[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive lymphomas associated with poor prognosis with standard chemotherapy. Consolidation with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) may improve survival. We present 74 patients transplanted in first complete response (CR) from the Spanish Lymphoma and Autologous Transplantation Group cooperative group.
Median age was 46 years. Eighty-eight percent presented advanced (III-IV) Ann Arbor stage; 53% had B symptoms; 52% had high lactate dehydrogenase; 65% had two or three risk factors of the adjusted-International Prognostic Index; 58% presented a high Tumor score and in 14% more than two adverse factors of the Prognostic Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PIT) were observed.
With a median follow-up of 67 months from diagnosis, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 68% and progression-free survival (PFS) reached 63%. The multivariate analysis showed that the only factor associated with a shorter OS and PFS was the presence of more than two risk factors from the PIT risk system.
In a retrospective study with a prolonged follow-up, consolidation with ASCT in CR patients who had presented unfavorable prognostic factors at diagnosis substantially increased the OS and PFS when compared with conventional chemotherapy. The PIT risk system identified 14% of patients without benefit from ASCT consolidation. Thus, other innovative therapies are still necessary in certain cases.
Annals of Oncology 05/2007; 18(4):652-7. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdl466 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we evaluate the results of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) in 114 patients included in the GEL/TAMO registry between January 1990 and December 1999 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who failed to achieve complete remission (CR) with front-line conventional chemotherapy.
Sixty-eight per cent had a partial response (PR) and 32% failed to respond to front-line therapy. At transplant, 35% were chemoresistant and 29% had two to three adjusted International Prognostic Index (a-IPI) risk factors.
After HDC/ASCT, 57 (54%) of 105 patients evaluable for response achieved a CR, 16 (15%) a PR and 32 (30%) failed. Nine patients were not assessed for response because of early death due to toxicity. With a median follow-up of 29 months for alive patients, the survival at 5 years is 43%, with a disease-free survival for complete responders of 63%. The lethal toxicity was 8%. Multivariate analysis revealed a-IPI and chemoresistance to be predicting factors.
Our results show that one-third of patients who do not obtain a CR to front-line chemotherapy may be cured of their disease with HDC/ASCT. However, most chemoresistant patients pretransplant failed this therapy. For this population, as well as for those who presented with adverse factors of the a-IPI, pretransplant novel therapeutic modalities need to be tested.
Annals of Oncology 11/2004; 15(10):1504-9. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdh391 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over a 3-year period, 145 patients ineligible for myeloablative conditioning underwent reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from an HLA-identical sibling in a prospective study. The median age was 54 years, 88 patients were male and 61 patients were beyond the early-intermediate phase of their disease. The 100-day probability of developing grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 34%, and the 1-year probability of developing chronic extensive GVHD was 41%. The 1-year probabilities of transplant-related mortality (TRM), overall (OS) and progression-free survival were 20, 60 and 52%, respectively. Multivariate analyses found a better OS in: (i) patients <60 years; and (ii) recipients of a first SCT; and a higher TRM in: (i) age >60 years, (ii) recipients of a prior autologous SCT, and (iii) an ECOG performance status >1. The 1-year TRM in patients with 0 or 1 and >2 of the above-mentioned adverse prognostic factors were 17 vs 53%, respectively (P<0.001). In summary, our study shows that elderly patients have a higher TRM following an RIC protocol. However, age by itself should not preclude these RIC transplants, since TRM appears to be unacceptably high only in the presence of additional adverse factors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2004; 33(5):477-82. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1704379 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell immunophenotype constitutes an unfavorable prognostic factor in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue (HDC/ASCT) is the best salvage therapy for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas. However, results with this therapy in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) are not well defined.
From January 1990 to December 1999, 115 patients with PTCL underwent HDC/ASCT inside the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea (GEL-TAMO) registry. At diagnosis the median age was 41 years and 60% of patients presented with two or three risk factors from the adjusted International Prognostic Index (a-IPI). Thirty-two per cent of patients were transplanted in first complete response (CR), 62% in chemosensitive disease and 5% in refractory disease.
