Anja Schmitt

Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (35)125.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: O6-Methyl-Guanine-Methyl-Transferase (MGMT) is an important enzyme of DNA repair. MGMT promoter methylation is detectable in a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN). A subset of pNEN responds to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). We wanted to correlate MGMT promoter methylation with MGMT protein loss in pNEN, correlate the findings with clinico-pathological data and determine the role of MGMT to predict response to temozolomide chemotherapy. Methods: We analyzed a well characterized collective of 141 resected pNEN with median follow up of 83 months for MGMT protein expression and promoter methylation using methylation specific PCR (MSP). A second collective of 10 metastasized, pre-treated and progressive patients receiving TMZ was used to examine the predictive role of MGMT by determining protein expression and promoter methylation using primer extension based quantitative PCR. Results: In both collectives there was no correlation between MGMT protein expression and promoter methylation. Loss of MGMT protein was associated with an adverse outcome, this prognostic value, however, was not independent from grade and stage in multivariate analysis. Promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with response to TMZ. Conclusion: Loss of MGMT protein expression is associated with adverse outcome in a surgical series of pNET. MGMT promoter methylation could be a predictive marker for TMZ chemotherapy in pNEN, but further, favourably prospective studies will be needed to confirm this result and before this observation can influence clinical routine. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neuroendocrinology 07/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been a diagnostic challenge for decades. The PAX8-PPARγ rearrangement has been detected in FTC and classic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). The aims of this study were to assess the presence of PAX8-PPARγ by using tissue microarrays in a large cohort of different thyroid neoplasms, and to assess its diagnostic and prognostic implications. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for PAX8-PPARγ was performed on 226 thyroid tumours, comprising FTCs (n = 59), PTCs (n = 126), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDs; n = 34), follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs; n = 5), and follicular tumours of unknown malignant potential (FTUMPs; n = 2). PAX8-PPARγ was detected in 12% of FTCs, 1% of PTCs, 7% of PDs, and in both cases of FTUMP. There was no correlation between the extent of capsular or vascular invasion and PAX8-PPARγ, or between lymph node or haematogenous metastasis and PAX8-PPARγ. Overall survival (OS), tumour-specific survival (TSS) and relapse-free-survival (RFS) were not influenced by PAX8-PPARγ. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the presence of PAX8-PPARγ in PDs and FTUMPs, whereas in FTCs and PTCs the prevalence of PAX8-PPARγ is lower than previously reported. PAX8-PPARγ did not correlate with invasiveness or affect prognosis in any tumour type.
    Histopathology 03/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human insulin gene enhancer-binding protein islet-1 (ISL1) is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of the neuroendocrine pancreatic cells. Recent studies identified ISL1 as a marker for pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. However, little is known about ISL1 expression in pancreatic poorly differentiated and in extrapancreatic well and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of ISL1 in 124 neuroendocrine neoplasms. Among pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, 12/13 with poor differentiation were negative, whereas 5/7 with good differentiation but a Ki67 >20% were positive. In extrapancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, strong positivity was found in Merkel cell carcinomas (25/25), pulmonary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (21/23), medullary thyroid carcinomas (9/9), paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas (6/6), adrenal neuroblastomas (8/8) and head and neck neuroendocrine carcinomas (4/5), whereas no or only weak staining was recorded in pulmonary carcinoids (3/15), olfactory neuroblastomas (1/4) and basaloid head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (0/15). ISL1 stained the neuroendocrine carcinoma component of 5/8 composite carcinomas and also normal neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid, adrenal medulla, stomach and colorectum. Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, regardless of their ISL1 expression, were usually TP53 positive. Our results show the almost ubiquitous expression of ISL1 in extrapancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms and neuroblastic malignancies and its common loss in pancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. These findings modify the role of ISL1 as a marker for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and suggest that ISL1 has a broader involvement in differentiation and growth of neuroendocrine neoplasms than has so far been assumed.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 15 March 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.40.
