Andrew Githeko

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States

Are you Andrew Githeko?

Claim your profile

Publications (45)106.89 Total impact

  • Andrew K Githeko
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 07/2012; 136(1):7-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malaria resurgence in highland regions of East Africa has been on increase. The spatio-temporal distribution of larval habitats of malaria vectors determines the distribution of adult vectors, hence, disease transmission. Vector's ecology is necessary for strategic vector control through effective plan for source reduction. Mapping of the larval habitats is necessary for targeted control measures. The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the spatial and seasonal variations in anopheline larval habitats in Western Kenya. A comparative study was conducted on spatial distribution of GPS geo-located anopheline larval habitats in relation to highland and lowland environments. Land use types were categorized and all potential aquatic habitats of malaria vectors were examined in February, May, August and November 2004. Data analyses were performed using SAS JMP software. Results showed a higher percentage of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (70.9%) than An. funestus (29.1%) in highland. In the lowland, An. gambiae s.l. comprised 60.1% while An. funestus represented 39.9%. The distribution of larval breeding is confined to the valley bottom in the highland while it was dispersed in the lowland. Land use type influenced the occurrence of positive breeding habitats in the highland. In the lowland, distribution was due to seasonality. We found high proportion of potential and positive breeding sites in cultivated swamps and farmlands at the highland site. These results suggest that swamp cultivation increases the availability and suitability of larval breeding habitats of malaria vectors, thus malaria transmission in the Western Kenya highlands environment.
    Journal of vector borne diseases 06/2012; 49(2):61-71. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Assessment of malaria endemicity at different altitudes and transmission intensities, in the era of dwindling vector densities in the highlands, will provide valuable information for malaria control and surveillance. Measurement of serum anti-malarial antibodies is a useful marker of malaria exposure that indicates long-term transmission potential. We studied the serologic evidence of malaria endemicity at two highland sites along a transmission intensity cline. An improved understanding of the micro-geographic variation in malaria exposure in the highland ecosystems will be relevant in planning effective malaria control. Total IgG levels to Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 were measured in an age-stratified cohort (< 5, 5-14 and ≥ 15 years) in 795 participants from an uphill and valley bottom residents during low and high malaria transmission seasons. Antibody prevalence and level was compared between different localities. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between antibody prevalence and parasite prevalence. Age-specific MSP-119 seroprevalence data was fitted to a simple reversible catalytic model to investigate the relationship between parasite exposure and age. Higher MSP-119 seroprevalence and density were observed in the valley residents than in the uphill dwellers. Adults (> 15 years) recorded high and stable immune response in spite of changing seasons. Lower responses were observed in children (≤ 15 years), which, fluctuated with changing seasons particularly in the valley residents. In the uphill population, annual seroconversion rate (SCR) was 8.3% and reversion rate was 3.0%, with seroprevalence reaching a plateau of 73.3% by age of 20. Contrary, in the valley bottom population, the annual SCR was 35.8% and the annual seroreversion rate was 3.5%, and seroprevalence in the population had reached 91.2% by age 10. The study reveals the micro-geographic variation in malaria endemicity in the highland eco-system; this validates the usefulness of sero-epidemiological tools in assessing malaria endemicity in the era of decreasing sensitivity of conventional tools.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 12:50. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main objective was to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites, two highland villages (Fort Ternan and Lunyerere) and a lowland peri-urban area (Nyalenda) of Kisumu city. Adult mosquitoes were collected using PSC and CDC light trap while malaria parasite incidence data was collected from a cohort of children on monthly basis. Rainfall, humidity and temperature data were collected by automated weather stations. Negative binomial and Poisson generalized additive models were used to examine the risk of being infected, as well as the association with the weather variables. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was most abundant in Lunyerere, An. arabiensis in Nyalenda and An. funestus in Fort Ternan. The CDC light traps caught a higher proportion of mosquitoes (52.3%) than PSC (47.7%), although not significantly different (P = 0.689). The EIR's were 0, 61.79 and 6.91 bites/person/year for Fort Ternan, Lunyerere and Nyalenda. Site, month and core body temperature were all associated with the risk of having malaria parasites (P < 0.0001). Rainfall was found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria parasites, but not relative humidity and air temperature. The presence of malaria parasite-infected children in all the study sites provides evidence of local malaria transmission.
