[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a longer life expectancy. The occurrence of irreversible damage has become a major concern. The present study assessed damage progression in patients with SLE over a 2-year period and identified baseline features associated with damage accrual. Two hundred and twenty-one patients that fulfilled criteria for SLE and had a follow-up longer than 6 months were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and immunological data were collected at baseline. Accumulated organ damage was scored using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Patients were prospectively followed and SDI assessment repeated at 2 years. At baseline 72 patients (33%) presented some irreversible damage, and after 2 years 53 had accrued new damage. The mean SDI for the whole cohort increased from 0.582 to 0.980. Damage progression was higher in ocular, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems. Older age [OR = 1.045; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.021-1.069; P = 0.03], presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (OR = 3.047; 95% CI 1.169-7.941; P = 0.02), steroid use (OR = 6.401; 95% CI 1.601-25.210; P = 0.008), azathioprine use (OR = 3.501; CI 1.224-10.012; P = 0.01), and hypertension (OR = 3.825; 95% CI 1.490-9.820; P = 0.005) were predictors of damage progression in multivariate analysis. Overall SDI increased over time, with some systems being affected more frequently. Demographic and clinical characteristics, co-morbidity, and treatment options may contribute to irreversible damage. It is necessary to determine whether the control of modifiable factors (e.g., hypertension and judicious use of medications) might prevent damage progression in SLE patients.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2009; 1173:822-8. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Portuguese patients and to identify differences in diseases expression related to sex and ethnicity.
Retrospective cohort analysis of patients with SLE followed at five Rheumatology Departments between 1976 and 2006. Demographic data, diseases manifestations, medications used, co morbidity and damage scores were recorded.
Five hundred forty four patients were studied, 93% female, 89% Caucasians, with an average age at disease diagnosis of 35 years. The most frequent clinical features were musculoskeletal (91%), cutaneous and mucous membrane (90%) and the hematological involvement (58%). Renal diseases and serositis occurred more often in males while myositis was more common in black patients. Immunological features included the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies in 99% of the patients, anti-DNA (76%) anti-SSA (33%), anti-SSB (20%), anti-RNP (26%), anti-Sm (22%), anticardiolipine (31%) and lupus anticoagulant (21%). Anti-SSA, anti-RNP, and anti-Sm antibodies were significantly more prevalent among black patients. The presence and severity of damage measured by SLICC/ACR was similar between sexes and ethnicities. In multivariate analyses diseases duration and the presence of hypertension showed a positive association, while educational and antimalarials were negatively associated with the presence of damage.
In this cohort of Portuguese patients SLE present clinical features similar to those observed in other predominantly Caucasian populations, albeit a higher prevalence of anti-RNP and anti-Sm antibodies was observed. Some particular features were associated with male sex and African ethnicity. Some socio-demographic and clinical variables were associated with damage accrual.