A Hirano

University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States

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Publications (7)19.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is produced predominantly by helper T lymphocytes of the Th2 phenotype and mediates its effects on several immune cells, including B lymphocytes and macrophages, stimulating their proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. IL-13 activates human B cells but has no detectable activity on murine B lymphocytes, suggesting that the activity of IL-13 varies among species. Our studies show that IL-13 enhances proliferation and differentiation of bovine B cells and upregulates cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression. We examined mRNA expression of the putative signaling component of the bovine IL-13Ralpha1 homolog in several peripheral blood populations. After stimulation with calcium ionophore and phorbol ester, IL-13Ralpha1 mRNA levels appeared to be downmodulated in T cells, upregulated in macrophages and B cells, and unchanged in neutrophils. Together, these studies begin to provide insight into the relative importance of IL-13 in immunoregulation in cattle.
    Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 12/1999; 19(11):1317-24. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a recently described cytokine that enhances interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, either independently or synergistically with IL-12. These properties identify IL-18 as an immunoregulatory cytokine that may be pivotal in host defense against intracellular pathogens. We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding bovine IL-18. The open reading frame (ORF) is 582 bp in length, encoding a predicted 192 amino acid (aa) precursor protein. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that bovine IL-18 has 65% and 78% identity with the predicted amino acid sequences of murine and human IL-18, respectively. IL-18 mRNA was constitutively present in bovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), with no upregulation on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IL-18 transcripts were weakly detected in B lymphocytes but inducible in the B cell line BL-3. Human recombinant IL-18 (rHuIL-18) induced IFN-gamma production by PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which was potentiated by rHuIL-12. Further, rHuIL-12 and rHuIL-18 enhanced proliferation of untreated PBMC. Antigen-specific T cell lines demonstrated IL-18-dependent enhancement of IFN-gamma production, indicating that bovine T cells are one of the leukocyte subsets that respond to IL-18. Analysis of IL-18 expression and its ability to induce IFN-gamma production by bovine lymphocytes are important considerations for understanding mechanisms of protective immunity and designing vaccines for intracellular pathogens.
    Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 01/1999; 19(10):1169-1177. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    D M Estes, W C Brown, A Hirano
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    ABSTRACT: The role of IFN-gamma in B cell differentiation in cattle has not been completely elucidated. We have previously investigated the role of IFN- in the control of antibody production by bovine B cells using anti-bovine IgM antibody in the solid-phase as a source of costimulation. Using this mimic of a T1-2 antigen, we demonstrated that IFN-gamma can enhance the production of IgG2 but not IgG1 from sIgM+ cells. The positive effects of IFN-gamma were enhanced by co-addition to cultures of rboIL-2. Under these activation conditions, the frequency of cells expressing mRNA for the IgG2 heavy chain also increased at least two-fold. In these studies, we investigated the role of IFN-gamma in antibody expression under T-dependent (TD) activation conditions using mouse fibroblasts transfected with boCD40L as a surrogate T cell. Under TD conditions, IFN-gamma had less dramatic effects on the production of IgG2 with IgM predominating in the cultures. Interestingly, the production of IgA was modestly enhanced with little effect on the production of IgG1 above baseline levels obtained with medium alone. In comparison to results with T1-2 conditions of activation, IL-2 did not increase total amounts of antibody above two-fold. Our results suggest that TH1 cells in cattle may be limited in their ability to provide B cell help to levels obtainable in a TH2 cytokine microenvironment due to the effects of IFN-gamma on bovine B cells co-activated via CD40.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 06/1998; 63(1-2):15-20. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD40 and Fas are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. CD40 and Fas play key roles in T cell-B cell interactions. Cross linkage of these molecules induces cell activation and cell death, respectively. The interaction of CD40 with its ligand (CD40L), which is expressed on activated T cells, plays a pivotal role in the generation of the T-dependent (TD) immune response, and FasL-bearing T cells, which have been shown to be predominantly of either the TH0 or TH1 type, have the potential to induce the apoptotic death of Fas expressing B cells. We investigated bovine CD40L mRNA expression in established T cell clones by RT-PCR and Southern blotting. T cells analyzed included CD4+ TH0 and TH1 cell subpopulations, CD8+, and gamma/delta T cells stimulated with either specific antigen or Con A. All CD4+ clones but not all CD8+ or gamma/delta T cell receptor (TCR)-bearing clones expressed mRNA for CD40L. To determine the activation requirements for CD40L expression in cattle, we examined the kinetics and induction requirements for CD40L transcription in peripheral blood T cells using a phorbol ester and/or ionomycin, immobilized mouse anti-bovine CD3, or Con A. Our results demonstrate that CD40L mRNA appears relatively early after activation (1 h) and peaks at 2-4 h poststimulation. A rise in intracellular calcium concentration mediated by ionomycin treatment alone was sufficient to induce CD40L mRNA expression at relatively high levels. Ionomycin treatment in combination with other agonists (anti-CD3, PMA) did not enhance CD40L mRNA expression above levels obtained with ionomycin alone. The bovine Fas ligand gene was partially cloned and mRNA expression determined by RT-PCR in a panel of T cell clones. Our results demonstrate that TH0 and TH1 bovine T cell clones expressed Fas ligand transcripts although only one gamma/delta T cell clone did. This expression was upregulated within 3 h after mitogen stimulation and reduced by 24 h.