Eighty-six per cent of the patients attained a CR and 5% a partial response (PR). With a median follow-up of 37 months (range 1-133), overall survival (OS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 56%, 51% and 60%, respectively; for the 37 patients transplanted in first CR, OS and DFS at 5 years were 80% and 79%, respectively. Lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), a-IPI and disease status pre-transplant were associated with outcome.
More than half of patients with chemosensitive disease who were transplanted are expected to be alive at 5 years. We confirm the utility of the pre-transplant IPI system in predicting outcome. Salvage treatment results with HDC/ASCT in PTCL are similar to those found in corresponding aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
Annals of Oncology 01/2004; 14(12):1768-75. · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with primary refractory Hodgkin's disease (PR-HD) have a dismal prognosis when treated with conventional salvage chemotherapy. We analyzed time to treatment failure (TTF), overall survival (OS) and clinical variables influencing the outcome in patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for PR-HD and reported to the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO).
Sixty-two patients, 41 males and 21 females with a median age of 27 years (range 13-55) were analyzed. Forty-two patients (68%) had advanced stage at diagnosis, 47 (76%) presented with B symptoms and 29 (47%) with a bulky mediastinal mass. Seventy-five percent of the patients had received more than one line of therapy before ASCT. Thirty-three patients received bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic progenitors, and 29 peripheral blood. Six patients were conditioned with high-dose chemotherapy plus total-body irradiation and 56 received chemotherapy-based protocols.
One-year transplantation-related mortality was 14% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6% to 23%]. Response rate at 3 months after ASCT was 52% [complete remission in 21 patients (34%), partial remission in 11 patients (18%)]. Actuarial 5-year TTF and OS were 15% (95% CI 5% to 24%) and 26% (95% CI 13% to 39%), respectively. The presence of B symptoms at ASCT was the only adverse prognostic factor significantly influencing TTF [relative risk (RR) 1.75, 95% CI 0.92-3.35, P = 0.08]. The presence of B symptoms at diagnosis (RR 2.08, 95% CI 0.90-4.79, P = 0.08), MOPP-like regimens as first-line therapy (RR 3.84, 95% CI 1.69-9.09, P = 0.001), bulky disease at ASCT (RR 2.79, 95% CI 0.29-6.03, P = 0.009) and two or more lines of therapy before ASCT (RR 2.24, 95% CI 0.95-5.27, P = 0.06) adversely influenced OS.
In our experience, although overall results of ASCT in PR-HD patients are poor, one-quarter of the patients remain alive at 5 years. Despite this, other therapeutic strategies should be investigated in this group of patients to improve the outcome.
Annals of Oncology 06/2003; 14(5):745-51. · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been associated with a high transplant-related mortality (TRM) in patients who have failed a prior autologous SCT (ASCT). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens may reduce the toxicities and TRM of traditional myeloablative transplants. We report 46 adults who received a RIC peripheral blood SCT from an HLA-identical sibling in two multicenter prospective studies. The median interval between ASCT and allograft was 16 months, and the patients were allografted due to disease progression (n = 43) and/or secondary myelodysplasia (n = 4). Conditioning regimens consisted of fludarabine plus melphalan (n = 41) or busulphan (n = 5). The 100-day incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 42% (24% grade III-IV), and 10/30 evaluable patients developed chronic extensive GVHD. Early complete donor chimerism in bone marrow and peripheral blood was observed in 35/42 (83%) patients, and 16 evaluable patients had complete chimerism 1 year post transplant. With a median follow-up of 358 days (450 in 29 survivors), the 1-year incidence of TRM was 24%, and the 1-year overall (OS) and progression-free survival were 63% and 57%, respectively. Patients who had chemorefractory/ progressive disease, a low performance status or received GVHD prophylaxis with cyclosporine A alone (n = 32) had a 1-year TRM of 35% and an OS of 46%, while patients who had none of these characteristics (n = 32) had a 1-year TRM of 35% and an OS of 46% while patients who had none of these characteristics (n = 14) had a TRM of 0% and an OS of 100%. Our results suggest that adult patients who fail a prior ASCT can be salvaged with a RIC allogeneic PBSCT with a low risk of TRM, although patient selection has a profound influence on early outcome.