Anikó Kovács

Egis Gyógyszergyár Nyrt., Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary

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Publications (16)29.06 Total impact

  • Anikó Kovács, Gábor Szénási
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    ABSTRACT: Lengthening of the effective refractory period (ERP) by EGIS-7229, a class III/Ib/IV drug, and by dofetilide, a selective I(Kr) blocker, was compared in normokalemia (NK), hypokalemia (LK), and hyperkalemia (HK) in right ventricular papillary muscles of rabbits paced at 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz, in vitro, and also during beta-adrenergic activation. In NK, EGIS-7229 (3 and 10 microM) and dofetilide (30 and 100 nM) similarly lengthened ERP in a steeply reverse frequency-dependent manner. The two compounds produced smaller ERP prolongations at 0.5 Hz in HK and LK, so rate-dependence of ERP changes decreased. EGIS-7229 lengthened ERP more at 2 Hz than at 0.5 Hz at 10 microM in LK, that is, the effect of EGIS-7229 turned into positive frequency-dependence from 3 to 10 microM. Furthermore, EGIS-7229 lengthened ERP at 10 microM more than dofetilide at 100 nM at 2 Hz stimulation rate (P<0.05). Isoproterenol (30 nM) eliminated the effect of dofetilide on ERP, while EGIS-7229 prolonged ERP during beta-adrenergic activation. In conclusion, efficacy of EGIS-7229 was superior to that of dofetilide in LK and during beta-adrenergic stimulation, suggesting improved antiarrhythmic action for EGIS-7229 under certain conditions in the patient.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 04/2006; 100(4):303-9. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Anikó Kovács, Gábor Szénási
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - J PHARMACOL SCI. 01/2006; 100(4):303-309.
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    ABSTRACT: Tinuvin 770 [bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate], is a UV light stabilizer plastic additive used worldwide. It is a component of many plastic materials used in medical and food industries. Earlier studies demonstrated its in vitro L-type Ca2+ channel and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocking properties. Our previous experiments have proved the toxic effects of Tinuvin 770 on isolated rat cardiomyocytes. The present study investigates the cardiotoxic effects of Tinuvin 770 in vivo. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of Tinuvin 770 (1, 10, 100 microg, and 1 mg) 15 times during a 5-week period. Myocardial samples were analyzed by light, electron, and fluorescent microscopy. The lead-acetate method was used to detect intracellular Ca2+, and glyoxylic acid technique to assess alteration in adrenergic innervation. Focal myocytolysis and hypercontraction necrosis could be observed in rats treated with higher doses of Tinuvin 770. In these groups, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and increased catecholamine release were detected. Tinuvin 770 not only displays L-type Ca2+ channel blocking properties, but can also lead to catecholamine release, similar to effects of the first generation of L-type Ca2+ channel blockers. Morphological results correspond to catecholamine-induced myocardial damage. Current literature, as well as our study, indicates that more detailed toxicological analysis of Tinuvin 770 should be required, and current regulations in medical and food industries should adopt the new results.
    Toxicological Sciences 03/2004; 77(2):368-74. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tinuvin 770 [bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl)sebacate] is a pharmacologically active agent used worldwide as a light stabilizer for plastic materials. In vitro studies show that it is an L-type Ca(2+) channel and neuronal nicotic acethylcholine receptor blocker. Hypotension, vegetative dysfunction, and neurological symptoms are frequently observed during a haemodialysis treatment. The release of Tinuvin 770 from plastic materials applied in haemodialysis may play a part in the development of clinical signs. In our study, four different commonly used haemodialysis membranes (polysulphon, cuprophan, and two types of hemophan) are examined. The polymers are soaked for 72 h in physiological saline solution. Isolation is carried out using a Waters Oasis SPE column for solid-phase extraction and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric detection. Tinuvin 770 release is detected from all examined membranes. Validation studies show a satisfactory selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and recovery of this method. Our results suggest that Tinuvin 770 could have specific toxicological and therapeutic importance related to haemodialysis treatment. The developed HPLC method is suitable for the detection of Tinuvin 770.
