Angel Gil

University of Granada, Granata, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (359)1162.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: During fetal and perinatal periods, many nutrients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [contained in fish oil (FO)] and folate, are important in achieving normal brain development. Several studies have shown the benefits of early nutrition on children's neurocognitive development. However, the evidence with regard to the attention system is scarce. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term effects of FO, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), or FO+5-MTHF prenatal supplementation on attention networks. Design: Participants were 136 children born to mothers from the NUHEAL (Nutraceuticals for a Healthy Life) project (randomly assigned to receive FO and/or 5-MTHF or placebo prenatal supplementation) who were recalled for a new examination 8.5 y later. The response conflict-resolution ability (using congruent and incongruent conditions)), alerting, and spatial orienting of attention were evaluated with behavioral measures (Attention Network Test), electroencephalography/event-related potentials (ERPs), and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Results: Children born to mothers supplemented with 5-MTHF alone solved the response conflict more quickly than did the placebo and the FO+5-MTHF groups (all P < 0.05). Differences between ERP amplitudes for the conflict conditions were also observed. sLORETA analysis showed higher activation of the right midcingulate cortex for the incongruent condition. In addition, a significant slowing down of response speed depending on the warning cue in the 5-MTHF and FO groups was observed. Conclusions: Folate supplementation during pregnancy, rather than FO or FO+5-MTHF supplementation, improves children's ability to solve response conflicts. This advantage seems to be based on the higher activation of the midcingulate cortex, indicating that early nutrition influences the functionality of specific brain areas involved in executive functions. This trial was registered at as NCT01180933.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.109108 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The energy expenditure capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) makes it an attractive target as a therapy against obesity and type 2 diabetes. BAT activators namely catecholamines, natriuretic peptides and certain myokines, are secreted in response to exercise. ACTIBATE will determine the effect of exercise on BAT activity and mass measured by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, primary outcome) in young adults. ACTIBATE will also investigate the physiological consequences of activating BAT (secondary outcomes). Methods: ACTIBATE will recruit 150 sedentary, healthy, young adults (50% women) aged 18-25years. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to a non-exercise group (n=50) or one of two exercise groups (n=50 each). Participants in the exercise groups will perform aerobic and strength training 3-4days/week at a heart rate equivalent to 60% of heart rate reserve (HRres), and at 50% of 1 repetition maximum (RM) for the moderate-intensity group, and at 80% of HRres and 70% RM for the vigorous-intensity group. Laboratory measures completed at baseline and 6months include BAT activity and mass, resting energy expenditure, meal and cold-induced thermogenesis, body temperature regulation and shivering threshold, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We will also obtain biopsies from abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle to analyse the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the thermogenic machinery. Discussion: Findings from ACTIBATE will have significant implications for our understanding of exercise and its protective effects against the development of type 2 diabetes, obesity and related metabolic diseases. ID: NCT02365129.
    Contemporary clinical trials 11/2015; 45(Pt B). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2015.11.004 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Current attempts to manipulate the gastrointestinal microbiota focus on finding remedies for several health disorders. Probiotics are consumed as treatments for various gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions. However, their actual ability to affect gut microbiota is still under debate Objectives: We investigated the effects of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and B. breve CNCM I-4035 feeding on the fecal microbiota composition in a genetic animal model of obesity Method / Design: Forty-eight Zucker-Leprfa/fa and 16 Zuckerlean+/fa male rats weighing 168-180 g were used. Eight Zucker-lean+/fa and 8 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were euthanized (baseline). The remaining 40 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were randomly assigned to receive 10^10 CFUs of one of the three strains, a mixture or a placebo by oral administration each day for 30 days. An additional group of 8 Zuckerlean+/ fa rats received placebo for 30 days. Fecal samples were taken to perform fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) was measured in serum Results: FISH analysis of the feces revealed changes in bacterial groups. Bacteroides group increased in obese rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus or the mixture of two probiotic strains. Closdridium perfringens and Closdridium difficile increased in the feces of both obese rats fed L. paracasei and lean rats fed the placebo. Compared with obese rats fed the placebo, 16S rRNA sequencing found the following reductions: Parabacteroides in rats fed L. rhamnosus, Leptospiraceae in rats fed L. paracasei, Halanaerobiaceae in rats fed B.breve, and Anaplasmataceae in rats fed the mixture. LBP significantly decreased in rats fed L. rhamnosus or the mixture. Conclusions: Results obtained suggest that feeding Zucker-Leprfa/ fa rats with these probiotic strains modified the fecal microbiota composition and reduced the serum levels of LBP.
