Alexander L Klibanov

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

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Publications (184)931.21 Total impact

  • Christopher D Paschall · Alexander L Klibanov · Michael B Lawrence ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: During inflammation leukocyte attachment to the blood vessel wall is augmented by capture of near-wall flowing leukocytes by previously adherent leukocytes. Adhesive interactions between flowing and adherent leukocytes are mediated by L-selectin and P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) co-expressed on the leukocyte surface and ultimately regulated by hydrodynamic shear thresholding. Objective: We hypothesized that leukocyte deformability is a significant contributory factor in shear thresholding and secondary capture. Methods: Cytochalasin D (CD) was used to increase neutrophil deformability and fixation was used to reduce deformability. Neutrophil rolling on PSGL-1 coated planar surfaces and collisions with PSGL-1 coated microbeads were analyzed using high-speed videomicroscopy (250 fps). Results: Increased deformability led to an increase in neutrophil rolling flux on PSGL-1 surfaces while fixation led to a decrease in rolling flux. Abrupt drops in flow below the shear threshold resulted in extended release times from the substrate for CD-treated neutrophils, suggesting increased bond number. In a cell-microbead collision assay lower flow rates were correlated with briefer adhesion lifetimes and smaller adhesive contact patches. Conclusions: Leukocyte deformation may control selectin bond number at the flow rates associated with hydrodynamic shear thresholding. Model analysis supported a requirement for both L-selectin catch-slip bond properties and multiple bond formation for shear thresholding.
    Biorheology 11/2015; DOI:10.3233/BIR-15064 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    Tianxiong Wang · Rui Cao · Bo Ning · Adam J. Dixon · John A. Hossack · Alexander L. Klibanov · Qifa Zhou · Anbo Wang · Song Hu ·
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    ABSTRACT: We report on an implementation of all-optical photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), which capitalizes on the effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for optical detection of ultrasound. The SPR sensor in our all-optical PAM shows, experimentally, a linear response to the acoustic pressure from 5.2kPa to 2.1MPa, an ultra-flat frequency response (±0.7 dB) from 680kHz to 126MHz, and a noise-equivalent pressure sensitivity of 3.3kPa. With the broadband ultrasonic detection, our SPR-PAM has achieved high spatial resolution with relatively low anisotropy (i.e., 2.0μm laterally and 8.4μm axially). Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of a single melanoma cell is demonstrated.
    Applied Physics Letters 10/2015; 107(15):153702. DOI:10.1063/1.4933333 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides radiation-free, real-time imaging and assessment of atherosclerotic disease in terms of anatomical, functional, and molecular composition. The primary clinical applications of IVUS imaging include assessment of luminal plaque volume and real-time image guidance for stent placement. When paired with microbubble contrast agents, IVUS technology may be extended to provide nonlinear imaging, molecular imaging, and therapeutic delivery modes. In this review, we discuss the development of emerging imaging and therapeutic applications that are enabled by the combination of IVUS imaging technology and microbubble contrast agents.
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 09/2015; 62(9):1674-1685. DOI:10.1109/TUFFC.2015.007143 · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Alexander L Klibanov · John A Hossack ·
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    ABSTRACT: During the past decade, ultrasound has expanded medical imaging well beyond the "traditional" radiology setting: a combination of portability, low cost, and ease of use makes ultrasound imaging an indispensable tool for radiologists as well as for other medical professionals who need to obtain imaging diagnosis or guide a therapeutic intervention quickly and efficiently. Ultrasound combines excellent ability for deep penetration into soft tissues with very good spatial resolution, with only a few exceptions (ie, those involving overlying bone or gas). Real-time imaging (up to hundreds and thousands of frames per second) enables guidance of therapeutic procedures and biopsies; characterization of the mechanical properties of the tissues greatly aids with the accuracy of the procedures. The ability of ultrasound to deposit energy locally brings about the potential for localized intervention encompassing the following: tissue ablation, enhancing penetration through the natural barriers to drug delivery in the body and triggering drug release from carrier microparticles and nanoparticles. The use of microbubble contrast agents brings the ability to monitor and quantify tissue perfusion, and microbubble targeting with ligand-decorated microbubbles brings the ability to obtain molecular biomarker information, that is, ultrasound molecular imaging. Overall, ultrasound has become the most widely used imaging modality in modern medicine; it will continue to grow and expand.