    Modern Pathology 03/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Both the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) and the International Union for Cancer Control/American Joint Cancer Committee/World Health Organization (UICC/AJCC/WHO) have proposed TNM staging systems for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. This study aims to identify the most accurate and useful TNM system for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. The study included 1072 patients who had undergone previous surgery for their cancer and for which at least 2 years of follow-up from 1990 to 2007 was available. Data on 28 variables were collected, and the performance of the two TNM staging systems was compared by Cox regression analysis and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. Differences in distribution of sex and age were observed for the ENETS TNM staging system. At Cox regression analysis, only the ENETS TNM staging system perfectly allocated patients into four statistically significantly different and equally populated risk groups (with stage I as the reference; stage II hazard ratio [HR] of death = 16.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14 to 123, P = .007; stage III HR of death = 51.81, 95% CI = 7.11 to 377, P < .001; and stage IV HR of death = 160, 95% CI = 22.30 to 1143, P < .001). However, the UICC/AJCC/WHO 2010 TNM staging system compressed the disease into three differently populated classes, with most patients in stage I, and with the patients being equally distributed into stages II-III (statistically similar) and IV (with stage I as the reference; stage II HR of death = 9.57, 95% CI = 4.62 to 19.88, P < .001; stage III HR of death = 9.32, 95% CI = 3.69 to 23.53, P = .94; and stage IV HR of death = 30.84, 95% CI = 15.62 to 60.87, P < .001). Multivariable modeling indicated curative surgery, TNM staging, and grading were effective predictors of death, and grading was the second most effective independent predictor of survival in the absence of staging information. Though both TNM staging systems were independent predictors of survival, the UICC/AJCC/WHO 2010 TNM stages showed very large 95% confidence intervals for each stage, indicating an inaccurate predictive ability. Our data suggest the ENETS TNM staging system is superior to the UICC/AJCC/WHO 2010 TNM staging system and supports its use in clinical practice.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 04/2012; 104(10):764-77. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:   Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) are an ongoing diagnostic challenge. Although the Turin consensus criteria for PDTC excluded consideration of oncocytic tumours, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification does recognise an oncocytic variant of conventional PDTC. The aims of this study were to establish whether the Turin criteria can be applied to oncocytic PDTC, and to determine if there are prognostic differences between conventional and oncocytic PDTC.   We applied the Turin criteria to 129 thyroid carcinomas. We identified 18 oncocytic PDTC and 16 conventional PDTC. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly worse outcome for oncocytic PDTC with regard to overall and tumour-specific survival but no difference for relapse-free survival, all of which were confirmed by multivariate analysis. There was no association of survival with gender, age or tumour stage.   The Turin criteria can be applied to oncocytic PDTC and patients with this variant have a decreased survival using conventional radioiodine treatment compared to conventional PDTC and might therefore be candidates for novel treatment modalities.
    Histopathology 02/2012; 60(7):1045-51. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poorly differentiated (PD) carcinomas of the thyroid are conceptually situated between well-differentiated (papillary or follicular) carcinomas and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Although the morphologic criteria for PD tumors are well defined, it is not clear how much of a PD area besides a well-differentiated component in a given tumor is required to allow such a diagnosis. We identified 42 patients suffering from thyroid carcinoma with an adverse clinical outcome. Fifty patients with follicular carcinoma were added as controls. We analyzed poorly differentiated areas by applying the Turin criteria of PD carcinomas. These criteria consisted of the presence of a solid/trabecular/insular growth pattern, lack of nuclear features of papillary carcinoma, and presence of 1 of the following features: (1) convoluted nuclei, (2) tumor necrosis, (3) 3 or more mitoses per 10 high-power fields. Using a cutoff value of 10% of PD areas per examined tumor surface, we identified a total of 35 PD carcinomas. Despite using a threshold of 10% of the tumor area as poorly differentiated, the survival data in a Kaplan-Meier analysis were significantly worse than those in the control group (P<0.001) and did not differ from tumors with a PD area >50%. In a multivariate analysis that included age, sex, tumor stage, and PD area >10% against survival data, the only consistent significant factor was PD differentiation (P<0.001). As even slight amounts of PD areas (≥ 10%) in a thyroid carcinoma affect the prognosis significantly, the presence of such areas may be worth reporting in thyroid carcinomas.