A Gil

University of Granada, Granata, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (313)993.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Bread can contribute to the regulation of appetite. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread. Methods: A randomized, controlled crossover trial was conducted in 30 healthy adults (17 men and 13 women) aged 19–32 y with body mass index of 19.2–28.5. Each volunteer consumed the cereal-based bread and the control bread 2 times, with a 1-wk wash-out period, over a total of 4 sessions. The cereal-based bread contained a variety of cereal flours (wheat, oat, and spelt) and consisted of 22% dried fruits (figs, apricots, raisins, and prunes). It was also enriched with both fiber (7% from wheat cross-linked maltodextrins and pea) and protein (10–11% from wheat gluten and hydrolyzed wheat proteins). The control bread consisted of white bread with margarine and jam to control for energy density, fat, and sugar content. We measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of 4 h after the ingestion of each bread. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) for different variables. Results: Consuming the cereal-based bread decreased prospective consumption more than consumption of the control bread (−5.3 ± 0.6 m ⋅ min and −4.4 ± 0.6 m ⋅ min, respectively; P = 0.02) and increased satiety more (6.2 ± 0.7 m ⋅ min and 5.2 ± 0.6 m ⋅ min, respectively; P = 0.04), although subsequent ad libitum energy intake 4 h later did not differ. Postprandial blood glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide AUCs were lower after the ingestion of the cereal-based bread, whereas the pancreatic polypeptide AUC was higher than with the control bread (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Consumption of the cereal-based bread contributed to appetite control by reducing hunger and enhancing satiety. In addition, consumption of this bread improved glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090049.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/2015; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Altered expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) have been observed in obesity in human and animal studies. We aimed to study 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for GPX1-7 genes and to characterize their association with prepubertal childhood obesity and its associated biomarkers. Methods: This case-control study included 193 obese and 191 normal-weight prepubertal Spanish children, in whom anthropometry, biochemical parameters, adipokines, antioxidant enzyme erythrocyte activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular risk were measured. The genotype analysis was performed in the Illumina platform. PLINK and SPSS were used for statistical analyses. Results: We found SNPs rs757228 and rs8103188 (GPX4) to be negatively associated and rs445870 (GPX5) and rs406113 (GPX6) to be positively associated with obesity in children. The variant rs2074451 (GPX4) increased GPX activity in erythrocytes. Although we did not find significant differences in erythrocyte GPX activity between obese and normal-weight children, GPX activity was found to be positively and significantly correlated with blood pressure, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions: The GPX variants rs757228, rs8103188, rs445870 and rs406113 were associated with prepubertal childhood obesity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity was not altered in obese prepubertal Spanish children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics 12/2014; 7(3):130-142. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential for the positive manipulation of the gut microbiome through the introduction of beneficial microbes, as also known as probiotics, is currently an active area of investigation. The FAO/WHO define probiotics as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. However, dead bacteria and bacterial molecular components may also exhibit probiotic properties. The results of clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical potential of probiotics in many pathologies, such as allergic diseases, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and viral infection. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of probiotics, most of which involve gene expression regulation in specific tissues, particularly the intestine and liver. Therefore, the modulation of gene expression mediated by probiotics is an important issue that warrants further investigation. In the present paper, we performed a systematic review of the probiotic-mediated modulation of gene expression that is associated with the immune system and inflammation. Between January 1990 to February 2014, PubMed was searched for articles that were published in English using the MeSH terms "probiotics" and "gene expression" combined with "intestines", "liver", "enterocytes", "antigen-presenting cells", "dendritic cells", "immune system", and "inflammation". Two hundred and five original articles matching these criteria were initially selected, although only those articles that included specific gene expression results (77) were later considered for this review and separated into three major topics: the regulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver. Particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium, Bacillus and Saccharomyces influence the gene expression of mucins, Toll-like receptors, caspases, nuclear factor-κB, and interleukins and lead mainly to an anti-inflammatory response in cultured enterocytes. In addition, the interaction of commensal bacteria and probiotics with the surface of antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are linked to inflammatory signaling pathways, whereas other anti-inflammatory genes are upregulated. The effects of probiotics have been extensively investigated in animal models ranging from fish to mice, rats and piglets. These bacteria induce a tolerogenic and hyporesponsive immune response in which many genes that are related to the immune system, in particular those genes expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines, are upregulated. By contrast, information related to gene expression in human intestinal cells mediated by the action of probiotics is scarce. There is a need for further clinical studies that evaluate the mechanism of action of probiotics both in healthy humans and in patients with chronic diseases. These types of clinical studies are necessary for addressing the influence of these microorganisms in gene expression for different pathways, particularly those that are associated with the immune response, and to better understand the role that probiotics might have in the prevention and treatment of disease.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(42):15632-15649.