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 08/2002; 30(2):63-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703606 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of 167 newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients, 83 patients were long (L)-form (50%), eight variable (V)-form (5%) and 76 short (S)-form (45%). The V-form and S-form groups presented a significantly higher percentage of patients with white blood cell counts > 10 × 109/l (P < 0·05). The S-form cases displayed a significantly higher number of cases with M3v microgranular features (P = 0·005) and CD34 expression (P < 0·0001). There were no differences between the three isoforms in complete remission (CR) rate (overall CR 90%), but the 3-year disease-free survival was lower for V-form cases than it was for L- and S-form cases (62% vs. 94% and 89%, P = 0·056). We conclude that the V-form and S-form types are associated with some negative prognostic features at diagnosis. However, our data were only able to demonstrate an association with adverse prognosis in the V-form type and, moreover, as the number of cases was limited, needs to be confirmed in large, uniformly treated series.
British Journal of Haematology 01/2002; 114(1):99 - 103. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02915.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have been shown to lead to engraftment of donor stem cells without the severe extra-haematological toxicities of traditional myeloablative transplants. Between December 1998 and December 2000, 76 patients underwent a RIC peripheral blood SCT in a prospective multicentre study. The median age was 53 years, and 57 patients were beyond the early phase of their disease. The conditioning regimens consisted of fludarabine (150 mg/m2) plus melphalan (140 mg/m2) or busulphan (10 mg/kg). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporin A plus short-course methotrexate. The preparative regimens were well tolerated. All patients experienced severe pancytopenia, but haematological recovery was prompt in all but two cases (early deaths). The 100-d probability of developing grade II–IV acute GVHD was 32% (10% grade III–IV), and the 1-year probability of developing chronic extensive GVHD was 43%. Early complete donor chimaerism was observed in 52/68 patients, and 16 evaluable patients were in complete chimaerism 1 year post transplant. With a median follow-up of 283 d (355 in 48 survivors), the 1-year probability of transplant-related mortality was 20%, and the 1-year overall and progression-free survivals were 60% and 55% respectively. In conclusion, RIC regimens lead to low early toxicity after allografting, with stable donor haematopoietic engraftment, with an apparent low risk of acute GVHD. Chronic GVHD, however, develops in a significant proportion of patients.
British Journal of Haematology 12/2001; 115(3):653 - 659. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.03153.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the occurrence of severe infections following 71 reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants (PBSCT) and 123 standard myeloablative PBSCT (MINI and STAND groups, respectively) from HLA-identical siblings. The probability of 1-year infection-related mortality (IRM) was 19% in the STAND group and 10% in the MINI group (log-rank, P = 0.3). On multivariate analysis the only significant variable associated with a higher risk of IRM was the development of moderate-to-severe GVHD (P = 0.005). The probability of developing CMV infection was 39% in the STAND group and 21% in the MINI group (P = 0.03) (43% and 21%, respectively, in seropositive donor/recipient pairs, P = 0.01), and the probability of developing CMV disease was 9.5% and 1%, respectively (P = 0.05) (11% and 1%, respectively, in seropositive donor/recipient pairs, P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of CMV infection identified four variables associated with a higher risk: CMV positive serostatus (P = 0.05), STAND transplant group (P = 0.02), the development of moderate-to-severe GVHD (P < 0.001) and a dose of CD34(+) cells infused below 6 x 10(6)/kg (P = 0.01). Invasive fungal infections and pneumonias of unknown origin did not differ between groups, and neither did other severe non-CMV viral infections and bacterial infections. Our results suggest that RIC allogeneic PBSCT may decrease the risk of dying from an opportunistic infection and reduces the occurrence of CMV infection and disease. Overall, the development of GVHD (acute or chronic) is an important risk factor for these complications. Other infections continue to pose a significant threat to recipients of RIC allografts, stressing that prophylactic and supportive measures are an important aspect in their care.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 08/2001; 28(4):341-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703150 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of 167 newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients, 83 patients were long (L)-form (50%), eight variable (V)-form (5%) and 76 short (S)-form (45%). The V-form and S-form groups presented a significantly higher percentage of patients with white blood cell counts > 10 x 10(9)/l (P < 0.05). The S-form cases displayed a significantly higher number of cases with M3v microgranular features (P = 0.005) and CD34 expression (P < 0.0001). There were no differences between the three isoforms in complete remission (CR) rate (overall CR 90%), but the 3-year disease-free survival was lower for V-form cases than it was for L- and S-form cases (62% vs. 94% and 89%, P = 0.056). We conclude that the V-form and S-form types are associated with some negative prognostic features at diagnosis. However, our data were only able to demonstrate an association with adverse prognosis in the V-form type and, moreover, as the number of cases was limited, needs to be confirmed in large, uniformly treated series.