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 12/2011; 35(12):1866-72. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently identified the transcription factor (TF) islet 1 gene product (ISL1) as a marker for well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NETs). In order to better understand the expression of the four TFs, ISL1, pancreatico-duodenal homeobox 1 gene product (PDX1), neurogenin 3 gene product (NGN3), and CDX-2 homeobox gene product (CDX2), that mainly govern the development and differentiation of the pancreas and duodenum, we studied their expression in hormonally defined P-NETs and duodenal (D-) NETs. Thirty-six P-NETs and 14 D-NETs were immunostained with antibodies against the four pancreatic hormones, gastrin, serotonin, calcitonin, ISL1, PDX1, NGN3, and CDX2. The TF expression pattern of each case was correlated with the tumor's hormonal profile. Insulin-positive NETs expressed only ISL1 (10/10) and PDX1 (9/10). Glucagon-positive tumors expressed ISL1 (7/7) and were almost negative for the other TFs. Gastrin-positive NETs, whether of duodenal or pancreatic origin, frequently expressed PDX1 (17/18), ISL1 (14/18), and NGN3 (14/18). CDX2 was mainly found in the gastrin-positive P-NETs (5/8) and rarely in the D-NETs (1/10). Somatostatin-positive NETs, whether duodenal or pancreatic in origin, expressed ISL1 (9/9), PDX1 (3/9), and NGN3 (3/9). The remaining tumors showed labeling for ISL1 in addition to NGN3. There was no association between a particular TF pattern and NET features such as grade, size, location, presence of metastases, and functional activity. We conclude from our data that there is a correlation between TF expression patterns and certain hormonally defined P-NET and D-NET types, suggesting that most of the tumor types originate from embryologically determined precursor cells. The observed TF signatures do not allow us to distinguish P-NETs from D-NETs.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 08/2011; 459(2):147-54. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin-producing tumors of the pancreas are rare endocrine neoplasms composed of enterochromaffin (EC) cells that have been mainly described in the literature as case reports. This study analyzes the clinicopathologic features of a series of pancreatic EC cell neoplasms and their similarities to and differences from intestinal EC cell tumors. The morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and fluorescent in situ hybridization features of 15 pancreatic and 20 intestinal serotonin-producing neoplasms were compared. In addition, we reviewed the literature on pancreatic serotonin-producing tumors to better understand the clinicopathologic features of this rare tumor type. The lack of substance P and acidic fibroblast growth factor immunoreactivity; the low immunohistochemical expression of CDX2, vesicular monoamine transporter 1, connective tissue growth factor, and prostatic acid phosphatase; the lack of S100-positive sustentacular cells; the strong expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2; and peculiar ultrastructural features characterize pancreatic EC cell tumors and differentiate them from intestinal ones, although both categories show similar chromosome 18 cytogenetic alterations. The review of the literature indicates that pancreatic functioning tumors associated with the carcinoid syndrome arise in younger patients and are larger, more frequently malignant, and more aggressive neoplasms than pancreatic nonfunctioning ones. Pancreatic EC cell tumors show several different morphological features compared with related intestinal tumors despite similar cytogenetic alterations on chromosome 18.
    Pancreas 06/2011; 40(6):883-95. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) entities are rare malignancies. Higher awareness and improved diagnostic methods have led to an increasing incidence of these diseases, and most oncologists deal with such patients in their daily practice. The symposium on NETs that was held in Merano (Italy) in October 2009 was organized by the German-speaking European School of Oncology (dESO) and gathered specialists from different disciplines of transalpine countries to bring together experiences and observations regarding these tumors. The goal of the meeting and of this review was to illustrate both well- and poorly differentiated NETs and to encourage interdisciplinary approaches.