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is wide variation in the duration of breastfeeding across Europe which may in part be due to the between-country differences in mothers' and societal attitudes towards breastfeeding in public. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the maternal attitudes to, and practice of, breastfeeding in public in four European centers and investigate the association with duration of breastfeeding.Methods Participants (n = 389) were mothers recruited from maternity wards of hospitals in Glasgow (Scotland), Stockholm (Sweden), Granada (Spain), and Reggio-Emilia (Italy).ResultsAmong those who had breastfed, Scottish (adjOR 0.25 [95% CI 0.12–0.50]) and Italian mothers (adjOR 0.30 [95% CI 0.14–0.63]) were significantly less likely than Swedish mothers to have ever breastfed in public. Mothers who had a negative attitude toward breastfeeding in public were less likely to have ever breastfed in public (adjOR 0.05 [95% CI 0.02–0.17]), and those who had never breastfed in public were in turn more likely to discontinue breastfeeding earlier.Conclusions Perceived social norms may exert a stronger influence on breastfeeding outcomes than a woman's breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge. Differences between European countries in the duration of breastfeeding may be explained in part by differences in societal attitudes to breastfeeding in public.
    Birth 10/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Adipokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance during pregnancy. We studied the association of genetic variants linked with type 2 diabetes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects and its influence on maternal adipokines. Study Design We recruited 25 healthy pregnant women (Controls) and 45 women with GDM at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Maternal blood samples were collected at recruitment and delivery. Adipokines were determined at both sampling times. Genomic DNA was extracted from recruitment samples and FTO rs9939609, TCF7L2 rs4506565, rs7901695, rs12243326, rs12255372 and rs7903146, INSIG2 rs7566605, SREBF1 rs114001633, rs45535737 and rs12941356 and FATP4 rs2003560 genotyped. Results Serum adiponectin was significantly lower in GDM than Controls at recruitment and showed a similar trend at delivery (p = 0.060). In contrast, resistin tended to higher levels in GDM only at recruitment. TCF7L2 rs4506565 (OR = 2.31, 95% CI:1.97-5.01; p = 0.031) and FTO rs9939609 (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.07-4.41; P = 0.039) were associated with GDM risk. Women carrying the T allele of TCF7L2 rs4506565 had increases in plasma resistin of 9.38 μg/L (95% CI 1.39-17.37; p = 0.022) per allele; this association remained significant after adjusting for pre-gestational body weight. Conclusion TCF7L2 rs4506565 variant (T/T) is associated with increased risk of GDM and plasma resistin concentrations in women with GDM.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 09/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e98401. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Piramide
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    ABSTRACT: The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases.
    Advances in Nutrition 05/2014; 5(3):358S-67S. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 02/2014; 15(2):3118-44. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a potentially probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) on human DC challenged with Escherichia coli. The results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were higher in the cells treated with live L. rhamnosus than in the cells treated with the CFS. In the presence of E. coli, the supernatant was more effective than the probiotic bacteria in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, live L. rhamnosus potently induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, whereas the CFS increased the secretion of TGF-β1. However, in the presence of E. coli, both treatments restored the levels of TGF-β. The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and its CFS were able to activate the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, enhancing innate immunity. The two treatments induced gene transcription of TLR-9. Live L. rhamnosus activated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 genes, whereas the CFS increased the expression of TLR-1 and TLR-5 genes. In response to the stimulation with probiotic/CFS and E. coli, the expression of each gene tested was notably increased, with the exception of TNF-α and NFKBIA. In conclusion, the CFS exhibited an extraordinary ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and may be used as an effective and safer alternative to live bacteria.
    The British journal of nutrition 01/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and specific biomarkers of inflammation, CVD risk and endothelial dysfunction in prepubertal obese children. Prospective, multicentre case-control study matched by age and sex. Children were recruited between May 2007 and May 2010 from primary-care centres and schools in three cities in Spain (Cordoba, Santiago de Compostela and Zaragoza). Four hundred and forty-six (223 normal weight and 223 obese) Caucasian prepubertal children aged 6-12 years. WHtR was higher in the obese than in the normal-weight children. Blood pressure, waist circumference, weight, height, insulin, plasma lipids, leptin, resistin, abnormal neutrophil and monocyte counts, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, selectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were higher in the obese than in the normal-weight group. Adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol were lower and glucose and metalloproteinase-9 showed no differences. Resistin, TNF-α and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were associated with WHtR, a sensitive indicator of central obesity. Our results lead to the hypothesis that changes in biomarker levels of insulin resistance, inflammation and CVD risk before puberty might induce metabolic consequences of obesity in obese children before reaching adulthood.