    Journal of Tropical Medicine 01/2012; 2012:912408.
  • Source
    A K Githeko, E N Ototo, Yan Guiyun
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following severe malaria epidemics in the western Kenya highlands after the late 1980s it became imperative to undertake eco-epidemiological assessments of the disease and determine its drivers, spatial-temporal distribution and control strategies. Extensive research has indicated that the major biophysical drivers of the disease are climate change and variability, terrain, topography, hydrology and immunity. Vector distribution is focalized at valley bottoms and abundance is closely related with drainage efficiency, habitat availability, stability and productivity of the ecosystems. Early epidemic prediction models have been developed and they can be used to assess climate risks that warrant extra interventions with a lead time of 2-4 months. Targeted integrated vector management strategies can significantly reduce the cost on the indoor residual spraying by targeting the foci of transmission in transmission hotspots. Malaria control in the highlands has reduced vector population by 90%, infections by 50-90% in humans and in some cases transmission has been interrupted. Insecticide resistance is increasing and as transmission decreases so will immunity. Active surveillance will be required to monitor and contain emerging threats. More studies on eco-stratification of the disease, based on its major drivers, are required so that interventions are tailored for specific ecosystems. New and innovative control interventions such as house modification with a one-application strategy may reduce the threat from insecticide resistance and low compliance associated with the use of ITNs.
    Acta tropica 01/2012; 121(1):19-25. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malaria causes more than 300 million clinical cases and 665,000 deaths each year, and the majority of the mortality and morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and wide-spread resistance to antimalarial drugs, mosquito control is the primary method of malaria prevention and control. Currently, malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. The extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressures for resistance in the mosquito populations. Consequently, resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, has become a major obstacle for malaria control. A key element of resistance management is the identification of resistance mechanisms and subsequent development of reliable resistance monitoring tools. Field-derived An. gambiae from Western Kenya were phenotyped as deltamethrin-resistant or -susceptible by the standard WHO tube test, and their expression profile compared by RNA-seq. Based on the current annotation of the An. gambiae genome, a total of 1,093 transcripts were detected as significantly differentially accumulated between deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. These transcripts are distributed over the entire genome, with a large number mapping in QTLs previously linked to pyrethorid resistance, and correspond to heat-shock proteins, metabolic and transport functions, signal transduction activities, cytoskeleton and others. The detected differences in transcript accumulation levels between resistant and susceptible mosquitoes reflect transcripts directly or indirectly correlated with pyrethroid resistance. RNA-seq data also were used to perform a de-novo Cufflinks assembly of the An. gambiae genome.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44607. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2011; 11/2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach. Here we implemented an exploratory study to assess malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission, its control and the importance of man-made aquatic habitats for the development of disease vectors in one peri-urban lowland and two rural highland communities in western Kenya. We implemented monthly cross-sectional malaria surveys and administered a semi-structured questionnaire in 90 households, i.e. 30 households in each locality. Malaria prevalence was moderate (3.2-6.5%) in all sites. Nevertheless, residents perceived malaria as their major health risk. Thirty-two percent (29/90) of all respondents did not know that mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of malaria. Over two-thirds (69/90) of the respondents said that mosquito breeding site could be found close to their homes but correct knowledge of habitat characteristics was poor. Over one-third (26/67) believed that immature mosquitoes develop in vegetation. Man-made pools, drainage channels and burrow pits were rarely mentioned. After explaining where mosquito larvae develop, 56% (50/90) felt that these sites were important for their livelihood. Peri-urban residents knew more about mosquitoes' role in malaria transmission, could more frequently describe the larval stages and their breeding habitats, and were more likely to use bed nets even though malaria prevalence was only half of what was found in the rural highland sites (p<0.05). This was independent of their education level or socio-economic status. Hence rural communities are more vulnerable to malaria infection, thus calling for additional methods to complement personal protection measures for vector control. Larval source management was the most frequently mentioned (30%) tool for malaria control but was only practiced by 2 out of 90 respondents. Targeting the larval stages of malaria vectors is an underutilized malaria prevention measure. Sustainable elimination or rendering of such habitats unsuitable for larval development needs horizontally organized, community-based programs that take people's needs into account. Innovative, community-based training programs need to be developed to increase people's awareness of man-made vector breeding sites and acceptable control methods need to be designed in collaboration with the communities.
