[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To compare the failure ratio and inhospital complications across three age groups of patients and to investigate the effects of balloon sizing on the success and the device diameter. Methods. This retrospective review was of 665 patients who had been listed for transcatheter-based closure of ASD between 1999 and 2010. The patients were divided into three age groups: children (<18 years; n = 183), adults (18-50 years; n = 337), and older adults (>50 years; n = 145). Procedural outcomes and early complications were reviewed. Use of balloon sizing was explored for its benefits. Results. Overall, failure of closure was 6.6% (n = 44). Use of balloon sizing tended to lead to a smaller device/defect ratio that was comparable to procedures without balloon sizing, though it did not predict the success rate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7-2.3). Seven patients reported device embolization (1%). No mortalities were noted. In-hospital complications were 3.4%, with common complications, being vascular complications (1.4%) and cardiac arrhythmia (1.1%). No differences in failure rate or events were found among the three groups. Conclusion. Transcather closure of ASD is feasible and safe, regardless of the patient's age. A low rate of early complications was noted. Balloon sizing does not aggravate an oversizing of the device, but does not predict success.
Cardiology Research and Practice 06/2012; 2012(1):584236. DOI:10.1155/2012/584236
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1) to identify the current status of major infections and other etiologies of postoperative fever from pediatric cardiac surgery 2) to determine the risk factors of major infections.
Databases of pediatric cardiac surgery patients in 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcomes of interest were postoperative fever and its etiologies. Potential predictors were analyzed by comparing patients who developed or did not have infections.
Two hundred thirty patients, 43% (n = 99) developed postoperative fever. Major infections occurred in 13.5% (n = 31), and postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) was seen in 8.7% (n = 20) of the patients. The infection rate was 16.9/100 procedures, including pneumonia (29 episodes) and bloodstream infection (6 episodes). Risk factors were infancy, prolonged ventilator support > 2 days, hospital length of stay (LOS) > 14 days, intensive care unit (ICU) LOS > 3 days, re-open procedure, and extubation failure rate. Conversely, cyanosis and high complexity operations were not associated. Positive erythrocyte sedimentation rate was related to infections or to PPS (the area under the ROC = 0.72).
Following pediatric cardiac surgery major infections are still problematic. The risks increase with infancy, prolonged ventilator support, prolonged hospital and ICU LOS, re-open procedure, and extubation failure.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 06/2012; 95(6):761-70.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare cardiac events and remodeling effects after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASD) in pediatric, adult, and older adult patients.
A retrospective review was conducted of 353 patients who underwent transcatheter ASD closure between February 1999 and December 2007 at Siriraj Hospital. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to age: children (<18 years; n = 99); adults (18-50 years; n = 169); and older adults (>50 years; n = 85). Cardiac events at 1 year, and changes in left and right ventricular dimensions between preprocedure and 6 months and 1 year postprocedure were compared between groups.
Of the 353 patients, the average size of ASD was 22.1 ± 6.6 mm. Device: ASD diameter was 1.25 ± 0.28 mm. At 1 year postprocedure, the prevalence of chest discomfort and atrial fibrillation (AF) was higher in older adult patients, compared to the other age groups. Device embolization, cardiac erosion, pericardial effusion, syncope, migraine, thrombus formation, and residual shunt did not differ between groups. Within the first 6 months, the right ventricular (RV) dimension tended to dramatically decrease, while the left ventricular (LV) dimension increased in all age groups. These changes leveled off in children and in older adults, but in the adult group (18-50 years), RV shrinkage and LV expansion continued for 1 year. A low rate of early and late complications was noted.
Transcather closure of ASD can cause cardiac remodeling, regardless of the patient's age at the time of the procedure. For older adult patients, the long-term risk of AF continuation and chest discomfort is likely.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To determine in-hospital mortality and complications of cardiac surgery in pediatric patients and identify predictors of hospital mortality.
Methods. Records of pediatric patients who had undergone cardiac surgery in 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1) method, the Aristotle basic complexity score (ABC score), and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Mortality score (STS-EACTS score) were used as measures. Potential predictors were analyzed by risk analysis.