British Journal of Haematology 08/2001; 114(1):99-103. · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze clinical outcome and significant prognostic factors for overall (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) in a group of 494 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT).
Detailed records from the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Transplante Autólogo de Médula Osea Spanish Cooperative Group Database on 494 HD patients who received an ASCT between January 1984 and May 1998 were reviewed. Two hundred ninety-eight males and 196 females with a median age of 27 years (range, 1 to 63 years) received autografts while in complete remission (n = 203) or when they had sensitive disease (n = 206) or resistant disease (n = 75) at a median time of 26 months (range, 4 to 259 months) after diagnosis. Most patients received high-dose chemotherapy without radiation for conditioning (n = 443). The graft consisted of bone marrow (n = 244) or peripheral blood (n = 250).
The 100-day mortality rate was 9%. The 5-year actuarial TTF and OS rates were 45.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.5% to 50.5%) and 54.5% (95% CI, 48.4% to 60.6%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the presence of active disease at transplantation, transplantation before 1992, and two or more lines of therapy before transplantation were adverse prognostic factors for outcome. Sixteen patients developed a secondary malignancy (5-year cumulative incidence of 4.3%) after transplantation. Adjuvant radiotherapy before transplantation, the use of total-body irradiation (TBI) in the conditioning regimen, and age > or = 40 years were found to be predictive factors for the development of second cancers after ASCT.
ASCT achieves long-term disease-free survival in HD patients. Disease status before ASCT is the most important prognostic factor for final outcome; thus, transplantation should be considered in early stages of the disease. TBI must be avoided in the conditioning regimen because of a significantly higher rate of late complications, including secondary malignancies.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2001; 19(5):1395-404. · 18.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of the most commonly used preparative regimens on the outcome of 395 patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), consecutively reported to the registry of the Spanish GEL/TAMO. Among them, 139 (35%) were autografted in 1st CR, 86 (22%) in 2nd/3rd CR, 124 (31%) had chemosensitive disease and 46 (12%) had chemoresistant disease. Conditioning consisted of chemotherapy-only in 348 patients (BEAM, 164; BEAC, 145; and CBV, 39) and radiochemotherapy with CY and TBI in 47. Median times to granulocyte, platelet recovery and to discharge were significantly shorter in the chemotherapy-only group. Early transplant-related mortality was significantly higher when using CY-TBI. After a median follow-up of 28 months, overall survival (OS) at 8 years of patients conditioned with BEAM or BEAC (58% (95% CI 50-66%)) was more favorable than with CBV (40% (95% CI 24-56%)), and significantly better than with CY-TBI (31% (95% CI 18-44%)). Multivariate analysis revealed that patients conditioned with chemotherapy-only regimens had improved OS, disease-free (DFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) when compared to those conditioned with CY-TBI. Status at transplant was also a powerful prognostic indicator. We conclude that preparative regimens consisting of chemotherapy-only seem more efficacious than CY-TBI as conditioning for DLCL, because of faster engraftment and greater anti-lymphoma effect, as indicated by improved OS, DFS and RFS.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 03/2001; 27(4):405-12. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1702795 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal function is one of the most important prognostic factors in multiple myeloma (MM). Patients with renal failure are generally excluded from high dose therapy even though they display a poor prognosis with conventional chemotherapy schemes. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of MM patients with renal insufficiency undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), including the evaluation of the quality of PB stem cell collections, kinetics of engraftment, transplant-related mortality, response to high dose chemotherapy and survival.