    Onkologie 01/2011; 34(3):139-46. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prediction of malignant behaviour of pheochromocytomas/sympathetic paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) is very difficult if not impossible on a histopathological basis. In a familial setting, it is well known that succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB)-associated PCC/PGL very often metastasise. Recently, absence of SDHB expression as measured through immunohistochemistry was shown to be an excellent indicator of the presence of an SDH germline mutation in PCC/PGL. SDHB loss is believed to lead to tumour formation by activation of hypoxia signals. To clarify the potential use of SDHB immunohistochemistry as a marker of malignancy in PCC/PGL and its association with classic hypoxia signalling we examined SDHB, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and its targets CA-9 and GLUT-1 expression on protein level using immunohistochemistry on a tissue micro array on a series of familial and sporadic tumours of 115 patients. Survival data was available for 66 patients. SDHB protein expression was lost in the tumour tissue of 12 of 99 patients. Of those 12 patients, 5 had an SDHB germline mutation, in 4 patients no germline mutation was detected and mutational status remained unknown in parts in 3 patients. Loss of SDHB expression was not associated with increased classic hypoxia signalling as detected by Hif-1α, CA-9 or GLUT-1 staining. Loss of SDHB expression was associated with an adverse outcome. The lack of correlation of SDHB loss with classic hypoxia signals argues against the current hypoxia hypothesis in malignant PCC/PGL. We suggest SDHB protein loss as a marker of adverse outcome both in sporadic and in familial PCC/PGL.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 12/2010; 17(4):919-28. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the lymphomas arising in the oral cavity are of B-cell origin. Among these, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are the most common. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas may exhibit more than one chromosomal rearrangement and are then referred to as 'double-hit' or 'triple-hit' lymphomas. We present a case of an intraoral 'double-hit' lymphoma in a 76-year-old male who had been referred by an oral surgeon in private practice. Intraoral examination exhibited a firm, exophytic lesion in the region of the right hard palate and buccal mucosa with extension to the soft palate. Radiographic examination exhibited a massive thickening of the right sinus membrane, and arrosion of the lateral and basal cortical sinus walls in the right maxilla. After diagnosis of the lesion, the patient was treated with six cycles of chemotherapy. Lymphomas arising within the oral cavity account for less than 5% of all oral malignancies and typically affect the palatine tonsils and the palate. 'Double-hit' lymphomas are associated with older age, usually present with an advanced stage of disease, and show an aggressive clinical behaviour. They normally have a poor prognosis, even when treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. Nevertheless, in the case presented, the patient was free of symptoms 1 year after initial diagnosis.
    Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 10/2010; 16(1):69-74.
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    ABSTRACT: After decades of confusion in lymphoma classification clearness was achieved with the publication of the REAL classification 1994 and of the WHO classification 2001. The revised 4th edition 2008 features some additional new categories. The WHO classification comprises B- and T-lymphoblastic neoplasms, mature B-cell lymphomas, mature T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphomas. A modern diagnostic work-up of lymphomas is based on morphology, immunohistochemistry and increasingly on molecular studies. Last but not least the evaluation of all these findings by an expert haematopathologist, who collaborates closely with the treating clinicians, is essential. The aim is to give an overview of the most frequent mature B-cell lymphomas and the most important classical Hodgkin lymphomas with focus on morphology and immunohistochemistry.
    Therapeutische Umschau 10/2010; 67(10):497-500.
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    ABSTRACT: ZusammenfassungNeuroendokrine Tumoren des gastroenteropankreatischen Systems (GEP-NET) sind charakterisiert durch die Expression neuroendokriner Marker sowie die Synthese, Speicherung und Sekretion von Peptidhormonen und/ oder biogenen Aminen. Es handelt sich um mehr als 50 unterschiedliche Tumorentitäten mit klinisch sehr unterschiedlichem Verlauf. Sie können sporadisch oder familiär auftreten. Die hohe biologische und klinische Vielfalt äußert sich in unterschiedlichen genetischen Profilen auf DNA- und mRNA-Ebene, welche wie folgt zusammengefasst werden können: 1. NET unterscheiden sich genetisch von den häufigen nichtneuroendokrinen Karzinomen des Verdauungstraktes. 2. Die klinisch-pathologische Heterogenität der GEP-NET spiegelt sich auch auf genetischer Ebene wider. 3. Bei pankreatischen NET finden sich deutliche genetische Unterschiede zwischen Insulinomen und anderen Entitäten. 4. Die Tumorprogression geht bei pankreatischen NET mit einer Zunahme von genetischen Veränderungen einher. 5. Pankreatische NET unterscheiden sich genetisch von gastrointestinalen NET. 6. Sporadische GEP-NET unterscheiden sich genetisch von hereditären (familiären) GEP-NET.