Results. 230 pediatric patients had undergone congenital cardiac surgery. Overall, the mortality discharge was 6.1%. From the ROC curve of the RACHS-1, the ABC level, and the STS-EACTS categories, the validities were determined to be 0.78, 0.74, and 0.67, respectively. Mortality risks were found at the high complexity levels of the three tools, bypass time >85 min, and cross clamp time >60 min. Common morbidities were postoperative pyrexia, bleeding, and pleural effusion.
Conclusions. Overall mortality and morbidities were 6.1%. The RACHS-1 method, ABC score, and STS-EACTS score were helpful for risk stratification.
Cardiology Research and Practice 06/2011; 2011(1):254321. DOI:10.4061/2011/254321
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fontan operation had been proposed as the final palliative surgery in the patients with single ventricle physiology. Even though modifications of the operation were developed to improve outcomes, long-term complications remain significant with time. The present study reviewed long-term survival rate, morbidities associated with time, and risk factors during the follow-up period after Fontan operation.
A retrospective study was conducted. Every patient who underwent the Fontan operation at Siriraj Hospital between January 1987 and December 2007 and had available data was included in the present study. The data was collected until the most recent follow-up in December 2008. Demographic data, diagnosis, echocardiographic data, cardiac catheterization data, surgical data, type of modified Fontan procedure, and perioperative data were collected. The follow-up clinical data, cardiac investigation data, complications, and management were also collected and analyzed.
Survival rates were 88.7%, 85.3%, and 83.8% at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. The median follow-up time was 4.75 years (0-17.45). The 10-years survival rate of tricuspid atresia, single ventricle and the heterotaxy syndrome were 94.5%, 79%, and 83.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different (p = 0.09). The 10-years survival rates of the patients that underwent lateral tunnel, extracardiac conduit and atriopulmonary connection were 80.7%, 88% and 84.3%, respectively. A mean pulmonary artery pressure of more than 18 mmHg was the only factor that affected the survival rate after Fontan surgery (p = 0.008). The incidence of postoperative arrhythmia was 7.9%. Age at operation, diagnosis, type of operation, fenestration, systemic EDP, or PVR before operation did not significantly affect the survival rate. Diagnosis and type of surgery did not affect long-term outcome regarding arrhythmia, re-intervention, systemic atrioventricular valve regurgitation, and systemic ventricular dysfunction. Patients post Fontan operation had good survival rate.
Cardiac diagnoses were not significantly different in the medium and long-term survival rate of post Fontan patients, freedom from arrhythmia, re-intervention and systemic atrioventricular regurgitation. Types of Fontan operation did not affect long-term survival rate or long-term complications. Mean pulmonary artery pressure of more than 18 mmHg was the only risk factor to the survival rate.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 03/2011; 94(3):323-30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To determine in-hospital mortality and complications of cardiac surgery in pediatric patients and identify predictors of hospital mortality. Methods. Records of pediatric patients who had undergone cardiac surgery in 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1) method, the Aristotle basic complexity score (ABC score), and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Mortality score (STS-EACTS score) were used as measures. Potential predictors were analyzed by risk analysis. Results. 230 pediatric patients had undergone congenital cardiac surgery. Overall, the mortality discharge was 6.1%. From the ROC curve of the RACHS-1, the ABC level, and the STS-EACTS categories, the validities were determined to be 0.78, 0.74, and 0.67, respectively. Mortality risks were found at the high complexity levels of the three tools, bypass time >85 min, and cross clamp time >60 min. Common morbidities were postoperative pyrexia, bleeding, and pleural effusion. Conclusions. Overall mortality and morbidities were 6.1%. The RACHS-1 method, ABC score, and STS-EACTS score were helpful for risk stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initial differential diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) from other acute febrile illnesses infants and children is particularly difficult in patients who exhibit incomplete criteria. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the clinical and laboratory findings between KD patients and those who were initially sus- , pected of having KD but eventually had other diagnoses. One hundred and fourteen pediatric patients who were initially diagnosed with suspected KD were included. Eighteen cases were finally diagnosed with another disease. The only demographic data that were significantly different between the groups were body height and the duration of fever. The KD group exhibited more classical clinical criteria than those who were finally diagnosed with another disease. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet count were significantly higher in the KD group than in the non-KD group. An ESR > or = 40 mm/hour had a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.5%, a specificity of 66.6%, a positive predictive value of 93.4%, and a negative predictive value of 57.1%. The incidence of coronary aneurysm in this study was 6.2%. There was no correlation between ESR and coronary aneurysm. We conclude that the clinical criteria are the basis for the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease but the ESR can be helpful in pediatric patients with acute febrile illness who do not exhibit all clinical criteria.
Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 06/2009; 27(2-3):131-6. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of early postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease.
A prospective study was conducted in every pediatric patient who consecutively underwent open-heart surgery at Siriraj Hospital from January 1st to December 31st, 2006. The collected data were demographic data, diagnosis, pre-operative arrhythmia, cardiac surgical data and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring data throughout the post operative intensive care period.
A total of 191 pediatric patients underwent cardiac surgery. Forty-five cases (23.5%) developed early post operative cardiac arrhythmias i.e. junctional ectopic tachycardia 18 cases (40%), heart block 7 cases (15.6%), supraventricular tachycardia 2 cases (4.4%). Cardiac arrhythmia occurred mostly within 24 hours after the operation. Patients with single ventricle physiology repaired developed the highest incidence of acute post operative arrhythmia (36.4%). Longer, cardiopulmonary bypass time- and redo-operation were the risk factors. Thirty-nine cases were treated with medications, 7 cases with temporary pacing, and 1 case with electrical cardioversion. Four patients needed long-term anti-arrhythmic agents. Cardiac arrhythmia played role in the causes of death in 2 cases (1.1% of total cases).
Post operative arrhythmias remained common and important complications of pediatric open-heart surgery. Long cardiopulmonary bypass time and redo-operation were risk factors for early post operative arrhythmia.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 05/2008; 91(4):507-14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative evaluation of patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA/ VSD) are generally done by echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. The authors' objective of the present study was to compare the findings of Gadolinium (Gd) enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with cardiac catheterization.
Patients who had PA/VSD were prospectively evaluated using cardiac catheterization and cardiac MRA. A branch of the pulmonary arteries was divided into: main pulmonary artery (MPA), left and right branch pulmonary artery (LPA & RPA), major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCA) and minor collaterals. Each study was interpreted blindly. The agreement of findings was compared using Kappa statistics.
There were 43 patients who received both cardiac catheterization and cardiac MRI within a 2 month period The average age was 13.8 +/- 8.4 (2-30) years-old. There was an agreement among measurement of both MPA and LPA & RPA with Kappa statistics of more than 0.8. Gd-enhanced MRA was able to identify more branches of MAPCA when compared to cardiac catheterization.
The results of the present study indicate that Gd-enhanced MRA is a feasible, fast and accurate technique for identification of all sources of pulmonary blood supply in patients with complex pulmonary atresia. The present study was a noninvasive alternative to cardiac catheterization. Gd-enhanced MRA can better delineate small (minor) branches of collateral.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 04/2008; 91(3):350-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis. It is one of the most common acquired heart diseases in children. Its important acute complication is coronary artery aneurysm. Although most of these aneurysms resolved overtime but some never did. Coronary artery stenosis and myocardial insufficiency or infarction are late complications. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and catheter intervention are the treatment for these patients. We report our first five cases of Kawasaki patients with myocardial insufficiency who underwent CABG at Siriraj Hospital. Patients' ages ranged from 3.3 to 14.4 years old. Only two patients (40%) had angina. Internal thoracic artery was used as a bypass graft in most patients and postoperative course was uneventful. Coronary bypass operation is a safe and reliable surgical modality for coronary artery sequelae in children with Kawasaki disease. A long-term follow-up is necessary to study the long-term outcome of bypass.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/2005; 88 Suppl 8:S197-202.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a recognized complication of congenital heart disease. Despite differences in etiology and pathophysiology, successful therapy for idiopathic PAH may benefit in patients with congenital heart disease. We theorized that combination of oral and aerosolization prostacyclin will benefit this group of patients in long-term.
The study design was single group and open label study with intention to treat for patients with congenital heart disease with pulmonary artery (PA pressure) more than 50% of systemic pressure. All patients were given a combination of orally given beraprost sodium and inhalation of iloprost for 12 months. Data were collected prospectively consisting of functional class, O2 saturation, 6-minute walk test and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP).