From a total of 566 valuable patients included in the MM Spanish ASCT registry, three groups of patients were defined: group BA, patients with abnormal renal function at diagnosis but normal at transplant (73 cases); group BB, patients with abnormal function both at diagnosis and at transplant (14 cases); and group AA (control group, 479 cases), patients who constantly had normal renal function.
Patients from groups BA and BB presented with a significantly higher number of adverse prognostic factors, reflecting that we were dealing with high tumor MM cases, as compared with patients from group AA. The number of mononuclear cells, CD34+ cells and CFU-GM cells collected in patients with non-reversible renal insufficiency was similar to those harvested in MM patients with normal renal function. Moreover, neutrophil and platelet engraftments were identical in patients with and without renal failure (days +11 and +12, respectively). By contrast, transplant-related mortality (TRM) was significantly higher in group BB patients (29%) than in groups BA (4.1%) and AA (3.3%). In multivariate analysis only three variables showed independent influence on TRM: poor performance status (ECOG 3), hemoglobin <9.5 g/dl and serum creatinine > or =5 mg/dl. The response to high dose therapy was independent of renal function. Interestingly, 43% of patients from group BB showed an improvement in renal function (creatinine < 2 mg/dl) after transplant. The three-year overall survival from transplantation was 56, 49 and 61% for the BB, BA and AA groups, respectively, with a statistically significant difference favoring group AA (P<0.01). PFS did not differ significantly between the three groups of patients. In multivariate analysis the only unfavorable independent prognostic factors for overall survival were poor performance status either at diagnosis or at transplant, high beta(2)-microglobulin levels, and no response to transplant. According to these results, ASCT is an attractive alternative for MM patients with renal insufficiency, and it should not constitute a criterion for exclusion from transplant unless patients display poor performance status and very high creatinine levels (>5 mg/dl).
The Hematology Journal 03/2000; 1(1):28-36. DOI:10.1038/sj/thj/6200003 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1989 we carried out a trial comparing allogeneic BMT to chemotherapy (CT) in 76 children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Ten years on we have clinically revised outcome to firmly establish the role of each treatment, to analyse the importance of length of first remission and to provide long-term actuarial results for disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse rate in each group. For 21 patients within the transplantation group, probability of DFS and relapse are 42.8 +/- 10.8% and 40.2 +/- 11.7% (s.e.), respectively. In the chemotherapy group, probability of DFS is 10.0 +/- 4.74% (P = 0.001) and probability of relapse 87.5 +/- 5.2% (P = 0.0004). These results strongly reflect those at initial analysis, confirming a key role of BMT in the management of ALL in second remission. Moreover, on univariate analysis only two factors influenced DFS: treatment group and length of first complete remission (less or more than 30 months from first CR). Thus, it seems clear that the best therapeutic option in early relapse is BMT, whereas DFS in late relapse is at the limit of significance (P = 0.07), with a higher relapse rate in the CT group. Although encouraging results using intensified rotational combination chemotherapy have been published, prospective randomised studies are needed to assess with certainty the best therapeutic option in these patients.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 07/1999; 23(12):1257-60. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1701802 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to determine if peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) collected after priming with G-CSF in AML in first complete remission (CR) can be used for autologous transplantation and to evaluate the efficacy of early intensification therapy as in vivo purging, we studied 35 consecutive patients with AML in first CR. After standard induction and consolidation chemotherapy, 24 of them were treated with one (10 patients) or two (14 patients) cycles of high-dose cytarabine plus etoposide prior to PBSC collection. G-CSF was used as the priming agent. Of the 35 patients scheduled for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), three relapsed before transplantation, and