[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R) is a multisubunit receptor that includes three major IL-2 binding subunits, the IL-2R alpha, beta, and gamma chains. We have detected and analyzed cooperative interactions between the IL-2R alpha and beta chains (IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta, respectively) in COS cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the IL-2R alpha, the IL-2R beta, or both cDNAs. We demonstrated that IL-2 F42A, an analog that fails to bind to the isolated IL-2R alpha subunit and would be predicted by the hierarchical affinity-conversion model to have impaired binding to cells expressing both chains, instead readily binds to the IL-2R alpha/beta heterodimer in COS cells. Furthermore, this binding is abolished by the antibody HIEI that separates the two IL-2R subunits. The monoclonal antibodies anti-Tac and Mik-beta 1 directed at the IL-2-binding sites on IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta, respectively, block ligand binding to the heterodimer. This binding pattern is inconsistent with the strict hierarchical affinity-conversion model that mandates an initial binding of IL-2 to IL-2R alpha followed by binding of the IL-2/IL-2R alpha complex to IL-2R beta. Instead, our results support an alternative model of preformed complexes of IL-2R beta with other IL-2R subunits. In this alternative model, IL-2R alpha and -beta exist in part as preformed complexes in which the affinity of IL-2R beta for IL-2 is altered by the proximity of IL-2R alpha, through mechanisms that do not require the prior binding of IL-2 to IL-2R alpha.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1994; 91(8):3344-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a malignancy of mature lymphocytes caused by the retrovirus human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-I (HTLV-I). It is an aggressive leukemia with an overall mortality rate of 50% within 5 months; no conventional chemotherapy regimen appears successful in inducing long-term disease-free survival in ATL patients. However, ATL cells constitutively express high-affinity interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2Rs) identified by the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody, whereas normal resting cells do not. To exploit this difference in receptor expression, we administered anti-Tac intravenously (IV) to 19 patients with ATL. In general the patients did not suffer untoward reactions, and in 18 of 19 cases did not have a reduction in normal formed elements of the blood. Seven patients developed remissions that were mixed (1 patient), partial (4 patients), or complete (2 patients), with partial and complete remissions lasting from 9 weeks to more than 3 years as assessed by routine hematologic tests, immunofluorescence analysis, and molecular genetic analysis of T-cell receptor gene rearrangements and of HTLV-I proviral integration. Furthermore, remission was associated with a return to normal serum calcium levels and an improvement of liver function tests. Remission was also associated in some cases with an amelioration of the profound immunodeficiency state that characterizes ATL. Thus the use of a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of IL-2 with its receptor expressed on ATL cells provides a rational approach for treatment of this aggressive malignancy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune intervention began almost two centuries ago when Jenner introduced vaccination with cowpox as a means of protecting
against smallpox. This form of immune intervention plays a dominant role in the prevention of human disease. Furthermore,
immunological approaches including radioimmunoassays, enzyme-linked immunoassays, microfluorometry, and modern molecular immunogenetics
are critical in clinical diagnosis.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/1993; 685:603-10. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have proposed a multichain model for the high-affinity interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor involving two IL-2-binding peptides, a 70/75 kilodalton (kD) and a 55 kD, reactive with the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody, which are associated in a receptor complex. With the use of coprecipitation analysis, radiolabeled interleukin-2 cross-linking procedures, and flow cytometric resonance energy transfer measurements, a series of additional peptides of molecular weight 22,000, 35,000, 40,000, 75,000 (non-IL-2 binding), 95,000-105,000, and 180,000 has been associated with the two interleukin-2-binding peptides. In contrast to resting T cells, the abnormal T cells of patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus I-associated adult T-cell leukemia, patients with select autoimmune disorders, and individuals rejecting allografts express the Tac peptide (p55) of the IL-2 receptor. To exploit this difference in Tac antigen expression, we have initiated therapeutic trials using unmodified anti-Tac, conjugates of anti-Tac with truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin PE-40, interleukin-2-truncated toxin fusion proteins, and alpha- and beta-emitting isotopic chelates of anti-Tac. Furthermore, by genetic engineering humanized hyperchimeric anti-Tac molecules have been prepared in which the molecule is entirely human IgG1, except for the small complementarity-determining regions that are retained from the mouse antibody. This "humanized" antibody manifested the ability to perform antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity absent in the original mouse monoclonal. The clinical application of anti-interleukin-2 receptor-directed therapy represents a new perspective for the treatment of certain neoplastic diseases and autoimmune disorders and for the prevention of allograft rejection.