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/1998; 61(2-4):251-63. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    A Hirano, W C Brown, D M Estes
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily play a key role in B-lymphocyte survival, proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. A member of this superfamily, the CD40 molecule plays an important role in the differentiation of B lymphocytes into effector cells and in early activation through cognate interaction with T lymphocytes. In this report, we describe a cDNA and its protein product identified in cattle with approximately 70% sequence conservation at the nucleic acid level with the human CD40 gene. Transcripts for the boCD40 molecule were identified in resting and activated B lymphocytes, some but not all CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte clones, and peripheral blood-derived T lymphocytes. Coculture of resting B cells with simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed NIH3T3 (MOP8) cells stably transfected with the ligand for CD40 (bovine CD40 ligand, boCD40L), resulted in proliferation which was enhanced by addition of rbo interleukin-4 (IL-4). Cross-linkage of CD40 on bovine B lymphocytes upon coculture with CD40L-transfected cells resulted in the increased production of secretory IgM and, to a lesser extent, of IgG. Addition of rboIL-4 to these cultures increased levels of IgM and IgG secretion approximately twofold over those induced by CD40L alone. Our results indicate that many of the functions described for human and mouse CD40 are also conserved in the bovine but that differences in subset distribution of expression of the CD40 molecule in lymphoid cell types in cattle may impact on regulation of the early activation steps in the acquired immune response.
    Immunology 03/1997; 90(2):294-300. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    A. HIRANO, W. C. BROWN, D. M. ESTES
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily play a key role in B-lymphocyte survival, proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. A member of this superfamily, the CD40 molecule, plays an important role in the differentiation of B lymphocytes into effector cells and in early activation through cognate interaction with T lymphocytes. In this report, we describe a cDNA and its protein product identified in cattle with approximately 70% sequence conservation at the nucleic acid level with the human CD40 gene. Transcripts for the boCD40 molecule were identified in resting and activated B lymphocytes, some but not all CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte clones, and peripheral blood-derived T lymphocytes. Coculture of resting B cells with simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed NIH3T3 (MOP8) cells stably transfected with the ligand for CD40 (bovine CD40 ligand, boCD40L), resulted in proliferation which was enhanced by addition of rbo interleukin-4 (IL-4). Cross-linkage of CD40 on bovine B lymphocytes upon coculture with CD40L-transfected cells resulted in the increased production of secretory IgM and, to a lesser extent, of IgG. Addition of rboIL-4 to these cultures increased levels of IgM and IgG secretion approximately twofold over those induced by CD40L alone. Our results indicate that many of the functions described for human and mouse CD40 are also conserved in the bovine but that differences in subset distribution of expression of the CD40 molecule in lymphoid cell types in cattle may impact on regulation of the early activation steps in the acquired immune response.
    Immunology 01/1997; 90(2):294 - 300. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleotropic cytokine affecting a wide range of cell types in both the mouse and the human. These activities include regulation of the growth and differentiation of both T and B lymphocytes. The activities of IL-4 in nonprimate, nonmurine systems are not well established. Herein, we demonstrate in the bovine system that IL-4 upregulates production of IgM, IgG1, and IgE in the presence of a variety of costimulators including anti-IgM, Staphylococcus aureus cowan strain I, and pokeweed mitogen. IgE responses are potentiated by the addition of IL-2 to IL-4. Culture of bovine B lymphocytes with IL-4 in the absence of additional costimulators resulted in the increased surface expression of CD23 (low-affinity Fc epsilon RII), IgM, IL-2R, and MHC class II in a dose-dependent manner. IL-4 alone increased basal levels of proliferation of bulk peripheral blood mononuclear cells but in the presence of Con A inhibited proliferation. In contrast to the activities of IL-4 in the murine system, proliferation of TH1- and TH2-like clones was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by antigen-or IL-2-driven in vitro proliferative responses. These observations are consistent with the role of IL-4 as a key player in regulation of both T and B cell responses.
    Cellular Immunology 08/1995; 163(2):268-79. · 1.74 Impact Factor