    Journal of chromatographic science 02/2004; 42(1):49-53. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to specify the 5-HT(2) subtype selectivity of EGIS-7625 (1-benzyl-4-[(2-nitro-4-methyl-5-amino)-phenyl]-piperazine), a new 5-HT(2B) ligand, in receptor binding studies and characterize its pharmacology at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in in vivo experiments and in isolated organs, in vitro. EGIS-7625 had high affinity for recombinant human 5-HT(2B) receptors (pK(i) = 9.0) but much weaker affinity for 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors (pK(i) = 6.2 and 7.7, respectively). In the classic 5-HT(2B) test, EGIS-7625 produced a concentration-related parallel rightward shift in the concentration-response relationship for the 5-HT-induced smooth muscle constriction in rat stomach fundus strips with a pA(2) of 9.4. On the other hand, EGIS-7625 was a weak competitive antagonist at 5-HT(2A) receptors as it shifted 5-HT-induced concentration-response curves to the right at high concentrations (pA(2) = 6.7) in rabbit pulmonary artery strips. The m-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced hypomotility and hypophagia was only partially attenuated by EGIS-7625 even at a dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. while mianserin, a non-selective 5-HT antagonist was almost fully effective in these tests at 3 mg/kg i.p., suggesting weak antagonistic effect of EGIS-7625 at neuronal 5-HT(2C) receptors, in vivo. In conclusion, EGIS-7625 is a potent, selective and competitive 5-HT(2B) antagonist that seems to be a good research tool for the separation of the functional roles of vascular 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors.
    Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 09/2003; 17(5-6):427-34. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Blockers of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)) prolong cardiac action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP) in a reverse rate-dependent manner. Since activation of beta-adrenoceptors attenuates prolongation of APD evoked by I(Kr) blockers, rate-dependent neuronal noradrenaline liberation in the myocardium may contribute to the reverse rate-dependent nature of the effects of I(Kr) blockers. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of dofetilide, a pure I(Kr) blocker, on ERP after activation or blockade of beta-adrenoceptors and after catecholamine depletion in guinea-pig left atrial myocardium paced at 3, 2 and 1 Hz, in vitro. 2. Dofetilide (100 nM) lengthened ERP in a reverse rate-dependent manner in the left atrial myocardium of guinea-pigs. Strong activation of beta-adrenoceptors using 10 nM isoproterenol abolished the dofetilide-induced lengthening of ERP at all pacing rates. 3. Blockade of the beta-adrenoceptors with metoprolol (1 micro M), atenolol (3 micro M) or propranolol (300 nM) increased the dofetilide-evoked prolongation of ERP at 3 and 2 Hz, but not at 1 Hz. As a consequence, metoprolol attenuated while propranolol and atenolol fully eliminated the reverse rate-dependent nature of the dofetilide-induced ERP lengthening. In catecholamine-depleted atrial preparations of the guinea-pig (24 h pretreatment with 5 mg kg(-1) reserpine i.p.), the effect of dofetilide on ERP was not frequency dependent, and propranolol did not alter the effects of dofetilide. 4. In contrast to results obtained in guinea-pig atrial preparations, propranolol failed to change the reverse rate-dependent effect of dofetilide on ERP in the right ventricular papillary muscles of rabbits and guinea-pigs. 5. As an indication of the functional consequences of rate-dependent noradrenaline liberation, propranolol decreased twitch tension at 3 and 2 Hz but not at 1 Hz in the atrial myocardium of control guinea-pigs, whereas no such effect was detected in catecholamine-depleted atrial preparations. Propranolol failed to change contractility of ventricular myocardium in guinea-pigs and rabbits. 6. It is concluded that rate-dependent noradrenaline release and the ensuing beta-adrenoceptor activation contributed to the reverse rate-dependent nature of ERP prolongation caused by I(Kr) blockers in isolated guinea-pig atrial myocardium.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 09/2003; 139(8):1555-63. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the action potential configuration, contractility, intracellular Ca2+ and H+ concentrations in mammalian cardiac tissues bathed with Krebs and Tyrode solutions at 37 degrees C. In Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig hearts, loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+-indicator Fura-2, or H+-sensitive dye carboxy-SNARF, shifts from Krebs to Tyrode solution caused intra-cellular acidification, increased diastolic pressure and [Ca2+]i, decreased systolic pressure and [Ca2+]i, leading to a reduction in the amplitude of [Ca2+]i transients and pulse pressure. Contractility was also depressed in canine ventricular trabeculae when transferred from Krebs to Tyrode solution. Shifts from Krebs to Tyrode solution increased the duration of action potentials in multicellular cardiac preparations excised from canine and rabbit hearts but not in isolated cardiomyocytes. All these changes in action potential morphology, contractility, [Ca2+]i and [H+]i were readily reversible by addition of 26 mmol L(-1) bicarbonate to Tyrode solution. Effects of dofetilide and CsCl, both blockers of the delayed rectifier K current, on action potential duration were compared in Krebs and Tyrode solutions. Dofetilide lengthened rabbit ventricular action potentials in a significantly greater extent in Tyrode than in Krebs solution. Exposure of canine Purkinje fibres to CsCl evoked early after depolarizations within 40 min in all preparations incubated with Tyrode solution, but not in those bathed with Krebs solution. It is concluded that the marked differences in action potential morphology, [Ca2+]i, [H+]i and contractility observed between preparations bathed with Krebs and Tyrode solutions are more likely attributable to differences in the intracellular buffering capacities of the two media.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 06/2003; 178(1):11-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Anikó Kovács, Gábor Szénási
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - J MOL CELL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 34(6).
  • Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - J MOL CELL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 34(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Based on earlier pharmacological studies performed using conventional microelectrodes EGIS-7229 (S 21407), the novel antiarrhythmic candidate, was suggested to have a combined mode of action in cardiac tissues isolated from various mammalian species. In order to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the compound, its effects on calcium and potassium currents of isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes were studied in the present work using the whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. L-type Ca current (ICa) was significantly depressed by EGIS-7229 at concentrations of 3 M or higher with no concomitant changes in the voltage-dependence of activation and time course of inactivation of ICa. The drug reversibly suppressed the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K current (IKr) in a concentration-dependent manner, having a K0.5 value of 1.1&#450.1 M and a slope factor of close to unity (1.23&#450.16), indicating that probably one single binding site of high affinity may be involved in binding of EGIS-7229 to the IKr channel. In contrast, no changes in the slow component of the delayed rectifier K current (IKs) was observed with the compound up to the concentration of 100 M, even if the current was fully activated by 8-bromo-cAMP. At a concentration of 10 M or higher, EGIS-7229 caused also a moderate but significant reduction in the inward rectifier K current (IK1) and the transient outward K current (Ito) with no change in the voltage-dependence of activation and steady-state inactivation of Ito. Present results indicate that EGIS-7229 can be considered as a selective IKr blocker at low (1 M) concentration; however, its combined (class III + IV) mechanism of action is evident at concentrations of 3 M or higher. Suppression of ICa may explain the lack of development of early afterdepolarizations in the presence of EGIS-7229, predicting a relatively safe clinical application in contrast to pure class III compounds.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 04/2001; 363(6):604-611. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and lysosomal phospholipoidosis, which also might be partly attributed to free radicals induced by amiodarone (AM), may be involved in AM toxicity, which can be prevented by antioxidants. Our aim was to study if vitamin E (E) or silymarin (S), a lipid and a water-soluble antioxidant, modified the antiarrhythmic efficacy of AM in a rat reperfusion arrhythmia test. The following groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (15 rats/group) were treated by gavage once a day for 4 weeks: 1. methylcellulose (MC, 0.4%), 2. sunflower seed oil (SSO), 3. AM, suspended in MC (30 mg/kg), 4. E, dissolved in SSO (100 mg/kg), 5. AM + E, 6. S, suspended in MC (80 mg/kg), 7. AM + S. The mean duration of ventricular tachycardia + fibrillation (MDVT + VF) and sinus rhythm (MDSR) the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) and mortality were measured during a 10-min reperfusion after a 5-min coronary artery occlusion in anaesthetized rats. An arrhythmia score, representing the combined incidence and duration of different types of ventricular arrhythmia, was calculated. Compared with the MC group, MDSR was longer and MDVT + VF was shorter in all drug treated groups and in the SSO group. In the AM + E treated group MDSR was prolonged more and MDVT + VF was shortened more than in the AM, E or SSO groups. Compared with the MC group, the incidence of VF and mortality was similarly decreased in the SSO group and in most drug treated groups. No significant difference in the incidence of VT was found among all groups. The arrhythmia score was reduced by all drug treatments. Combined treatment with AM + E decreased arrhythmia score more than treatment with AM or SSO alone, but arrhythmia score was similar in the AM + E and E groups. In conclusion, both AM and antioxidant treatments alone or together resulted in a marked reduction of reperfusion arrhythmias in this model. SSO also exerted a moderate antiarrhythmic effect. Antioxidants administered together with AM did not attenuate and E might have even enhanced the antiarrhythmic effect of AM, therefore the combination of antioxidants with AM may be advantageous to reduce AM toxicity.
    Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 04/2001; 15(3):233-240. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The I(Kr) blocker EGIS-7229 (S-21407), displays class Ib and class IV effects that may alter its pharmacologic profile compared with those of pure I(Kr) blockers. Therefore, the concentration- and frequency-dependent effects of EGIS-7229, and of the I(Kr) blockers d,l-sotalol and dofetilide, on the effective refractory period (ERP) were measured in isolated right ventricular papillary muscle of the rabbit in vitro. The effects of these drugs on right ventricular fibrillation threshold (RVFT) at increasing intravenous doses were also determined in anesthetized cats. Dofetilide and d,l-sotalol increased ERP in a concentration-dependent manner (dofetilide: 3-100 nM; d,l-sotalol: 3-100 microM) with strong reverse frequency dependence at high concentrations. EGIS-7229 concentration dependently lengthened ERP at 1-30 microM. Its effect on ERP was clearly reverse frequency dependent at 3 microM, but this feature of the drug diminished at 10 microM and was not apparent at 30 microM. The effect of EGIS-7229 (30 microM) on ERP was devoid of reverse frequency dependence as it was more effective (31%) than dofetilide (16 %) at high-pacing rate (3 Hz), whereas it was less effective (50%) than dofetilide (70%) at slow-pacing rate (1 Hz). Reverse frequency-dependent ERP effect of dofetilide (100 nM) was similarly abolished by the addition of lidocaine (30 microM). EGIS-7229 (1-8 mg/kg iv), d,l-sotalol (1-8 mg/kg iv), and dofetilide (10-80 microg/kg iv) caused a dose-dependent increase in RVFT. The minimum effective dose of d,l-sotalol and EGIS-7229 was 1 and 2 mg/kg, respectively, whereas that of dofetilide was 10 microg/kg. EGIS-7229 induced a smaller peak effect in RVFT than sotalol or dofetilide. In conclusion, EGIS-7229 markedly increased refractoriness to electrical stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Compared with pure I(Kr) blockers, the benefits of EGIS-7229 seem to be a greater lengthening of effective refractory period at rapid stimulation rates, suggesting a strong antiarrhythmic action, and a smaller effect at slow stimulation rates, suggesting low potential to induce early afterdepolarizations.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 02/2001; 37(1):78-88. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EGIS-7229 is a novel antiarrhythmic candidate having multiple mechanisms of action with class III predominance. In this study, the effects of EGIS-7229 and sotalol on action potential duration (APD) and incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) were studied and compared in rabbit papillary muscle by using conventional microelectrode techniques. In control bathing solution, both drugs increased APD in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the prolongation of APD was greater with sotalol than with EGIS-7229 when the same drug concentrations were compared. EAD developed in 3 of the 11 preparations (27%) bathed with a solution containing 3.6 mmol/l CsCl + 2 mmol/l KCl within the first 120 min of superfusion. The addition of 100 micromol/l sotalol to this superfusate increased the incidence of EAD to 83% (10 from 12), whereas the addition of the same concentration of EGIS-7229 prevented the development of EAD in all of the 9 preparations studied. These differences in incidence of EAD are likely attributable to differences in drug-induced increases of APD-50 in the presence of CsCl. Prolongation of APD-90 showed less correlation with incidence of EAD than changes in APD-50. On the basis of these in vitro results, high concentrations of EGIS-7229 cannot be expected to be torsadogenic in vivo--in contrast with sotalol--presumably owing to the combined class III + IV activity of the compound.
    General Pharmacology 04/1999; 32(3):329-33.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The cellular electrphysiological effects of EGIS-7229, a novel antiarrhythmic agent, were studied in guinea pig papillary muscles with the use of conventional microelectrode techniques. 2. The drug had a concentration-dependent biphasic effect on action potential duration (APD). APD was significantly lengthened at low concentration (3 mumol/1), whereas it was shortened at concentrations higher than 10 mumol/l. 3. At concentrations higher than 10 mumol/l, the drug decreased the maximum velocity of action potential upstroke (Vmax), the force contraction, and altered the restitution kinetics of APD. 4. The effect of EGIS-7229 on Vmax was frequently dependent; it was most prominent at short pacing cycle lengths (use-dependent block). 5. On the basis of present results, EGIS-7229 appears to carry mixed class I and class III characteristics. Class III properties are present at low concentrations, whereas, at higher concentrations, class I actions may be predominant.