    Investigative radiology 07/2015; 50(9). DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000188 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to optically verify the dynamic behaviors of adherent microbubbles in large blood vessel environments in response to a new ultrasound technique using modulated acoustic radiation force. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flow channels coated with streptavidin were used in targeted groups to mimic large blood vessels. The custom-modulated acoustic radiation force beam sequence was programmed on a Verasonics research scanner. In vitro experiments were performed by injecting a biotinylated lipid-perfluorobutane microbubble dispersion through flow channels. The dynamic response of adherent microbubbles was detected acoustically and simultaneously visualized using a video camera connected to a microscope. In vivo verification was performed in a large abdominal blood vessel of a murine model for inflammation with injection of biotinylated microbubbles conjugated with P-selectin antibody. Aggregates of adherent microbubbles were observed optically under the influence of acoustic radiation force. Large microbubble aggregates were observed solely in control groups without targeted adhesion. Additionally, the dispersion of microbubble aggregates were demonstrated to lead to a transient acoustic signal enhancement in control groups (a new phenomenon we refer to as "control peak"). In agreement with in vitro results, the control peak phenomenon was observed in vivo in a murine model. This study provides the first optical observation of microbubble-binding dynamics in large blood vessel environments with application of a modulated acoustic radiation force beam sequence. With targeted adhesion, secondary radiation forces were unable to produce large aggregates of adherent microbubbles. Additionally, the new phenomenon called control peak was observed both in vitro and in vivo in a murine model for the first time. The findings in this study provide us with a better understanding of microbubble behaviors in large blood vessel environments with application of acoustic radiation force and could potentially guide future beam sequence designs or signal processing routines for enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging.
    Investigative radiology 07/2015; 50(11). DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000185 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although reperfusion is essential in restoring circulation to ischemic myocardium, it also leads to irreversible events including reperfusion injury, decreased cardiac function and ultimately scar formation. Various cell types are involved in the multi-phase repair process including inflammatory cells, vascular cells and cardiac fibroblasts. Therapies targeting these cell types in the infarct border zone can improve cardiac function but are limited by systemic side effects. The aim of this work was to develop liposomes with surface modifications to include peptides with affinity for cell types present in the post-infarct myocardium. To identify peptides specific for the infarct/border zone, we used in vivo phage display methods and an optical imaging approach: fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). We identified peptides specific for cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, myofibroblasts, and c-Kit+cells present in the border zone of the remodeling infarct. These peptides were then conjugated to liposomes and in vivo specificity and pharmacokinetics were determined. As a proof of concept, cardiomyocyte specific (I-1) liposomes were used to deliver a PARP-1 (Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1) inhibitor: AZ7379. Using a targeted liposomal approach, we were able to increase AZ7379 availability in the infarct/border zone at 24h post-injection as compared to free AZ7379. We observed ~3-fold higher efficiency of PARP-1 inhibition when all cell types were assessed using I-1 liposomes as compared to negative control peptide liposomes (NCP). When analyzed further, I-1 liposomes had a 9-fold and 1.5-fold higher efficiency in cardiomyocytes and macrophages, respectively, as compared to NCP liposomes. In conclusion, we have developed a modular drug delivery system that can be targeted to cell types of therapeutic interest in the infarct border zone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Controlled Release 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.06.017 · 7.71 Impact Factor
  • Alexander Klibanov · Zhongmin Du · Galina Diakova ·

    06/2015; 3(Suppl 1):P66. DOI:10.1186/2050-5736-3-S1-P66
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in MECP2, encoding the epigenetic regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, are the predominant cause of Rett syndrome, a disease characterized by both neurological symptoms and systemic abnormalities. Microglial dysfunction is thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis, and here we found microglia become activated and subsequently lost with disease progression in Mecp2-null mice. Mecp2 was found to be expressed in peripheral macrophage and monocyte populations, several of which also became depleted in Mecp2-null mice. RNA-seq revealed increased expression of glucocorticoid- and hypoxia-induced transcripts in Mecp2-deficient microglia and peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, Mecp2 was found to regulate inflammatory gene transcription in response to TNF stimulation. Postnatal re-expression of Mecp2 using Cx3cr1creER increased the lifespan of otherwise Mecp2-null mice. These data suggest that Mecp2 regulates microglia and macrophage responsiveness to environmental stimuli to promote homeostasis. Dysfunction of tissue-resident macrophages might contribute to the systemic pathologies observed in Rett syndrome.
