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Publications (12)12.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Breast milk provides the essential nutrients for infants in readily available form. The content of nitrogen in human milk is of great importance because it relates to the growth of infants in the early stage, and the composition of nitrogenated compounds varies according to the lactational stage. Three-hundred-and-three human milk specimens were obtained from 240 healthy mothers living in two different districts in Taiwan, and 264 specimens were used for the analysis. The crude protein content, total and free amino acid compositions as well as urea content were evaluated using pooled milk samples according to different lactational stages and geographical location. The crude protein content decreased sharply from colostrum (2.51 g/100 mL) to mature milk (1.25 g/100 mL). Total amino acids account for 80-85% of the crude protein throughout the whole lactation period. Crude protein also contained 30 to 35 mg/ 100 mL urea and 41 to 48 mg/ 100 mL free amino acids as non-protein nitrogen components. The ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids remained constant throughout the lactation period in spite of a decline in amino acid content. The amino acid composition per 1 g of nitrogen varied during the lactation period. The differences of these lactational changing patterns of individual amino acids were probably reflected by variation of the protein composition during lactation. The sum of free amino acid content ranged from 43 to 50 mg/100 mL in Taipei and 40 to 45 mg/100 ml, in Kaohsiung. Although the variations of free amino acids during the lactation period differed among amino acids, glutamic acid predominated in mature milk while phosphoethanolamine was predominant in colostrum.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 11/2000; 46(5):246-51. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The content of nucleotides and nucleosides of human milk was analyzed using a newly developed method for high performance liquid chromatography. By this method it is possible to analyze nucleotides and nucleosides simultaneously. Human milk was pooled according to season, lactation period, and geographical area. Three kinds of nucleosides--cytidine, uridine, and adenosine--and 6 kinds of nucleotides--5'-CMP, 5'-UMP, 5'-AMP, 5'-GMP, 5'-IMP, and 5'-CDP--were detected. Cytidine, 5'-CMP, and 5'-CDP predominated throughout lactation. Also there seemed to be geographical differences in nucleoside composition. The overall amounts of nucleotides and nucleosides were higher in winter than in summer. No nucleosides were detected in bovine milk, nor in bovine milk-based infant formula, and bovine milk contained much less nucleotides than human milk. These results suggest that nucleosides and nucleotides found in human milk may play some important roles in the development of infants.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 09/1995; 41(4):409-18. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides on lipid metabolism and learning ability, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a nucleotides-supplemented diet or a nucleotides-free diet for 5 weeks. The content of nucleotides in the diet was 1.0% and their composition resembled that in human milk. The content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and the ratio of PC to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the cerebral cortex of rats fed the nucleotides-supplemented diet were significantly higher than that of rats fed the nucleotides-free diet. However, there was no difference in the content of PC and the ratio of PC to PE in the liver between the two groups. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) in the cerebral PC fraction were higher in rats fed the nucleotides-supplemented diet. The learning ability of rats fed the nucleotides-supplemented diet, which was evaluated by the water-filled multiple T-maze test and passive avoidance test, was superior to the of rats fed the nucleotides-free diet. The results presented here suggest that dietary nucleotides may influence lipid metabolism of the cerebral cortex and contribute to the rise in learning ability of rats.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/1995; 59(7):1267-71. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of human milk fractions on clolera toxin B subunit binding to monosialoganglioside 1 (GM1) were investigated. Human milk, human defatted milk, whey, and a low-molecular-weight fraction of human milk inhibited the binding, but casein did not inhibit it. The inhibitory activity of whey from bovine-milk-based infant formula was less than that of whey from human milk. Differences in composition between human and bovine whey seemed to influence the extent of the inhibitory activity. Sialylated oligosaccharides were considered to be the possible components that inhibited cholera toxin. The effects of sialyllactose, a predominant sialylated component of human milk, on cholera toxin-induced diarrhea were investigated by the rabbit intestinal loop method. Sialyllactose inhibited the cholera toxin inducing fluid accumulation, although neither sialic acid nor lactose had an effect on it. The results suggest that sialyllactose is responsible for the inhibitory activity of milk on cholera toxin.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 04/1995; 59(3):417-9. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Tadashi Idota, Hiroshi Kawakami
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of milk gangliosides and their derivatives on the adhesion of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal carcinoma cell line, were investigated. Human milk gangliosides inhibited the adhesion of enterotoxigenic E. coli to Caco-2 cells in the same proportion, regardless of the lactational stage, but bovine milk gangliosides were less effective. The most effective inhibitor was monosialoganglioside 1 (GM1); the adhesion rate of enterotoxigenic E. coli in the presence of GM1 was less than 20% of the positive control. The adhesion of E. coli was also depressed to 31.4% by monosialoganglioside 3 (GM3). However, the inhibitory effect of disialoganglioside 3 (GD3) was less than that of GM3. GD3 lactone, ceramide lactoside, and N-acetylneuraminic acid did not inhibit E. coli adhesion to Caco-2 cells. GM3 also inhibited the adhesion of enteropathogenic E. coli to Caco-2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that GM3 possibly behaves as a physiological component in the intestinal tract of infants to protect them against enteric infections.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 02/1995; 59(1):69-72. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi. 01/1994; 47(3):203-208.
  • Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/1994; 58(7):1314-1315. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/1994; 58(9):1720-1722. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/1993; 57(7):1214-5. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/1993; 57(7):1214-1215. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition from binding of Cholera toxin (CT) to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells and ganglioside GM1 by lactoferrin (Lf) and kappa-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) from cow's milk was examined. Both Lf and GMP effectively reduced the CT-derived morphological changes in CHO-K1 cells. The competitive binding assay demonstrated that both Lf and GMP inhibited the binding of CT to GM1, although their affinity for CT was lower than that of GM1. The inhibitory effect of Lf and GMP seemed to be attributed to their terminal sialic acid, although the sugar chain sequence only partially fitted to the CT-receptor.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 03/1992; 56(2):195-8. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/1992; 56(2):195-198. · 1.21 Impact Factor