    Public Health Nutrition 01/2014; · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variants in the FTO gene have been associated with obesity in children, but this association has not been shown with other biomarkers. We assessed the association of 52 FTO polymorphisms, spanning the whole gene, with obesity and estimated the influence of these polymorphisms on anthropometric, clinical and metabolic parameters as well as inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers among Spanish children. A multicentre case--control study was conducted in 534 children (292 obese and 242 with normal-BMI). Anthropometric, clinical, metabolic, inflammation and CVD risk markers were compared using the Student's t-test for unpaired samples. The genotype relative risk was assessed by comparing the obese and normal-BMI group, calculating the odds ratio. The association of each SNP with phenotypic parameters was analysed using either logistic or linear regression analysis. All anthropometric, clinical and metabolic factors as well as inflammatory and CVD risk biomarkers were higher in the obese than in the normal-BMI group, except adiponectin and HDL-c that were lower, and glucose, LDL-c, and metalloproteinase-9 that did not show difference. Four polymorphisms (rs9935401, rs9939609, rs9928094 and rs9930333) were positively associated with obesity and in linkage disequilibrium between each other; the haplotype including the risk alleles of these polymorphisms showed a high risk for obesity. The rs8061518 was negatively associated with obesity and the haplotype including this SNP and rs3826169, rs17818902 and rs7190053 showed a decreased risk for obesity. Additionally, the rs8061518 was associated with weight, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, and active plasminogen inhibitor activator-1 after sex and age adjustment; however, after an additional BMI adjustment, this polymorphism remained associated only with leptin. We validated the previous reported association of genetic variability in intron 1 of the FTO gene with the risk of obesity and found no association with other related traits in this region of the gene. We have observed strong statistical evidence for an association of rs8061518 in intron 3 of the gene with decreased risk of obesity and low concentration of leptin.
    BMC Medical Genetics 12/2013; 14(1):123. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, provide health benefits to the host. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, which are isolated from traditional fermented products and the gut, faeces and breast milk of human subjects. The identification of microorganisms is the first step in the selection of potential probiotics. The present techniques, including genetic fingerprinting, gene sequencing, oligonucleotide probes and specific primer selection, discriminate closely related bacteria with varying degrees of success. Additional molecular methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis/temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, are employed to identify and characterise probiotics. The ability to examine fully sequenced genomes has accelerated the application of genetic approaches to elucidate the functional roles of probiotics. One of the best-demonstrated clinical benefits of probiotics is the prevention and treatment of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea; however, there is mounting evidence for a potential role for probiotics in the treatment of allergies and intestinal, liver and metabolic diseases. These positive effects are generally attributed to the ability of probiotics to regulate intestinal permeability, normalise host intestinal microbiota, improve gut immune barrier function and equilibrate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the positive effects of probiotics are not always substantiated by findings from properly conducted clinical trials. Notably, even when the results from randomised, placebo-controlled trials support the beneficial effects of a particular probiotic for a specific indication, the benefits are generally not translatable to other probiotic formulations.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    20 th IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Science) International Congress of Nutrition, Granada (Spain); 09/2013
  • Nutrición Hospitalaria. 09/2013; 28:44-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities have been observed in a variety of diseases involving oxidative stress, such as CVD. However, its role in obesity has not been fully established. In the present study, we aimed (1) to genotype sixteen PON1 SNP, (2) to measure serum PON1 activities and (3) to correlate these findings with the incidence of childhood obesity and related traits. We conducted a case-control study of 189 normal-weight and 179 obese prepubertal children, and we measured four different PON1 activities: lactonase; paraoxonase; arylesterase; diazoxonase. Although none of these activities was significantly different between the obese and normal-weight children, lactonase activity was found to be positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 levels and negatively correlated with myeloperoxidase and fatty acid-binding protein 4 levels. Among the sixteen genotyped PON1 SNP, only the intronic SNP rs854566 exhibited a significant association with obesity (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·91; P= 0·016). This genetic variant was also associated with increased diazoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase activities and decreased paraoxonase activity. Other genetic variants exhibited different association patterns with serum activities based on their location within the PON1 gene, and SNP that were located within the promoter were strongly associated with lactonase, arylesterase and diazoxonase activities. The functional variant Q192R exhibited the greatest effect on paraoxonase activity (P= 5·88 × 10- 42). In conclusion, SNP rs854566 was negatively associated with childhood obesity and with increased serum PON1 activities in prepubertal children. We determined that lactonase is a reliable indicator of PON1 activities and should be included in future studies of PON1 function.