    Acta tropica 09/2010; 115(3):248-56. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of anopheline larval habitats and land use and land cover (LULC) changes can influence malaria transmission intensity. This information is important for understanding the environmental determinants of malaria transmission heterogeneity, and it is critical to the study of the effects of environmental changes on malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of anopheline larval habitats and LULC changes in western Kenya highlands over a 4-year period. Anopheles gambiae complex larvae were mainly confined to valley bottoms during both the dry and wet seasons. Although An. gambiae larvae were located in man-made habitats where riparian forests and natural swamps had been cleared, Anopheles funestus larvae were mainly found in permanent habitats in pastures. The association between land cover type and occurrence of anopheline larvae was statistically significant. The distribution of anopheline positive habitats varied significantly between months, during the survey. In 2004, the mean density of An. gambiae was significantly higher during the month of May, whereas the density of An. funestus peaked significantly in February. Over the study period, major LULC changes occurred mostly in the valley bottoms. Overall, farmland increased by 3.9%, whereas both pastures and natural swamps decreased by 8.9% and 20.9%, respectively. The area under forest cover was decreased by 5.8%. Land-use changes in the study area are favorable to An. gambiae larval development, thereby risking a more widespread distribution of malaria vector habitats and potentially increasing malaria transmission in western Kenya highlands.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/2009; 81(6):1079-84. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the contributions of both microbial larvicides and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in terms of reducing malaria incidence in an integrated vector management programme in an area moderately endemic for malaria in the western Kenyan highlands. A pre-post, control group design was used. Larval and adult vector populations were surveyed weekly in six separate valley communities. The incidence of Plasmodium infections in children 6 months to 13 years of age was measured during the long and short rainy seasons each year. Baseline data were collected for 17 months, after which Bacillus-based larvicides were applied weekly to aquatic habitats in three of the valleys for another 19 months. At around the same time the larviciding was initiated, ITNs were introduced gradually into all study communities by the National Malaria Control Programme. The effect of larviciding, ITNs and other determinants of malaria risk was assessed by means of generalized estimating equations. The risk of acquiring new parasite infections in children was substantially and independently reduced by ITN use (odds ratio, OR: 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.48-0.99) and larvicide application (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23-0.82), after adjusting for confounders. Vector control with microbial larvicides enhanced the malaria control achieved with ITNs alone. Anti-larval measures are a promising complement to ITN distribution in the economically important highland areas and similar transmission settings in Africa.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 09/2009; 87(9):655-65. · 5.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN) and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78-80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t(18) = 7.174, P < 0.0001 and t(18) = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively) compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07-0.39, P < 0.0001) and 87% (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.5, P = 0.0004) reduction in the odds of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally available materials and small ITN incorporated in house construction have the potential to reduce human exposure to malaria vectors, and thus parasite infection, in a rice irrigation scheme area of western Kenya. Ceiling modification is likely to be acceptable and is expected to be of greatest benefit when used in combination with other malaria control strategies.