There were 23 patients with an average right ventricular systolic pressure (+/- SD) of 94.8 +/- 14.5 mmHg and with average age of 27.8 +/- 14.9 years (2.5 to 50 years). The average oxygen saturation was 87.9 +/- 7 %. There were 12 patients with post surgical repair or cardiac catheterization interventional procedure and 11 with and Eisenmenger's syndrome. There were significant improvement of 6-minute-walk test from an average of 268 +/- 70 meters to 308 +/- 57 meters at the end of 12 months. The functional class of patients was also improving. However, there were no significant different in oxygen saturation.
Combination therapy of oral and inhalation of aerosolized vasodilators is a fascinating concept in the therapy of pulmonary hypertension. Treated patients showed an improvement in exercise capacity and right ventricular systolic pressure without a worsening in oxygen saturation.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/2005; 88 Suppl 8:S60-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Permanent cardiac pacing in pediatrics is uncommon. There has been limited data in Thailand. A retrospective study of cardiac data and pacing parameters during follow-up periods in patients who underwent permanent pacemaker implantation at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, from January 1997 to December 2004 was conducted. There were 31 patients in total who have been followed-up for the median period of 34.4 (1.07-91.13) months. All patients had atrio-ventricular block prior to implantation. The etiology were; post cardiac surgery 38.7%, maternal autoimmune diseases 19.4%, post radiofrequency ablation 3.2%, and unknown 38.7%. Twenty three cases (74.2%) were implanted by epicardial approach, and 18 (25.8% were implanted by endocardial approach. Modes of permanent pacemaker were WIR 45.2%, VVI 35.5%, and DDD 19.4%. Age and body sized of the patients using epicardial approach were significantly lower than endocardial approach. Minor complications occurred in 3 cases (9.6%) i.e. 2 with surgical wound infection, 1 with post pericardiotomy syndrome. Minimum energy threshold, sensitivity, and impedance at implantation and during follow up periods were not different statistically. There was significantly less in minimum energy threshold of endocardial lead than epicardial lead. Epicardial lead failure was found in 3 cases (11.5%) at the median time of 8.9 (7.9-62) months post implantation, but was not significant different from endocardial leads. Survival of epicardial leads were 82% at 8 years. Conclusion: Permanent pacemaker implantation in pediatrics was rare (4.4 cases/year). It was feasible in almost all body size and a rather safe procedure. There was no significant change in pacing parameters at the medium-term follow-up period for both epicardial and endocardial leads. Minimum energy threshold of epicardial lead was significantly higher than endocardial lead.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/2005; 88 Suppl 8:S106-14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of cardiovascular diseases in children. In Thailand, there has not been available information about congenital heart disease in neonates. Between January 1st and December 31st, 2000, all full-term babies born at Siriraj Hospital with detected heart murmur within the first week of life were consulted to pediatric cardiologists. Echocardiography was performed for diagnosis in every baby. Total livebirths during that period were 11,245 cases. Heart murmurs were detected in 83 cases. The incidence of heart murmur within the first week of life was 7.38:1,000 livebirths. Innocent murmurs were found in 34 cases and echocardiogram revealed no detectable cardiac anomalies (2 cases), mild tricuspid regurgitation (2 cases), physiologic branch pulmonary stenosis (4 cases), and small size PDA (< 2 mm., 26 cases). Forty-nine cases had CHDs. The incidence of CHD was 4.36:1,000 livebirths. At the time of initial diagnosis, 22 cases (44.8%) were asymptomatic. Among these patients, 1 case had serious cardiac anomaly, i.e., tetralogy of Fallot. There were 27 cases with symptoms, including 15 cases (30.6%) with tachypnea, 8 cases (16.4%) with cyanosis and 4 cases (8.2%) with congestive heart failure. The 3 most common cardiac diseases were ventricular septal defect (9 cases, 18.4%), patent ductus arteriosus greater than 2 mm. (8 cases, 16.3%), and atrial septal defect (8 cases, 16.3%). Those with CHDs were treated with anticongestive medications (22 cases, 44.8%), prostaglandin E1 (5 cases, 10.2%), laser pulmonary vulvulotomy (1 case, 2%), palliative surgery within the first week of life (4 cases, 8.2%) and corrective surgery (4 cases, 8.2%). During follow-up for the period of 1 year, 2 cases died from sepsis. Early diagnosis and proper management are important to reduce morbidity and mortality in the newborn with CHD.