    12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS); 10/2015
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    ABSTRACT: The inclusion of different ingredients or the use of different baking technologies may modify the satiety response to bread, and aid in the control of food intake. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic search of randomized clinical trials on the effect of bread consumption on appetite ratings in humans. The search equation was ("Bread"[MeSH]) AND ("Satiation"[MeSH] OR "Satiety response"[MeSH]), and the filter 'clinical trials'. As a result of this procedure, 37 publications were selected. The satiety response was considered as the primary outcome. The studies were classified as follows: breads differing in their flour composition, breads differing in ingredients other than flours, breads with added organic acids or breads made using different baking technologies. Additionally, we have revised the data related to the influence of bread on glycemic index, insulinemic index and postprandial gastrointestinal hormones responses. The inclusion of appropriate ingredients such as fiber, proteins, legumes, seaweeds and acids into breads and the use of specific technologies may result in the development of healthier breads that increase satiety and satiation, which may aid in the control of weight gain and benefit postprandial glycemia. However, more well-designed randomized control trials are required to reach final conclusions.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/10408398.2015.1084490 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers have increasingly sought noninvasive methods to determine the health and nutritional status in humans. Easy and painless to collect, human urine is a source of noninvasive biomarkers. We aimed to explore the relation between systemic oxidative stress biomarkers excreted in urine and urinary osmolality (Uosm). The current trial was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. We collected seventy-eight samples of 24-h urine in preschoolers who were attending daycare centers in the Western Highlands province of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. After we measured the total urine volume (Uvol), the aliquot was stored for the later determination of Uosm as a hydration biomarker and to measure 15-isoprostane F2t (F2-Iso) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as biomarkers of cellular oxidation with the use of ELISA assay kits in Spain. Descriptive statistics and linear [Spearman rank-order (rs)] and nonlinear (goodness-of-fit) correlations were performed. Twenty-four hour Uvols ranged from 65 to 1670 mL, whereas the Uosm varied between 115 and 1102 mOsm/kg. With respect to oxidative biomarkers, the 24-h urinary output of F2-Iso and 8-OHdG had median values of 748 and 2793 ng/d, respectively. The Uvol correlated inversely and significantly with the concentrations of both oxidative biomarkers (F2-Iso rs = -0.603, P < 0.001; 8-OHdG rs = -0.433, P < 0.001), whereas the Uosm was correlated in a direct manner (F2-Iso rs = 0.541, P < 0.001; 8-OHdG rs = 0.782, P < 0.001) when analyzed as a concentration. Associations were weaker when they were analyzed as the total 24-h production. Preschool children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala show strong correlations between hydration status measured through the use of Uosm and biomarkers of oxidative stress in urine. Thus, a relatively superior hydration status is associated with a quantitative reduction in urinary excretion of systemic oxidation products. This trial was registered at as NCT02203890. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2015; 102(4). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.105429 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of diet quality and physical activity in reducing the progression of chronic disease is becoming increasingly important. Dietary Quality Indices or Indicators (DQIs) are algorithms aiming to evaluate the overall diet and categorize individuals according to the extent to which their eating behaviour is "healthy". Predefined indexes assess dietary patterns based on current nutrition knowledge and they have been developed primarily for nutritional epidemiology to assess dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There are many different types of DQIs. There are three major categories of DQIs: a) nutrient-based indicators; b) food/food group based indicators; and c) combination indexes, the vast majority of DQIs, which often include a measure of diet variety within and across food groups, a measure of adequacy i.e. nutrients (compared to requirements) or food groups (quantities or servings), a measure of nutrients/foods to consume in moderation, and an overall balance of macronutrients. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) are the four 'original' diet quality scores that have been referred to and validated most extensively. Several indexes have been adapted and modified from those originals. In particular, many variations on the MDS have been proposed, included different alternate MDS and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Primary data source of DQI's are individual dietary data collection tools, namely 24 h quantitative intake recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. Nutrients found in many scores are total fat, saturated fatty acids or the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids or the latter SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol, protein content and quality, complex carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and sodium are also found in various scores. All DQIs, except those that only contain nutrients, include the components fruits and vegetables; additional attributes are legumes or pulses, nuts and seeds. Meat and meat products, namely red and processed meat, poultry, and milk and dairy products are also included in many scores. Other foods contained in some DQIs e.g. MDS are olive oil and fish. Nowadays, there is interest in defining more than DQIs, healthy life indices (HLIs), which give information on behaviours associated with specific patterns and beyond dietary habits they include physical activity, rest and selected socio-cultural habits. The Mediterranean Lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index has been recently created based on the current Spanish Mediterranean food guide pyramid and it includes both the assessment of food consumption directly related to the Mediterranean diet, physical activity and rest and other relevant cultural information. However, a global HLI should consider, based on the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) Pyramid of Healthy Lifestyles, in addition to food groups and nutrients, selected items on food safety e.g. consumption rate of proceed foods, food handling, preparation and storage and access to drinking water, selected food habits, including alcoholic beverage and salt consumption patterns, purchase of seasonal and local foods, home cooking and conviviality, as well as patterns of physical activity, sedentary and rest habits and some selected sociocultural habits, particularly those related to food selection, religious beliefs and socializing with friends. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 07/2015; 31(s03):128-144. DOI:10.3305/nh.2015.31.sup3.8761 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of orange juice may lead to reduced oxidative stress and may enhance the antioxidant defense system. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the intake of orange juice containing either normal (NPJ) or high (HPJ) concentrations of polyphenols (299 and 745 mg/d, respectively) on the antioxidant defense system, oxidative stress biomarkers, and clinical signs of metabolic syndrome in 100 nonsmoking subjects who were either overweight or obese. A randomized, double-blind crossover study was conducted over two 12-wk periods with a 7-wk washout period. The effects on enzymatic and nonenzymatic blood antioxidant defense system, urinary and plasma oxidative stress biomarkers, and clinical signs of metabolic syndrome were evaluated before and after an intervention with both of the orange juices. Paired t tests and linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the effects of juice, time, and interactions. The intake of either NPJ or HPJ led to a decrease in urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (NPJ: 935 ± 134 to 298 ± 19 ng/mg creatinine; HPJ: 749 ± 84 to 285 ± 17 ng/mg creatinine), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (NPJ: 437 ± 68 to 156 ± 14 ng/mg creatinine; HPJ: 347 ± 43 to 154 ± 13 ng/mg creatinine), erythrocyte catalase, and glutathione reductase activities. A decrease was also observed in body mass index, waist circumference, and leptin (all P < 0.05). The NPJ group showed decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressures (systolic blood pressure: 128 ± 1 to 124 ± 2 mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure: 79 ± 1 to 76 ± 1 mm Hg), whereas the HPJ group showed increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (17.7 ± 1.5 to 23.1 ± 1.7 U/mg hemoglobin). Our results show that the consumption of either NPJ or HPJ protected against DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, modified several antioxidant enzymes, and reduced body weight in overweight or obese nonsmoking adults. Only blood pressure and SOD activity were influenced differently by the different flavanone supplementations. This trial was registered at as NCT01290250. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/2015; 145(8). DOI:10.3945/jn.115.213660 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is rising and is the prime cause of death in all developed countries. Bioactive compounds (BAC) can have a role in CVD prevention and treatment. The aim of this work was to examine the scientific evidence supporting phenolic BAC efficacy in CVD prevention and treatment by a systematic review. Databases utilized were Medline, LILACS and EMBASE, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with prospective, parallel or crossover designs in humans in which the effects of BAC were compared with that of placebo/control were included. Vascular homeostasis, blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were considered as primary outcomes. Cohort, ecological or case-control studies were not included. We selected 72 articles and verified their quality based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, establishing diverse quality levels of scientific evidence according to two features: the design and bias risk of a study. Moreover, a grade of recommendation was included, depending on evidence strength of antecedents. Evidence shows that certain polyphenols, such as flavonols can be helpful in decreasing CVD risk factors. However, further rigorous evidence is necessary to support the BAC effect on CVD prevention and treatment.