    General Pharmacology 09/1997; 29(2):275-80.
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular electrophysiological effects of EGIS-7229 (5-chlor-4-[N-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl-ethyl)-amino-propylamino]-3(2H)-pyridazinone fumarate), a novel antiarrhythmic agent, was studied using conventional microelectrode techniques in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers and papillary muscle preparations obtained from man, rabbits and guinea pigs. Low concentration of EGIS-7229 (3 μmol/l) selectively lengthened action potential duration (both APD50 and APD90) in all preparations. The effect of higher concentrations (30–100 μmol/l) of EGIS-7229 on action potential duration was variable depending on the preparation studied: in rabbit and human papillary muscles both APD50 and APD90 were lengthened, in canine Purkinje fibers APD90 was lengthened but APD50 was shortened, while in guinea pig papillary muscles both APD50 and APD90 were shortened by high concentrations of the drug. At these higher concentrations EGIS-7229 also decreased the maximum velocity of action potential upstroke (V max) and depressed the plateau of action potentials without affecting the resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude. Both reduction of V max and lengthening of APD were frequency dependent. The former effect was more prominent at higher pacing frequencies, while the latter was more pronounced at lower driving rates. In guinea pig papillary muscle, the time constant of recovery from V max-block was 719 ± 33 ms (n = 18) and the rate of onset of the block was 1.81 ± 0.06 AP–1 (n = 16) in the presence of 100 μmol/l EGIS-7229. EGIS-7229 had a complex action on refractoriness in guinea pig papillary muscles: ERP was lengthened at low concentrations (3 to 10 μmol/l), unchanged at 30 μmol/l and shortened at 100 μmol/l. The ratio of ERP/APD90, however, was significantly increased at concentrations higher than 3 μmol/l. In canine Purkinje fiber, when the delayed rectifier K current (IK) was blocked by d-sotalol (60 μmol/l) and APD was shortened back to its control value by additional application of nicorandil (15 μmol/l), APD was not affected by 3 μmol/l but was shortened by 30 μmol/l of EGIS-7229. 100 μmol/l EGIS-7229 shortened APD in guinea pig papillary muscle. This effect of EGIS-7229 was effectively prevented by nifedipine pretreatment (10 μmol/l). In this preparation, EGIS-7229 also decreased the V max of the slow action potential, evoked in the presence of 20 mmol/l external K+ plus 0.5 mmol/l Ba2+. It is likely that EGIS-7229 at low concentrations blocks IK in human, canine, rabbit and guinea pig cardiac preparations, but at higher concentrations also inhibits Ca and Na currents. Therefore, EGIS-7229 appears to carry mixed class III, IV and IB antiarrhythmic properties.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/1997; 355(3):398-405. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular electrophysiological effects of dridocainide (EGIS-3966), a novel class I antiarrhythmic agent, was studied using conventional microelectrode techniques in canine cardiac Purkinje fibres and papillary muscle preparations obtained from humans and guinea-pigs. In each preparation, dridocainide (0.6-2 mumol/l) decreased the maximum velocity of action potential upstroke (Vmax) in a frequency-dependent manner, although marked differences were observed in its effects in Purkinje fibre and ventricular muscle preparations. In canine Purkinje fibres, action potential duration measured at 50% and 90% of repolarization was decreased, while action potential duration measured at 10% of repolarization was increased by dridocainide. In addition, the plateau of the action potential was depressed by the drug. These changes in action potential configuration were not observed in guinea pig or human papillary muscles. The offset kinetics of the dridocainide-induced Vmax block were different in Purkinje fibres and in ventricular muscle: the slow time constant of recovery of Vmax was estimated to be 2.5 s in dog Purkinje fibre and 5-6 s in human and guinea-pig papillary muscle. In guinea-pig papillary muscle, the rate of onset of the Vmax block was 0.15 and 0.2 per action potential in the presence of 0.6 and 2 mumol/l dridocainide, respectively. Dridocainide also decreased the force of contraction in this preparation. On the basis of the present results, dridocainide appears to possess mixed class I.C and I.A properties, with I.C predominance in human and guinea-pig ventricular muscle. Present results also indicate that results of conventional classification of class I drugs may depend on the parameters chosen, as well as on the preparation selected.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 12/1995; 352(5):520-8. · 2.15 Impact Factor