    Malaria Journal 06/2009; 8:108. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Water temperature is an important determinant of the growth and development of malaria mosquito immatures. To gain a better understanding of the daily temperature dynamics of malaria mosquito breeding sites and of the relationships between meteorological variables and water temperature, three clear water pools (diameter × depth: 0·16 × 0·04, 0·32 × 0·16 and 0·96 × 0·32 m) were created in Kenya. Continuous water temperature measurements at various depths were combined with weather data collections from a meteorological station. The water pools were homothermic, but the top water layer differed by up to about 2 °C in temperature, depending on weather conditions. Although the daily mean temperature of all water pools was similar (27·4–28·1 °C), the average recorded difference between the daily minimum and maximum temperature was 14·4 °C in the smallest versus 7·1 °C in the largest water pool. Average water temperature corresponded well with various meteorological variables. The temperature of each water pool was continuously higher than the air temperature. A model was developed that predicts the diurnal water temperature dynamics accurately, based on the estimated energy budget components of these water pools. The air–water interface appeared the most important boundary for energy exchange processes and on average 82–89% of the total energy was gained and lost at this boundary. Besides energy loss to longwave radiation, loss due to evaporation was high; the average estimated daily evaporation ranged from 4·2 mm in the smallest to 3·7 mm in the largest water pool. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Hydrological Processes 11/2008; 22(24):4789 - 4801. · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Water temperature is an important determinant in many aquatic biological processes, including the growth and development of malaria mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis and A. gambiae) immatures. Water turbidity affects water temperature, as suspended particles in a water column absorb and scatter sunlight and hence determine the extinction of solar radiation. To get a better understanding of the relationship between water turbidity and water temperature, a series of semi-natural larval habitats (diameter 0.32 m, water depth 0.16 m) with increasing water turbidity was created. Here we show that at midday (1300 hours) the upper water layer (thickness of 10 mm) of the water pool with the highest turbidity was on average 2.8 degrees C warmer than the same layer of the clearest water pool. Suspended soil particles increase the water temperature and furthermore change the temperature dynamics of small water collections during daytime, exposing malaria mosquito larvae, which live in the top water layer, longer to higher temperatures.
    International Journal of Biometeorology 11/2008; 52(8):747-53. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in western Kenya by analyzing the polymorphism of 12 microsatellite loci and two antigen loci. Malaria in highland areas is unstable and epidemic whereas malaria in lowland areas is endemic. Transmission intensity and malaria prevalence are substantially lower in the highlands than in the lowlands. Despite that the highland parasite populations exhibited reduced number of alleles, lower expected heterozygosity, and infection complexity in comparison to the surrounding lowland population, genetic diversity of the highland populations remained high in comparison to parasites from other meso-endemic regions. More than 70% of infections from western Kenya highland study sites were mixed genotype infections. Small but statistically significant genetic differentiation between highland and lowland populations was detected. These findings are discussed in the context of human travel and local transmission in the study area.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 01/2008; 77(6):1043-50. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the late 1980s a series of malaria epidemics has occurred in western Kenya highlands. Among the possible factors that may contribute to the highland malaria epidemics, parasite resistance to antimalarials has not been well investigated. Using parasites from highland and lowland areas of western Kenya, we examined key mutations associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine - pyrimethamine and chloroquine, including dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (pfdhps), chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt), and multi-drug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1). We found that >70% of samples harbored 76T pfcrt mutations and over 80% of samples harbored quintuple mutations (51I/59R/108N pfdhfr and 437G/540E pfdhps) in both highland and lowland samples. Further, we did not detect significant difference in the frequencies of these mutations between symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria volunteers, and between highland and lowland samples. These findings suggest that drug resistance of malaria parasites in the highlands could be contributed by the mutations and their high frequencies as found in the lowland. The results are discussed in terms of the role of drug resistance as a driving force for malaria outbreaks in the highlands.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2008; 8:105. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIACC Working Papers, published on-line by Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), is a series of papers and paper abstracts written by researchers participating in the AIACC project. Papers published in AIACC Working Papers have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in the on-line series as being (i) fundamentally sound in their methods and implementation, (ii) informative about the methods and/or findings of new research, and (iii) clearly written for a broad, multi-disciplinary audience. The purpose of the series is to circulate results and descriptions of methodologies from the AIACC project and elicit feedback to the authors. The AIACC project is funded by the Global Environment Facility, the Canadian International Development Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project is co-executed on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme by the global change SysTem for Analysis Research and Training (START) and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).