    Viszeralmedizin. 01/2010; 26:283-288.
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    ABSTRACT: ZusammenfassungNeuroendokrine Tumoren (NET) können in praktisch allen Organen auftreten. Ihre Biologie weist Gemeinsamkeiten, aber auch Unterschiede in Abhängigkeit von der Organlokalisation, der Histopathologie, der endokrinologischen Symptomatik und dem hereditären Hintergrund auf. Eine einheitliche Nomenklatur hinsichtlich Klassifikation, Graduierung und Stadieneinteilung dieser Tumoren ist Voraussetzung für die Prognoseabschätzung, das klinische Vorgehen, die Vergleichbarkeit internationaler Studien und die Erarbeitung von standardisierten Therapieschemen. Die Anwendung der Klassifikation der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) und der Tumor-Lymphknoten-Metastase(TNM)-Stadieneinteilung für alle NET ist hierfür von entscheidender Bedeutung. Die gegenwärtige Existenz zweier konkurrierender TNM-Einteilungen (Europäische Neuroendokrine Tumorgesellschaft (ENETS) und American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union against Cancer (AJCC/UICC)) ist unglücklich und erfordert eine vermehrte Aufmerksamkeit der Pathologen und Kliniker bei der abschließenden Klassifikation und Prognoseabschätzung eines NET.
    Viszeralmedizin. 01/2010; 26:234-240.
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    ABSTRACT: A small subset of familial pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) arises in patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and these tumors may have an adverse outcome compared to other familial PET. Sporadic PET rarely harbors somatic VHL mutations, but the chromosomal location of the VHL gene is frequently deleted in sporadic PET. A subset of sporadic PET shows active hypoxia signals on mRNA and protein level. To identify the frequency of functionally relevant VHL inactivation in sporadic PET and to examine a possible prognostic significance we correlated epigenetic and genetic VHL alterations with hypoxia signals. VHL mutations were absent in all 37 PETs examined. In 2 out of 35 informative PET (6%) methylation of the VHL promoter region was detected and VHL deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization was found in 14 out of 79 PET (18%). Hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1-alpha), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA-9), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) protein was expressed in 19, 27, and 30% of the 152 PETs examined. Protein expression of the HIF1-alpha downstream target CA-9 correlated significantly with the expression of CA-9 RNA (P<0.001), VHL RNA (P<0.05), and VHL deletion (P<0.001) as well as with HIF1-alpha (P<0.005) and GLUT-1 immunohistochemistry (P<0.001). These PET with VHL alterations and signs of hypoxia signalling were characterized by a significantly shortened disease-free survival. We conclude that VHL gene impairment by promoter methylation and VHL deletion in nearly 25% of PET leads to the activation of the HIF-pathway. Our data suggest that VHL inactivation and consecutive hypoxia signals may be a mechanism for the development of sporadic PET with an adverse outcome.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 08/2009; 16(4):1219-27. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumors of the disseminated/diffuse neuroendocrine system (NET) are characterized by a common phenotype. However, the biology varies according to histomorphology, endocrine symptoms and organ of origin. The WHO classification takes these differences into account and uses a common framework, where the parameters size and extent of invasion vary according to the organ of origin. In order to achieve a further standardization of reporting the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) recently proposed a tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging and grading system for gastro-entero-pancreatic NET.