    Nutrients 06/2015; 7(7-7):5177. DOI:10.3390/nu7075177 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guatemala is the country with the highest prevalence of stunting in under-five children in the Americas, with a national average of 49.8%. Asymptomatic intestinal colonization with Giardia intestinalis (Gi) is common in Guatemalan preschoolers and has been implicated as a factor in linear growth retardation. The potential mechanisms of any giardiasis - growth interaction has not been exhaustively explored. To describe urine oxidative stress biomarkers and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, and explore any association with prevalence or intensity of Giardia intestinalis infection in preschoolers attending three government-subsidized daycare centers in the Guatemalan Western Highlands. Samples of feces, urine, and red blood cell hemolysate were collected in a total of 74 preschoolers enrolled in three daycare centers. Giardia prevalence and a proxy index for intensity were assessed by ELISA. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine {8OHdG}) and to lipid (F2t 15-Isoprostane {F2 Iso}) were measured by ELISA. The erythrocyte activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione reductase (GSHR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) were measured by respective spectroscopic substrate-based reaction assays. Median values of rbc CAT activity (p = 0.016) and urine F2-Iso (p = 0.023) differed between children who were positive (n = 39) and negative (n = 35) for Giardia. Similarly, Gi intensity was significantly and positively associated with urinary F2Iso (r = 0.446, p < 0.001). rbc SOD (r = 283, p = 0.014) and rbc CAT (r = 0.260, p = 0.025). The optical density reading of the fecal ELISA assay for Gi has potential as a proxy for the intensity of infestation. In this respect, there exists an association of this intensity with indicators of the systemic oxidation.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 06/2015; DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000891 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children. To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys) of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala's Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC), fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments. Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33%) were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514) and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762). Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin. Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The prominence of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in both plasma and saliva is consistent with its counter-regulatory role facing a broad front of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines in the same compartment.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129158. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129158 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The colon microbiota plays a crucial role in human gastrointestinal health. Current attempts to manipulate the colon microbiota composition are aimed at finding remedies for various diseases. We have recently described the immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, and Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035). The goal of the present study was to analyze the compositions of the fecal microbiota of healthy adults who received one of these strains using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Bacteroides was the most abundant genus in the groups that received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 or L. paracasei CNCM I-4034. The Shannon indices were significantly increased in these two groups. Our results also revealed a significant increase in the Lactobacillus genus after the intervention with L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The initially different colon microbiota became homogeneous in the subjects who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. While some orders that were initially present disappeared after the administration of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, other orders, such as Sphingobacteriales, Nitrospirales, Desulfobacterales, Thiotrichales, and Synergistetes, were detected after the intervention. In summary, our results show that the intake of these three bacterial strains induced changes in the colon microbiota.
    Nutrients 06/2015; 7(6):3999-4015. DOI:10.3390/nu7063999 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (" Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain ") study, OPEN ACCESS Nutrients 2015, 7 4740 a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.