    04/2007;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIACC Working Papers, published on-line by Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), is a series of papers and paper abstracts written by researchers participating in the AIACC project. Papers published in AIACC Working Papers have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in the on-line series as being (i) fundamentally sound in their methods and implementation, (ii) informative about the methods and/or findings of new research, and (iii) clearly written for a broad, multi-disciplinary audience. The purpose of the series is to circulate results and descriptions of methodologies from the AIACC project and elicit feedback to the authors. The AIACC project is funded by the Global Environment Facility, the Canadian International Development Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project is co-executed on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme by the global change SysTem for Analysis Research and Training (START) and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).
    11/2006;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reasons for the resurgence of malaria in the African highlands have been subject of debate. Because vector abundance is important for malaria transmission, gaining a better understanding of vector biology is a key to understanding the mechanisms of highland malaria. We studied vector productivity in relation to the highland environment and compared productivity between lowland and highland sites. We found lower vector productivity in the highland and in wetlands where the temperature was lower. Immature stage development time was significantly longer in the highland site. Development time was significantly shorter in aquatic habitats in cultivated areas than in wetlands, and survival rate was significantly higher in cultivated areas. Fecundity was significantly lower in the highland site. These findings suggest that changes in local temperature and land use contribute to an increase of malaria vectors in the highland.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2006; 75(3):448-53. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several highland areas in eastern Africa have recently suffered from serious malaria epidemics. Some models predict that, in the short term, these areas will experience more epidemics as a result of global warming. However, the various processes underlying these changes are poorly understood. We therefore investigated malaria prevalence, malaria vector densities and malaria vector survival in a highland area in western Kenya, ranging from approximately 1,550-1,650 m altitude. Although only five adult malaria vectors were collected during 180 light traps and 180 resting collections over a 23-month study period, malaria was prevalent among school children (average parasite prevalence: 10%). During an extensive survey of potential larval habitats, we identified only seven habitats containing Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. larvae. Their limited number and low larval densities suggested that their contribution to the adult vector population was small. Experiments on adult and larval survival showed that at this altitude, adult mosquitoes survived inside local houses, but that larval development was severely retarded: only 2 of 500 A. gambiae s.l. larvae developed to the pupal stage, whereas all other larvae died prior to pupation. At present, high vector densities are unlikely because of unfavourable abiotic conditions in the area. However, temporary favourable conditions, such as during El Niño years, may increase larval vector survival and may lead to malaria epidemics.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2006; 11(8):1195-205. · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies were carried out at three sites in the highlands of western Kenya (Iguhu and Mbale in Kakamega and Vihiga districts, respectively, and Marani in Kisii district) and at one site in the western Kenya lowlands (Kombewa in Kisumu district) to determine the spatial-temporal dynamics of malaria vectors and intensity of malaria transmission from June 2003 to June 2004. At the highland sites, Anopheles gambiae Giles predominated, constituting >80% of the vector species, whereas An. funestus Giles made up <20%. In contrast, at the lowland site, An. funestus made up 68% of the vector species. The mean annual indoor resting densities of An. gambiae at Iguhu were 5.0 female mosquitoes per house per night, 14.2- and 26.3-fold greater than those at Mbale and Marani. During the main transmission season, the indoor resting densities of An. gambiae increased 4.1-, 10.1-, and 5.0-fold over the dry season period in Iguhu, Mbale, and Marani, respectively. The estimated annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) at Iguhu was 16.6 infectious bites per person per year (ib/p/yr), 1.1 at Mbale, and 0.4 at Marani. This suggests high spatial variation in vector abundance and malaria transmission intensity. At the lowland site, Kombewa, the total annual EIR was 31.1 ib/p/yr and the indoor resting densities during the transmission season increased 7.1-fold in An. funestus and 18.5-fold in An. gambiae sensu lato over the dry season. The low level of transmission in the highlands suggests that it may be disrupted by vector control methods such as residual spraying.
    Journal of Medical Entomology 04/2006; 43(2):200-6. · 1.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

908 Citations
106.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • University of California, Irvine
      • College of Health Sciences
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Wageningen University
      • Department of Entomology
      Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • Kenya Medical Research Institute
      • Centre for Global Health Research
      Nairobi, Nairobi Province, Kenya
  • 2006
    • Nagasaki University
      • Institute of Tropical Medicine
      Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki-ken, Japan