), respectively (P<0.0001).
Although rebound rates are high, especially in the first year after viral suppression, this risk reduces substantially if highly treatment-experienced patients can maintain viral suppression.
HIV Medicine 11/2008; 10(1):19-27. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00650.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the known relationship between exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become increasingly important to intervene against risk of CVD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We evaluated changes in risk factors for CVD and the use of lipid-lowering therapy in HIV-infected individuals and assessed the impact of any changes on the incidence of myocardial infarction.
The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study is a collaboration of 11 cohorts of HIV-infected patients that included follow-up for 33,389 HIV-infected patients from December 1999 through February 2006.
The proportion of patients at high risk of CVD increased from 35.3% during 1999-2000 to 41.3% during 2005-2006. Of 28,985 patients, 2801 (9.7%) initiated lipid-lowering therapy; initiation of lipid-lowering therapy was more common for those with abnormal lipid values and those with traditional risk factors for CVD (male sex, older age, higher body mass index [calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], family and personal history of CVD, and diabetes mellitus). After controlling for these, use of lipid-lowering drugs became relatively less common over time. The incidence of myocardial infarction (0.32 cases per 100 person-years [PY]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.35 cases per 100 PY) appeared to remain stable. However, after controlling for changes in risk factors for CVD, the rate decreased over time (relative rate in 2003 [compared with 1999-2000], 0.73 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.50-1.05 cases per 100 PY]; in 2004, 0.64 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.44-0.94 cases per 100 PY]; in 2005-2006, 0.36 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.24-0.56 cases per 100 PY]). Further adjustment for lipid levels attenuated the relative rates towards unity (relative rate in 2003 [compared with 1999-2000], 1.06 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.63-1.77 cases per 100 PY]; in 2004, 1.02 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.61-1.71 cases per 100 PY]; in 2005-2006, 0.63 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.36-1.09 cases per 100 PY]).
Although the CVD risk profile among patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study has decreased since 1999, rates have remained relatively stable, possibly as a result of a more aggressive approach towards managing the risk of CVD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of an undetectable viral load (VL) (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) in a clinical population and to identify those viraemic and at risk of failing antiretroviral therapy (ART).
An audit of a complete clinical population on 1 January 2005 via a clinical database and clinical note review.
On 1 January 2005, 1910 patients were under care; 1229/1332 (92%) of those exposed to ART for >16 weeks had a VL of <50 copies/mL. We examined 49/56 case notes of viraemic patients to identify explanations for viraemia. Common reasons included previous initial mono- or dual therapy, adherence problems, more advanced HIV disease, concomitant medications, physical and mental health issues and being less well linked into the service. A review of these patients' current status on 1 April 2007 showed that six of the 49 had since died. However, of those still alive, 20 (47%) had a VL <500 copies/mL.
The proportion of patients on ART with detectable viraemia is low in current clinical practice. New drugs may help those who are failing because of resistance. However, there is a small minority of patients who, for various reasons, appear unable to maintain sufficient adherence to ART.
HIV Medicine 05/2008; 9(4):208-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00548.x · 3.99 Impact Factor