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: There are many differences in the fecal infant microbiota associated with various feeding methods. The aim of this study was to examine the major differences in the fecal microbiota of breast-fed and formula-fed infants and to describe the principal bacterial components that would explain the variability in the predominant bacterial families and genus clusters. PATIENTS AND METHODS:: Fecal samples from 58 infants, 31 of whom were exclusively breast-fed and 27 of whom were exclusively formula-fed with a standard formula in agreement with the ESPGHAN recommendations, were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with flow cytometry. Principal Components Analysis was used to maximize the information gained for the predominant bacterial families and genus clusters using a minimal number of bacterial groups. RESULTS:: The predominant detected group was Bifidobacterium, followed by Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides in both breast-fed and formula-fed infants. The Lactobacillus group was the only independent variable associated with formula-fed infants. We also found that three principal components were sufficient to describe the association between the bacterial group, genus and species studied in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. However, these components differed between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. For the former, the three factors found were Bifidobacterium/Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus/Bacteroides and Clostridium coccoides/Atopobium; for the latter, Bifidobacterium/Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides and Clostridium coccoides were observed. CONCLUSIONS:: There is a clear clustering of components of infant microbiota based on the feeding method.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 06/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Catalase (CAT) is a peroxisomal antioxidant enzyme upregulated upon oxidative stress. Previous studies have found associations between some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the CAT promoter region in a variety of metabolic diseases. This is the first study to analyze the association of erythrocyte CAT activity and candidate CAT SNPs with childhood obesity. The association study showed a significant positive association of the promoter variant -844A/G with childhood obesity and biomarkers of obesity such as weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-Score and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, along with a tendency towards significance with insulin resistance biomarkers. In addition CAT erythrocyte activity was found to be significantly lower in obese children and it was significantly correlated with obesity and insulin resistance biomarkers. No association was found between erythrocyte CAT activity and the SNP -844A/G. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to fully understand the role of CAT activity and SNPs in the development of insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. We hypothesize that CAT plays a role in early metabolic complications of obesity.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 05/2013; · 8.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variants in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene have been associated with obesity and its traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPY gene with obesity, metabolic syndrome features, and inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers in Spanish children. We recruited 292 obese children and 242 normal-body mass index (BMI) children. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, clinical and metabolic markers, adipokines, and inflammatory (PCR, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) and CVD risk biomarkers (MPO, MMP-9, sE-selectin, sVCAM, sICAM, and PAI-1) were analyzed. Seven SNPs in the NPY gene were genotyped. The results of our study indicate that anthropometric measurements, clinical and metabolic markers, adipokines (leptin and resistin), and inflammatory and CVD risk biomarkers were generally elevated in the obese group. The exceptions to this finding included cholesterol, HDL-c, and adiponectin, which were lower in the obese group, and glucose, LDL-c, and MMP-9, which did not differ between the groups. Both rs16147 and rs16131 were associated with the risk of obesity, and the latter was also associated with insulin resistance, triacylglycerols, leptin, and HDL-c. Thus, we confirm the association of rs16147 with obesity, and we demonstrate for the first time the association of rs16131 with obesity and its possible impact on the early onset of metabolic syndrome features, mainly triacylglycerols, in children.
    Peptides 04/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro-inflammatory pathways.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59370. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
993.93 Total Impact Points


  • 1982–2014
    • University of Granada
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      • • Facultad de Medicina
      • • Facultad de Farmacia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
    • Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche
      • Department of Public Health, History of Science and Gynecology
      Elx, Valencia, Spain
  • 2010
    • Universidad Pablo de Olavide
      • Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering
      Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2000–2010
    • University of Murcia
      • • Facultad de Biología
      • • Departamento de Fisiología
      • • Departamento de Farmacología
      Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  • 2009
    • American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
      Spanish Fork, Utah, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía
      Cordoue, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2005–2007
    • Mexican Institute of Social Security
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2001–2003
    • Abbott Laboratories
      North Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1990–2002
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      • Department of Rheumatology
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999
    • Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1994–1997
    • Universidad de Salamanca
      • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      Salamanca, Castile and Leon, Spain
  • 1995
    • University of Valencia
      • Facultad de Farmacia
      Valencia, Valencia, Spain