the 32 remaining underwent PBSCT. High-dose therapy consisted of either total body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide or busulphan plus cyclophosphamide. The median number of CD34+ cells infused was 3.24 x 10(6)/kg (range 0.15-14). The median times to reach a PMN count of 0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of 50 x 10(9)/l were 12 (8-28) and 30 (11-345) days, respectively. There was no transplant-related mortality. Twelve patients relapsed between 2 and 21 months post-PBSCT. With a median follow-up of 28 months, actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) is 52.41 +/- 9% in the intent-to-treat group and 57.4 +/- 9.8% in patients who underwent PBSCT. The probability of DFS is significantly higher for patients who receive early intensification therapy prior to both PBSC collection and PBSCT as compared with patients that do not: 68.8 +/- 10.27% vs 35.5 +/- 12.6%, P = 0.0418. These results indicate the feasibility of PBSCT in AML using G-CSF-mobilized PBSC. The use of intensification treatment as 'purging in vivo' prior both to collection of PBSC and PBSCT significantly reduces the risk of relapse in this group of patients.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 02/1998; 21(4):375-82. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1701102 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between January 1989 and November 1995, 259 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), 22 stage I, 57 stage II and 180 stage III at diagnosis were treated with myeloablative high-dose therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. The median time from diagnosis to transplantation was 17 months (6-112). At the time of transplant, 56 patients were in CR, 153 in PR, 25 were nonresponders and 25 had progressive disease. Mobilization of stem cells was performed with G-CSF alone in 141 cases, chemotherapy plus G-CSF in 65, chemotherapy plus GM-CSF in 36 and chemotherapy alone in 17 patients. The conditioning regimen consisted of high-dose melphalan alone in 96 patients, melphalan plus TBI in 73, busulfan plus melphalan in 56, busulfan plus cyclophosphamide in 27 and cyclophosphamide plus TBI in seven. The median durations of neutropenia (>0.5 x 10(9)/l) and thrombocytopenia (>20 x 10(9)/l) were 12 (5-118) and 13 days (5-360), respectively. Transplant-related mortality occurred in 11 patients (4%). Once a stable graft was achieved, 114 patients (44%) received maintenance treatment with recombinant alpha interferon (IFN-alpha). Among the 248 patients evaluable for response 125 (51%) had a CR and 100 had a PR (40%). The median duration of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after transplantation was 23 and 35 months, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that response status pretransplant, only one line of primary induction treatment and IFN-alpha maintenance treatment post-transplant significantly influenced OS. Female sex, pretransplant responsive disease, and treatment with IFN-alpha post-transplant were the factors significantly influencing PFS. The conditioning regimen and method of stem cell mobilization had no significant impact on OS and PFS. On multivariate analysis the only independent factors associated with a longer survival were the number of chemotherapy courses prior to autologous PBSC transplantation and the pretransplant response status. The present analysis from the Spanish Registry confirms the feasibility of autologous PBSC transplantation in myeloma patients with a very low toxicity (4% toxic deaths). The high complete response rate after transplantation is encouraging. The best results are obtained when the procedure is performed early after the first line of induction therapy and in patients with chemosensitive disease. Whether early high-dose therapy followed by autotransplantation in responding patients is superior to conventional chemotherapy is currently being investigated in prospective randomized studies.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 01/1998; 21(2):133-40. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1701062 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper, we evaluate tolerability, outcome and prognostic factors in patients with poor prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD) when uniformly treated with BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). On hundred and forty-eight patients with NHL (n = 112) or HD (n = 36) received BEAM followed by infusion of bone marrow (n = 55), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 79) or both (n = 14). Twenty-eight patients had low-grade lymphoma (LGL), 68 intermediate- and 16 high-grade lymphoma (IGL). Within the NHL group, 21 patients were in 2nd or subsequent complete remission (CR) at transplant, 34 had sensitive disease and 11 resistant disease; 46 patients were transplanted in 1st CR due to the presence of > or = 2 adverse prognostic features at diagnosis or to a slow CR. Of the HD patients at transplant 17 had active disease, 16 were in > or = 2 CR and three in 1st CR. The overall percentage of toxic deaths was 5.4%, while in the group of patients transplanted with PBSC it was only 1.3%. NHL patients: 78% were in CR following ASCT, including 25 out of 45 patients (56%) who were transplanted with active disease. Only two of the 11 patients transplanted with resistant disease achieved CR. Incidence of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years was 65 and 75%, respectively. As far as histology was concerned, OS was significantly better for patients with LGL in comparison with IGL (88 vs 56%) (P = 0.002). DFS was significantly higher for patients transplanted in first CR or first partial remission (PR) than it was for those transplanted in a later CR or PR (86 vs 53%) (P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis for OS showed that histology, bulky disease, poor performance status at transplant and achievement of CR were independent prognostic factors. In addition, a high number of infused MNC was associated with poor DFS. HD patients: 30 (83%) were in CR after transplantation, with 25 maintaining CR at the end of the study. Only one of the four patients transplanted with resistant disease reached CR. Incidence of OS and DFS at 3 years was 78 and 81%. DFS was similar for patients transplanted with early or late relapse (95 and 93%). With multivariate analysis, the only independent variable for OS was CR after transplant. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the efficacy and low toxicity of the BEAM regimen in high-risk lymphoma patients with sensitive disease. Other strategies should be investigated for patients with refractory lymphoma.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 09/1997; 20(6):451-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1700913 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although more than 50% of Hodgkin's disease patients are cured with conventional chemotherapy, many will relapse and eventually die from their disease. Many efforts have been made to identify poor prognostic factors that could be useful in selecting high-risk patients in 1st CR who may benefit from high-dose chemo/radiotherapy. However, the role of early transplantation in 1st CR remains unclear. We have retrospectively analyzed the results obtained with this procedure in 22 hospitals belonging to the Spanish GEL/TAMO cooperative group. Twenty-seven patients, of whom 19 were males, underwent autologous transplantation for Hodgkin's disease in 1st CR between January 1987 and January 1996. Remission had been achieved after one (n = 22) or two (n = 5) lines of treatment. Twenty-four patients had advanced stage disease, 12 patients bulky mediastinal disease, nine bone marrow involvement and 18 had extranodal disease. Peripheral blood was used as the source of hematopoietic stem cells in 15 patients, BM in nine, and both in three. All but three patients received chemotherapy-based conditioning regimens (16 CBV, four BEAM and four BEAC), while three were conditioned with CY and TBI. There were no transplant-related deaths. Median (range) times to recover >0.5 x 10(9)/l neutrophils and >50 x 10(9)/l platelets were 14 (8-56) days and 16 (8-240) days, respectively. With a median follow-up of 30 (8-66) months, 21 patients are alive and in continuous CR. Four patients who relapsed after transplant at 8, 17.5, 22 and 26 months achieved a second CR with conventional chemotherapy; one patient relapsed 92 months post-transplant and died 5 months afterwards. Another patient died 30.5 months post-transplant from a secondary malignancy. In conclusion, high-dose therapy in poor prognosis Hodgkin's disease in 1st CR was well tolerated with no transplant-related mortalities. Although the follow-up of this series is relatively short, our results seem promising. Nevertheless, late relapses can occur, and the role of this procedure vs conventional treatment in very high-risk patients should be assessed in prospective randomized studies.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 08/1997; 20(4):283-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1700886 · 3.57 Impact Factor