    Nutrients 06/2015; 7(6):4739-4762. DOI:10.3390/nu7064739 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is rising and it is the prime cause of death in all developed countries. Bioactive compounds (BACs) can play a role in CVD prevention and treatment. To examine the scientific evidence supporting BACs groups' efficacy in CVD prevention and treatment, we conducted a systematized review. All available information on Medline, LILACS and EMBASE; all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with prospective, parallel or crossover designs in humans in which the BACs effect was compared with that of placebo/control. Vascular homeostasis, blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were considered primary outcomes. We selected 26 articles, verifying their quality based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, establishing diverse quality levels of scientific evidence according to the design and bias risk of a study. Grades of recommendation were included, depending on the evidence strength of antecedents. Evidence shows that certain BACs' derivative from active lipids and nitrogen compounds, mainly from horse chestnut seed extract, sterol plants, allium derivatives, and certain doses of beta-glucans, can be helpful in decreasing the prevalence of CVD risk factors. However, further rigorous evidence is necessary to support and prove BACs' effect on CVD prevention and treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 05/2015; 66(2-3):168-181. DOI:10.1159/000430960 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: La Organización Mundial de la Salud (World Health Organization: OMS) ha propuesto que la salud debe ser promovida y protegida a través del desarrollo de un medio ambiente que permita acciones sostenibles a nivel individual, comunitario, nacional y global. De hecho, se han desarrollado en numerosos países guías alimentarias (por ejemplo, las pirámides de alimentos) para divulgar información nutricional a la población general. Sin embargo, se necesitan recomendaciones más amplias sobre estilos activos de vida saludable, no restringidos únicamente a los alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo es la propuesta de una pirámide tridimensional como una nueva estrategia para promover una nutrición adecuada y estilos activos de vida saludable de manera sostenible. En efecto, se ha diseñado la pirámide FINUT (Fundación Iberoamericana de Nutrición) sobre estilos de vida saludable como un tetraedro cuyas tres caras laterales se corresponden a los binomios alimentación y nutrición, actividad física y descanso, y educación e higiene. Cada cara lateral está dividida en dos triángulos. Estas caras muestran lo siguiente: 1. guías alimentarias y hábitos de alimentación saludable en relación a un medio ambiente sostenible; 2. recomendaciones sobre descanso y actividad física y temas de educación, sociales y culturales relacionados; 3. guías seleccionadas sobre higiene y educación que, en conjunto con las otras dos caras, puedan contribuir a una mejor salud para la población en un planeta sostenible. La nueva pirámide FINUT se dirige a la población general de todas las edades y debería servir como una guía para un estilo de vida saludable en un contexto social y cultural definido. La pirámide incluye una dimensión ambiental y sostenible que proporciona medidas para contribuir a la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. * Gil A, Ruiz-López MD, Fernández-González M, Martínez de Victoria E. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid. Adv Nutr. 2014 May 14;5(3):358S-67S. DOI: 10.3945/an.113.005637. PMID: 24829489.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 05/2015; 31(5):2313-2323. DOI:10.3305/nh.2015.31.5.8803 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives and Study: Obesity is a chronic, complex and multifactorial disease that has reached pandemia levels and is becoming a serious health problem. Intestinal microbiota is considered a main factor that affects body weight and fat mass, which points toward a critical role in the development of obesity. In this sense, probiotic bacteria might modulate the intestinal microbiota and the mucosalassociated lymphoid tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus and B. breve feeding on the intestinal mucosa gene expression in a genetic animal model of obesity. Methods: Forty-eight Zucker-Leprfa/fa and 16 Zucker-lean+/fa male rats weighing 168-180 g were used. After 5 days of adaptation, 8 Zucker-lean+/fa and 8 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were euthanized as a reference. The remaining 40 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were then randomly assigned to receive 1010 CFUs of one of the three probiotic strains, or a placebo by oral administration each day for 30 days. An additional group of 8 Zucker-lean+/fa rats received placebo. Samples of intestinal mucosa were taken and RNA isolated to carry out a differential gene expression study with an Affymetrix microarray. Results were validated by Custom array RT2 profiler PCR from Qiagen. Results: Expression of 45 genes changed with L. paracasei feeding. We selected 4 genes based on a fold change ≥1.5 and p≤0.05 for validation by RT-qPCR. The expression of genes ALOX5AP (involved in leukotriene synthesis), EDNRB (G protein-coupled receptor that nonspecifically binds to endothelin-1, -2 and -3, with a potential role in vasoconstriction/vasodilation and cell proliferation), ADAMDEC1 (a metalloprotease whose expression increases in dendritic cell maturation), PTGS1 (enzyme involved in prostaglandin synthesis) decreased in obese rats that received this strain. Expression of 12 genes was modified by B. breve administration. Five genes were selected and validated. ADAMDEC1, COX1, EDNRB, ALOX5AP and NAIP (the latter involved in apoptosis) expression was inhibited in this group of obese rats. L. rhamnosus feeding changed the expression of 10 genes. ADAMDEC1 gene expression decreased in this group. ADAMDEC1 and EDNRB mRNAs were overexpressed in the intestinal mucosa of obese rats that received the placebo. Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that feeding Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats with these probiotic strains modified the intestinal mucosa expression of various genes involved in different cellular processes.