    Immunity 04/2015; 42(4):679–691. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.03.013 · 21.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Potent therapeutic compounds with dose dependent side effects require more efficient and selective drug delivery to reduce systemic drug doses. Here, we demonstrate a new platform that combines intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and drug-loaded microbubbles to enhance and localize drug delivery, while enabling versatility of drug type and dosing. Localization and degree of delivery with IVUS and microbubbles was assessed using fluorophore-loaded microbubbles and different IVUS parameters in ex vivo swine arteries. Using a swine model of neointimal hyperplasia, reduction of neointima formation following balloon injury was evaluated when using the combination of IVUS and sirolimus-loaded microbubbles. IVUS and microbubble enhanced fluorophore delivery was greatest when applying low amplitude pulses in the ex vivo model. In the in vivo model, neointima formation was reduced by 50% after treatment with IVUS and the sirolimus-loaded microbubbles. This reduction was achieved with a sirolimus whole blood concentration comparable to a commercial drug-eluting stent (0.999 ng/mL). We anticipate this therapy will find clinical use localizing drug delivery for numerous other diseases in addition to serving as an adjunct to stents in treating atherosclerosis.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 04/2015; 43(11). DOI:10.1007/s10439-015-1315-6 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances, treatment options for advanced prostate cancer (CaP) remain limited. We are pioneering approaches to treat advanced CaP that employ conditionally replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses that simultaneously produce a systemically active cancer-specific therapeutic cytokine, mda-7/IL-24, Cancer Terminator Viruses (CTV). A truncated version of the CCN1/CYR61 gene promoter, tCCN1-Prom, was more active than progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) in regulating transformation-selective transgene expression in CaP and oncogene-transformed rat embryo cells. Accordingly, we developed a new CTV, Ad.tCCN1-CTV-m7, which displayed dose-dependent killing of CaP without harming normal prostate epithelial cells in vitro with significant anti-cancer activity in vivo in both nude mouse CaP xenograft and transgenic Hi-Myc mice (using ultrasound-targeted microbubble (MB)-destruction, UTMD, with decorated MBs). Resistance to mda-7/IL-24-induced cell deathcorrelated with overexpression of Bcl-2 family proteins. Inhibiting Mcl-1 using an enhanced BH3 mimetic, BI-97D6, sensitized CaP cell lines to mda-7/IL-24-induced apoptosis. Combining BI-97D6 with Ads expressing mda-7/IL-24promoted ER stress, decreased anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 expression and enhanced mda-7/IL-24expression through mRNA stabilization selectively in CaP cells. In Hi-myc mice, the combination induced enhanced apoptosis and tumor growth suppression. These studies highlight therapeutic efficacy of combining a BH3 mimetic with a novel CTV, supporting potential clinical applications for treating advanced CaP.
    Oncotarget 03/2015; 6(13). DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.3544 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    Adam J. Dixon · Song Hu · Alexander L. Klibanov · John A. Hossack ·
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    ABSTRACT: Microbubbles bearing plasmonic nanoparticles on their surface provide contrast enhancement for both photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. In this work, the responses of microbubbles with surface-bound gold nanorods-termed AuMBs-to nanosecond pulsed laser excitation are studied using high-speed microscopy, photoacoustic imaging, and numerical modeling. In response to laser fluences below 5 mJ cm(-2) , AuMBs produce weak photoacoustic emissions and exhibit negligible microbubble wall motion. However, in reponse to fluences above 5 mJ cm(-2) , AuMBs undergo dramatically increased thermal expansion and emit nonlinear photoacoustic waves of over 10-fold greater amplitude than would be expected from freely dispersed gold nanorods. Numerical modeling suggests that AuMB photoacoustic responses to low laser fluences result from conductive heat transfer from the surface-bound nanorods to the microbubble gas core, whereas at higher fluences, explosive boiling may occur at the nanorod surface, producing vapor nanobubbles that contribute to rapid AuMB expansion. The results of this study indicate that AuMBs are capable of producing acoustic emissions of significantly higher amplitude than those produced by conventional sources of photoacoustic contrast. In vivo imaging performance of AuMBs in a murine kidney model suggests that AuMBs may be an effective alternative to existing contrast agents for noninvasive photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Small 02/2015; 11(25). DOI:10.1002/smll.201403398 · 8.37 Impact Factor
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    Ali H Dhanaliwala · Adam J Dixon · Dan Lin · Johnny L Chen · Alexander L Klibanov · John A Hossack ·
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    ABSTRACT: Microfluidics-based production of stable microbubbles for ultrasound contrast enhancement or drug/gene delivery allows for precise control over microbubble diameter but at the cost of a low production rate. In situ microfluidic production of microbubbles directly in the vasculature may eliminate the necessity for high microbubble production rates, long stability, or small diameters. Towards this goal, we investigated whether microfluidic-produced microbubbles directly administered into a mouse tail vein could provide sufficient ultrasound contrast. Microbubbles composed of nitrogen gas and stabilized with 3 % bovine serum albumin and 10 % dextrose were injected for 10 seconds into wild type C57BL/6 mice, via a tail-vein catheter. Short-axis images of the right and left ventricle were acquired at 12.5 MHz and image intensity over time was analyzed. Microbubbles were produced on the order of 10(5) microbubbles/s and were observed in both the right and left ventricles. The median rise time, duration, and decay time within the right ventricle were 2.9, 21.3, and 14.3 s, respectively. All mice survived the procedure with no observable respiratory or heart rate distress despite microbubble diameters as large as 19 μm.