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 11/2005; 88 Suppl 8(Suppl 8):S163-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as supplementation to conventional antifailure drugs on quality of life and cardiac function in children with chronic heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The study was an open-label prospective study performed in two of the largest pediatric centers in Thailand from August 2000 to June 2003. A total of 15 patients with idiopathic chronic DCM were included, with the median age of 4.4 years (range, 0.6-16.3). Presenting symptoms were congestive heart failure in 12 cases (80%), cardiogenic shock in 2 cases (13.3%), and cardiac arrhythmia in 1 case (6.7%). Sixty-one percent of patients were in the New York Heart Association functional class 2 (NYHA 2), 31% in NYHA 3, and 8% in NYHA 4. Cardiothoracic ratio from chest x-ray, left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular end diastolic dimension in echocardiogram were 0.62 (range, 0.55-0.78), 30% (range, 20-40), and 5.2 cm (range, 3.8-6.5), respectively. CoQ10 was given at a dosage of 3.1 ? 0.6 mg/kg/day for 9 months as a supplementation to a fixed amount of conventional antifailure drugs throughout the study. At follow-up periods of 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, NYHA functional class was significantly improved, as was CT ratio and QRS duration at 3 and 9 months follow-up with CoQ10 when compared to the baseline and post-discontinuation of CoQ10 at 9 months (range, 4.8-10.8). However, when multiple comparisons were taken into consideration, there was no statistical significant improvement. In addition to the conventional antifailure drugs, CoQ10 may improve NYHA class and CT ratio and shorten ventricular depolarization in children with chronic idiopathic DCM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chylothorax and chylopericardium are rare conditions occurring in infants and children. Both may be traumatic or nontraumatic in origin. We reviewed our experiences with the management of sixteen pediatric cases (10 males, 6 females; 11-days to 14-years old) of chylothorax and chylopericardium from 1997 to 2003. There were fifteen cases of chylothorax (9 left, 2 right, 4 bilateral) and two cases of chylopericardium (1 isolated and 1 associated with chylothorax), and their incidences of occurrence after cardiothoracic surgery were 0.89% and 0.12%, respectively. Of the fifteen cases occurring after cardiothoracic surgery, thirteen patients had corrective or palliative surgery for complex congenital heart disease, and two patients had removal of thymolipoma and neuroblastoma, respectively. Included also in this review was an 11-day old preterm infant with hydrops fetalis and congenital heart disease who developed chylothorax. Characteristics of chylous effusion included a presence of whitish opaque fluid in the pleural cavity and the pericardial cavity, having a triglyceride content ranging from 59 to 1689 mg/dl which was higher than a plasma triglyceride, a protein content of 2.4 to 7.4 g/dl, and a presence of lymphocyte predominance. The average latent period for diagnosis of chylothorax or chylopericardium was 13 days (range 3-30). All patients were treated primarily with nutritional modification using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) instead of long-chain triglycerides in their diet; and only a few cases needed bowel rest with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twelve patients completely responded to a MCT-rich diet; two cases resolved after switching to TPN and another case needed surgery for ligation of lymphatic vessels around the thymus gland. The mean duration of lymph drainage was 12.1 days (range 3-29) and the average length of time of continued conservative treatment (MCT-rich diet and TPN) was 29.8 days (range 18-47). Fourteen patients (87.25%) had good outcome, i.e. resolution from chylothorax or chylopericardium and return to normal diet. Two of the fourteen patients developed severe infections; one was diagnosed with suspected bacterial endocarditis and the other had candidemia. However, both responded well to antibacterial and antifungal drugs, respectively. One case succeeded after surgery. A case that had low compliance with dietary recommendations and required repeated placement of drainage devices died due to infection with enterococcal septicemia. Early and good compliance with MCT-rich diet is essential for achieving a favorable outcome in the management of chylothorax and chylopericardium in children.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2005; 14(2):182-7. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the use of serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) level as a noninvasive indicator to diagnose acute myocarditis in children. Noninvasive conventional methods often fail to diagnose myocarditis, A median cTnT level of 0.088 ng/ml (0.04-3.11) was reported in pediatric patients with acute myocarditis in our previous study. Hence, we attempted to determine the cutfoff level of cTnT to diagnose acute myocarditis in children. Pediatric patients with clinically suspected myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and a control group were recruited. History, physical examination, elctrocardiogram, chest roentgenogram, echocardiogram, cTnT level, and/or endomyocardial biopsy and clinical course were studied. The gold standard to diagnose acute myocarditis was endomyocardial biopsy proved according to the Dallas criteria and/or recovery from cardiovascular problems within 6 months of follow-up. Forty-three patients were admitted due to cardiovascular problems from primary myocardial dysfunction. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed as acute myocarditis (group 1), 19 were idiopathic chronic DCM (group 2), and 21 patients had moderate to large ventricular septal defect and congestive heart failure (group 3). Median cTnT level was statistically higher in (group 1) compared to groups 2 and 3. Ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDd) z score of acute myocarditis were 38.5% (range, 21-67) and 1.3 (range, -0.8-3.0), respectively, which were significantly better than DCM [28.0% (range, 17-45) and 6.0 (range, 2.0-10.0)]. The cutoff point of cTnT level to diagnose acute myocarditis was 0.052 ng/ml (sensitivity, 71%; specificity, 86%). cTnT level, EF, and LVEDd z score did not predict short-term outcomes of patients. In acute myocarditis, cTnT level and EF were significantly higher and LVEDd z score was significantly lower than in DCM. However, the three parameters had no significant effect on outcomes of the patients. Our data show that cardiac a cTnT level of 0.052 ng/ml is an appropriate cutoff point for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical closure of membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) is performed by open heart surgery with a small but significant morbidity and mortality. The authors reported here the first group of patients who underwent transcatheter closure of membranous VSD.
Patients who had membranous VSD with significant left to right shunt as shown by echocardiogram were selected for closure. A standard right and left heart catheterization was done under general anesthesia. A complete arteriovenous wire loop from the aorta to the left ventricle and VSD out into right ventricle was formed in order to guide the delivery sheath into the VSD from the right ventricle. The authors used the new Amplatzer Membranous VSD Occluder (AGA Medical Corp., USA) to deploy in the VSD position.
There were 4 patients in the present study with age range of 2 to 24 years old (median: 4 years old). Their weight ranged from 10 to 45 kg (median: 12 kg). Qp:Qs ranged from 1.7-2.5 to 1. The device diameter selected was from 6 to 10 mm. All of them were placed without any residual shunt. At one month follow-up all the patients had echocardiographic examination which showed no evidence of residual shunt.
The authors demonstrated that transcatheter closure of membranous VSD could be safely and effectively performed in small children. This device also provided an opportunity for closure of VSD in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 11/2003; 86(10):911-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report a 7-year-old girl with univentricular heart physiology who developed prolonged pleural effusion due to discrete narrowing of the proximal right pulmonary artery, and progressive cyanosis which resulted from leakage of the atrial baffle, multiple veno-venous collaterals after the lateral tunnel Fontan operation. Percutaneous balloon-expandable stent implantation was used to correct the right pulmonary artery stenosis with an excellent result. Cyanosis was improved by coil embolization of the collaterals and occlusion of the baffle leakage with Amplatzer septal occluder. This is the first successful report in Thailand.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 05/2003; 86(4):369-75.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several cases of Kawasaki disease (KD) were unresponsive to the initial treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We retrospectively analyzed all children admitted with KD to determine the occurrence and variables associated with the initial IVIG treatment failure. All patients who fulfilled the criteria for KD and were treated with a single dose (2 g/kg) of IVIG between January 1995 and August 2001 were enrolled. An analysis of the patients who had initially failed to respond to IVIG was performed. A total of 120 patients were enrolled during the study period. There were 68 boys (56.7%). Fourteen patients (11.6%) were found to be unresponsive to initial IVIG treatment. Patients who were anemic (Hb<10 G/DL), had a high neutrophil count (> 75%), a high band count, and low albumin were at risk of failure to respond to a single dose of IVIG. We found no correlation among age, gender, days since starting IVIG treatment, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with failure of the initial IVIG treatment. There were 12 patients (10%) who developed coronary artery aneurysms. The failure of a single dose of IVIG treatment occured in up to 11.6% of our Kawasaki patients. We found that low hemoglobin (<10 G/DL), high neutrophil count (> 75%), high band count, and a low albumin were associated with the requirement for retreatment with a second dose of IVIG.