    48th Annual Meeting ESPGHAN of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition; 05/2015
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-flour, Alfacar whites and Wholemeal. All breads portions were calculated to supply 50 g of available carbohydrates. In addition, 50 g of glucose was used as a reference. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare data calculated for all breads with glucose load. The GI value varied from 61 for the Wholemeal, to Alfacar 68, Ordinary 76, and 78 and 86 for the Precooked-Frozen and Candeal-flour breads, respectively. Wholemeal and Alfacar had lower GI than glucose. All tested breads had a lower GL (ranged 9 to 18) compared with glucose. Wholemeal GL was similar to Alfacar, but lower than the other white breads. InI were significantly lower for all breads (ranged 68 to 73) compared with glucose, and similar among them. The intake of the Wholemeal bread led to a higher release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide compared with the Ordinary and Precooked breads and to a higher release of pancreatic polypeptide compared with the Precooked-Frozen bread. All breads affected appetite ratings similarly. In conclusion, based on GL, the Wholemeal bread would be expected to exert a favorable glycemic response.
    Nutrients 05/2015; 7(6):4033-4053. DOI:10.3390/nu7064033 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2 Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has the ability to oxidise glucose and lipids, and dissipate energy in the form of heat. 1 Thus, it could provide one method to influence energy balance—and therefore, be a player in the fight against obesity and type 2 diabetes. BAT is highly regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to increase body temperature when mammals are exposed to cold. The heat production is mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), an inner-membrane mitochondrial protein exclusively expressed in BAT. 1 Dogma was that BAT was only present in newborns. However, radiologists using the radiotracer 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomog-raphy to detect metabolically active tumours, found competing areas in the supraclavicular, thoracic spine and neck regions with high rates of glucose uptake. The significance of BAT for human physiology was recognised in 2007. 2 Recently, another type of cells called brown-in-white (BRITE) or beige cells, in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been found. 3 BRITE cells possess a multilocular morphology, enriched mitochondria and express the brown adipocyte-specific UCP-1. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATING BAT A potential clinical implication of activating BAT relates to the stimulation of resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis. In humans, the thermogenic response to a meal is higher in those possessing BAT. It has been estimated that 50 g of activated BAT might translate to increase ∼5% of resting energy expenditure. A 5% chronic increase in resting energy expenditure turns to ∼75–100 kcal/day, which over the course of a year might translate into a loss of ∼4–4.7 kg of fat. SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2015; 49(15). DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094537 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; 113(S2):S1-S3. DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001087 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Angel Gil · Fernando Gil ·
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    ABSTRACT: Fish is an important source of energy, high-quality proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. Within lipids, n -3 long-chain PUFA ( n -3 LC PUFA), mainly EPA and DHA, play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. In contrast to the potential health benefits of dietary fish intake, certain chemical pollutants, namely heavy metals and some organic compounds, contained in seafood have emerged as an issue of concern, particularly for frequent fish consumers and sensitive groups of populations. The present review summarises the health benefits and risks of fish consumption. n -3 LC-PUFA are key compounds of cell membranes and play an important role in human health from conception through every stage of human development, maturation and ageing. DHA has a major role in the development of brain and retina during fetal development and the first 2 years of life and positively influences neurodevelopment, mainly visual acuity and cognitive functions. n -3 LC-PUFA are also effective in preventing cardiovascular events (mainly stroke and acute myocardial infarction) especially in persons with high cardiovascular risk. By contrast, there is convincing evidence of adverse neurological/neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and young children associated with methylmercury exposure during fetal development due to maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls present in contaminated fish may also develop a risk for both infants and adults. However, for major health outcomes among adults, the vast majority of epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks with the exception of a few selected species in sensitive populations.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; 113(S2):S58-S67. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514003742 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT) is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT) between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples). Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05), 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2), oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1), adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1) and inflammation (ANXA1); by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 04/2015; 16(4):7723-7737. DOI:10.3390/ijms16047723 · 2.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,162.33 Total Impact Points


  • 1982-2015
    • University of Granada
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      • • Pediatrics
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2009
    • American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
      Spanish Fork, Utah, United States
  • 2003
    • Abbott Laboratories
      North Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Chile
      • Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA)
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
    • Universidad de Salamanca
      • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      Salamanca, Castile and Leon, Spain
  • 1990-1993
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      • Department of Rheumatology
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1988
    • Hospital General de L'Hospitalet
      l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1987
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States