    Biomedical Microdevices 02/2015; 17(1):9914. DOI:10.1007/s10544-014-9914-9 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111280. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111280 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Shiying Wang · F. William Mauldin Jr · Alexander L. Klibanov · John A. Hossack ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound molecular imaging has demonstrated efficacy in pre-clinical studies for cancer and cardiovascular inflammation. However, these techniques often require lengthy protocols because of waiting periods or additional control microbubble injections. Moreover, they are not capable of quantifying molecular marker concentration in human tissue environments that exhibit variable attenuation and propagation path lengths. Our group recently investigated a modulated acoustic radiation force-based imaging sequence, which was found to detect targeted adhesion independent of control measurements. In the present study, this sequence was tested against various experimental parameters to determine its feasibility for quantitative measurements of molecular marker concentration. Results indicated that measurements obtained from the sequence (residual-to-saturation ratio, Rresid) were independent of acoustic pressure and attenuation (p > 0.13, n = 10) when acoustic pressures were sufficiently low. The Rresid parameter exhibited a linear relationship with measured molecular marker concentration (R2 > 0.94). Consequently, feasibility was illustrated in vitro, for quantification of molecular marker concentration in large vessels using a modulated acoustic radiation force-based sequence. Moreover, these measurements were independent of absolute acoustic reflection amplitude and used short imaging protocols (3 min) without control measurements.
    Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 10/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.07.001 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from cell membranes in response to activation, cell injury, or apoptosis. The clinical importance of MPs has become increasingly recognized, although no standardized method exists for their measurement. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the most commonly used technique, however, because of the small size of MPs, and the limitations of current FCM instrumentation, accurate identification is compromised by this methodology. We decided to investigate whether the use of FCM combined with imaging, such as is possible with the ImagestreamX imaging FC (ISX), would be a more sensitive approach to characterizing MPs. Combining FCM with imaging eliminates some of the limitations demonstrated by conventional FCM, whereas also providing morphological confirmation and the ability to distinguish true single events from aggregates and cell debris. The detection limit of standard nonspecialized FCM is suboptimal when compared to ISX. Evaluating MPs below 0.200 µm and sizing remain a challenge as some MPs remain below the detection limit of ISX. Standardized calibrators, that more closely reflect the physical characteristics of MPs, need further development. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
    Cytometry Part A 09/2014; 85A(9). DOI:10.1002/cyto.a.22494 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Joseph P Kilroy · Alexander L Klibanov · Brian R Wamhoff · Douglas K Bowles · John A Hossack ·
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    ABSTRACT: An intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and microbubble drug delivery system was evaluated in both ex vivo and in vivo swine vessel models. Microbubbles with the fluorophore DiI embedded in the shell as a model drug were infused into ex vivo swine arteries at a physiologic flow rate (105 mL/min) while a 5-MHz IVUS transducer applied ultrasound. Ultrasound pulse sequences consisted of acoustic radiation force pulses to displace DiI-loaded microbubbles from the vessel lumen to the wall, followed by higher-intensity delivery pulses to release DiI into the vessel wall. Insonation with both the acoustic radiation force pulse and the delivery pulse increased DiI deposition 10-fold compared with deposition with the delivery pulse alone. Localized delivery of DiI was then demonstrated in an in vivo swine model. The theoretical transducer beam width predicted the measured angular extent of delivery to within 11%. These results indicate that low-frequency IVUS catheters are a viable method for achieving localized drug delivery with microbubbles.
    Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 08/2014; 40(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.04.007 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Alison Burgess · Tam Nhan · Clare Moffatt · A.L. Klibanov · Kullervo Hynynen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) can cause temporary, localized increases in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability for effective drug delivery to the brain. In pre-clinical models of Alzheimer's disease, FUS has successfully been used to deliver therapeutic agents and endogenous therapeutic molecules to the brain leading to plaque reduction and improved behavior. However, prior to moving to clinic, questions regarding how the compromised vasculature in Alzheimer's disease responds to FUS need to be addressed. Here, we used two-photon microscopy to study changes in FUS-mediated BBB permeability in transgenic (TgCRND8) mice and their non-transgenic littermates. A custom-built ultrasound transducer was attached to the skull, covering a cranial window. Methoxy-X04 was used to visualize amyloid deposits in vivo. Fluorescent intravascular dyes were used to identify leakage from the vasculature after the application of FUS. Dye leakage occurred in both transgenic and non-transgenic mice at similar acoustic pressures but exhibited different leakage kinetics. Calculation of the permeability constant demonstrated that the vasculature in the transgenic mice was much less permeable after FUS than the non-transgenic littermates. Further analysis demonstrated that the change in vessel diameter following FUS was lessened in amyloid coated vessels. These data suggest that changes in vessel diameter may be directly related to permeability and the presence of amyloid plaque may reduce the permeability of a vessel after FUS. This study indicates that the FUS parameters used for the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain may need to be adjusted for application in Alzheimer's disease.
    Journal of Controlled Release 08/2014; 192. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.07.051 · 7.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including invasive brain tumors, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and stroke. Therapeutics must be capable of bypassing the BBB and also penetrate the brain parenchyma to achieve a desired effect within the brain. In this study, we test the unique combination of a noninvasive approach to BBB permeabilization with a therapeutically relevant polymeric nanoparticle platform capable of rapidly penetrating within the brain microenvironment. MR-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with intravascular microbubbles (MBs) is able to locally and reversibly disrupt the BBB with submillimeter spatial accuracy. Densely poly(ethylene-co-glycol) (PEG) coated, brain-penetrating nanoparticles (BPNs) are long-circulating and diffuse 10-fold slower in normal rat brain tissue compared to diffusion in water. Following intravenous administration of model and biodegradable BPN in normal healthy rats, we demonstrate safe, pressure-dependent delivery of 60nm BPNs to the brain parenchyma in regions where the BBB is disrupted by FUS and MBs. Delivery of BPNs with MR-guided FUS has the potential to improve efficacy of treatments for many CNS diseases, while reducing systemic side effects by providing sustained, well-dispersed drug delivery into select regions of the brain.
    Journal of Controlled Release 06/2014; 189. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.06.031 · 7.71 Impact Factor
  • Joshua J Rychak · Alexander L Klibanov ·
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid-based therapy is a growing field of drug delivery research. Although ultrasound has been suggested to enhance transfection decades ago, it took a combination of ultrasound with nucleic acid carrier systems (microbubbles, liposomes, polyplexes, viral carriers) to achieve reasonable nucleic acid delivery efficacy. Microbubbles serve as foci for local deposition of ultrasound energy near the target cell, and greatly enhance sonoporation. Major advantage of this approach is in the minimal transfection in the non-insonated non-target tissues. Microbubbles can be simply co-administered with the nucleic acid carrier or can be modified to carry nucleic acid themselves. Liposomes with embedded gas or gas precursor particles can also be used to carry nucleic acid, release and deliver it by the ultrasound trigger. Successful testing in a wide variety of animal models (myocardium, solid tumors, skeletal muscle, pancreas) proves the potential usefulness of this technique for nucleic acid drug delivery.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 01/2014; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2014.01.009 · 15.04 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Controlled Release 01/2014; 189:123–132. · 7.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
931.21 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2015
    • University of Virginia
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Noninvasive CardioVascular Imaging
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
  • 2009
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2008
    • Palm Drive Hospital
      Sebastopol, California, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
    • Duke University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science (MEMS)
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Physics
      San Luis, Missouri, United States