    Der Radiologe 03/2009; 49(3):198-205. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multicentric insulinoma disease was characterized with regard to its histopathology, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) status, precursor lesions, and the risk of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia recurrence. Fourteen patients with multicentric insulinoma disease were compared with 267 patients with sporadic and familial insulinomas. The tumors were classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The MEN1 status was defined clinically and by germline mutation analysis. Detection of the MEN1 gene locus was performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The surgical interventions and the duration of disease-free survival were recorded. Fourteen patients (5%) without evidence of MEN1 showed 53 macrotumors and 285 microtumors expressing exclusively insulin. In addition, they had small proliferative insulin-expressing monohormonal endocrine cell clusters (IMECCs). No allelic loss of the MEN1 locus was detected in 64 tumors. All but one patient had benign disease. Recurrent hypoglycemia occurred in 6/14 patients (11 recurrences; mean time to relapse 8.4 y). Thirteen patients with MEN1 (4.6%) showed 41 insulinomas and 133 tumors expressing islet hormones other than insulin. IMECCs were not detected. Allelic loss of the MEN1 locus was found in 17/19 insulinomas. Recurrent hypoglycemia occurred in 4/13 patients (4 recurrences; mean time to relapse 14.5 y). Solitary insulinomas were found in 254/281 patients (90.4%). IMECCs were absent. There was no recurrent hypoglycemia in 84 patients with benign insulinomas. Insulinomatosis is characterized by the synchronous and metachronous occurrence of insulinomas, multiple insulinoma precursor lesions, and rare development of metastases, but common recurrent hypoglycemia. This disease differs from solitary sporadic and MEN1-associated insulinomas.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 12/2008; 33(3):339-46. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-producing tumors are either solitary neoplasms of the pancreas, occasionally associated with a glucagonoma syndrome, or multiple neoplasms associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). We observed a previously undescribed multicentric glucagon-producing tumor disease that is not related to MEN1. Pancreatic tissue from four patients showing multiple neuroendocrine microadenomas and in two cases also macrotumors were screened for hormones using immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. MEN1, von Hippel-Lindau, and p27 germ line and somatic mutation analysis was performed. Deletion of MEN1 (11q13), von Hippel-Lindau (3p25), and the centromere 11 and 3 gene locus was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. DNA copy number changes were studied using array comparative genomic hybridization. The pancreatic tissue from the four patients contained more than 870 microadenomas and 10 macrotumors, all of which expressed exclusively glucagon and none of which showed evidence of malignancy. In addition, many islets were unusually large and showed glucagon cell hyperplasia. There was no clinical or molecular evidence of any hereditary tumor disease, and changes in the MEN1 gene were only seen in individual tumors. Array comparative genomic hybridization of one macrotumor and 20 pooled microadenomas revealed a homogeneous diploid chromosome set. The findings are sufficiently distinctive to suggest a new neoplastic disease of the endocrine pancreas that we recommend calling glucagon cell adenomatosis. Clinically, this disease may be an incidental finding, or it may lead to a glucagonoma syndrome.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 11/2008; 94(1):213-7. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrinoma tissue has been found frequently in lymph nodes located near the duodenum without a known primary tumor. Therefore, it has been suggested that a primary lymph node gastrinoma exists. We report on a 38-year-old woman suffering from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) confirmed by menin gene mutation analysis. MEN1 disease started with primary hyperparathyroidism followed by Cushing disease, the detection of tumors of the pituitary, adrenal cortex, and the pancreas and also an elevated serum gastrin level. An octreotide scan revealed 4 tumors in the upper abdomen. A selective arterial calcium stimulation test located the source of the hypergastrinemia to the area of the gastroduodenal and the superior mesenteric arteries. Total pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and conventional histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated cystic neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas expressing glucagon and accompanied by several microadenomas. In addition, 3 suprapancreatic lymph nodes with gastrin-positive endocrine tissue were found. None of the pancreatic microadenomas expressed gastrin and no duodenal endocrine tumor was found despite careful macroscopic examination. Only after complete embedding of the duodenal and pancreatic tissue in 65 paraffin blocks, 2 microgastrinomas (0.45 and 0.8 mm in diameter) were identified in the duodenum. It is concluded that duodenal gastrinomas that give rise to lymph node metastases may be so tiny that they are easily overlooked in a routine examination and that systematic tissue monitoring is required to identify them.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 07/2008; 32(7):1101-5. · 4.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

457 Citations
125.46 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2014
    • Universität Bern
      • • Institute of Animal Pathology
      • • Institut für Pathologie
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      • Institute of Pathology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2010–2013
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Pathology
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Zurich
      • Institute of Veterinary Pathology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2008
    • University of Tuebingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007–2008
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany