Adriano Carotti

Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (79)230.44 Total impact

  • Matteo Trezzi · Enrico Cetrano · Adriano Carotti ·

    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2015; 150(2):435-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.03.039 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aim was to analyze the safety and longevity of cryopreserved homografts used for primary right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (RVOTR), and to compare the outcome using either standard or bicuspidalized allografts. Between February 2000 and September 2014, a total of 53 patients underwent primary RVOTR using either a standard (n = 40) or a bicuspidalized (n = 13) cryopreserved homograft. The median age at surgery was 15.5 months (range: 1-419.06 months), and bodyweight was 8.5 kg (range: 4.1-71 kg). The median standard homograft size was 17.5 mm (range: 10-25 mm), while the median bicuspidalized homograft size was 16 mm (range: 14-22 mm). Follow up was complete in 91.4% of patients, with a median duration of 30.11 months (range: 0.26-161.26 months). Data analysis included primary diagnosis, type of surgery, age at surgery, size of conduit, need for reintervention, and survival. Predetermined primary outcomes were represented by survival and freedom from conduit reintervention. Two patients with standard cryopreserved homograft died. during the early postoperative period (3.7%). No deaths were conduit-related. The five-year survival rate and ten-year freedom from reintervention were 91% (range: 74.7-97.2%) and 53.6% (range: 97-33.2%), respectively. RV-PA conduit replacement was performed in 14 patients (26.4%) at a median interval of 44.5 months (range: 14.93-162.46 months). Among these patients, four children (30.7%) received bicuspidalized homografts, and 10 (25%) received standard homografts. Causes of reintervention were conduit stenosis in six cases (43%), severe homograft valve regurgitation in two (14.2%), conduit stenosis and homograft valve regurgitation in two (14.2%), and stenosis of distal anastomosis involving pulmonary bifurcation in four (28.6%). Univariate analyses showed a longer freedom from reintervention for bicuspidalized compared to standard homograft (p = 0.03). The results obtained suggested that bicuspidalized homograft performance compares well with that of standard allografts in terms of freedom from reintervention. Bicuspidalized homograft use is strongly indicated for primary RVOTR in small children, when a standard homograft of appropriate size is not available.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 07/2015; 24(1):83-8. · 0.75 Impact Factor
  • Matteo Trezzi · Enrico Cetrano · Antonio Albano · Adriano Carotti ·

    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 06/2015; 150(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.06.019 · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Gianluigi Perri · Sonia B Albanese · Adriano Carotti ·
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the incidence of postoperative severe airflow limitation after single-stage unifocalization in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCAs) and comment on the treatment performed. From 1994 until 2014, 118 patients with diagnosis of PA, VSD, MAPCAs underwent surgical treatment. Four patients (3.4%) developed severe airflow complications postoperatively. Chromosome 22q11 deletion was present in three of them. Median age at the time of unifocalization was 6.2 months (range 21 days to 11 months). The first patient developed malacia and compression of the left bronchus from the distal RV-PA conduit and was treated with external bronchial stenting with two incomplete costal cartilage rings. The second patient developed recurrent esophagus-left bronchus fistula treated with multiple surgical esophageal and bronchus reconstructions. The third child presented with bilateral bronchial malacia treated with bilateral stenting followed by surgical elongation of the neo-left pulmonary artery to avoid external compression. The last patient developed bilateral bronchomalacia treated with bilateral bronchial stenting followed by RV-PA conduit replacement and endobronchial stenting calibration. Particular categories of patients with PA, VSD, MAPCAs (22q11 chromosome deletion, neonates/infants, patients with dominant/exclusive collaterals) may be more predisposed to develop airway compromise. The treatment of the lesion should be individualized according to the pathogenic mechanism. We suggest endoluminal treatment in absence of compression by vascular structures while surgery was used in case of extrinsic compression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 03/2015; 30(5). DOI:10.1111/jocs.12539 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Palliative Potts shunt has been proposed in children with suprasystemic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A retrospective multicentre study was performed to assess short- and long-term outcomes after Potts shunt. From 2003 to 2014, 24 children underwent a Potts shunt [19 surgical, median age: 7.7 years (1.5-17 years), median weight: 19.5 kg (10.2-47 kg) and 5 transcatheter, median age: 8.1 years (2.3-9.7 years), median weight: 22 kg (12.5-31 kg)] for drug-refractory PAH. For the first time in humans, we performed an unidirectional valved Potts anastomosis in a child with infrasystemic PAH on intravenous epoprostenol who experienced repeated central line infections. Severe postoperative complications occurred in 6 patients (25.0%, all from the surgical group) including 3 early deaths (12.5%) related to low cardiac output. After a median follow-up (FU) of 2.1 years (range, 3 months to 14.3 years, ≥8 years in 7 patients), World Health Organization (WHO) functional class was dramatically improved in the 21 survivors, all being in WHO-functional class 1 or 2 (P < 0.05); none experienced syncope during the FU; none had overt right ventricular failure; mean 6-min walk distance improved from 42.3 ± 10.0% to 81.2 ± 9.7% of adjusted values for age and sex (P < 0.001), BNP/NT-proBNP levels normalized in all; and weaning of intravenous epoprostenol was obtained in all patients who received triple combination as pre-Potts anastomosis therapy. Finally, all survivors caught up to normal growth curves. Arterial oxygen saturation gradient between upper and lower limbs persisted at the last FU (94.7 ± 3.6% vs 81.6 ± 5.1%, P < 0.001). One patient required double lung transplantation 6 years after a surgical Potts shunt. Palliative Potts shunt allows prolonged survival and dramatic, long-lasting improvement in functional capacities in children with severe, drug-refractory PAH. The Potts shunt might be considered as a first surgical or interventional step in the management of children with severe, drug-refractory PAH, leaving the door open for further lung transplantation, if needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 12/2014; 47(3). DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezu445 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To analyze the effectiveness and the results of the use of a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system for the treatment of complex sternal wounds in newborns after cardiac surgery.Methods From May 2008 until December 2012, six patients developed post-sternotomy wound problems (large defects of epithelialization or mediastinitis), which were treated with a VAC system. Median age at the time of institution of VAC was 24.5 days (range 16 to 65 days). Median time of treatment was 14 days (range 3 to 42 days).ResultsAll patients were newborns and all underwent delayed sternal closure after cardiac surgery. The indications for using the VAC system were: mediastinitis in two patients (33.3%) and impairment of healing without signs of infection in four (66.7%). All children after VAC therapy achieved healing of the sternal wound. VAC therapy was started with high negative pressures (−125 mmHg) continuously then switched to an intermittent modality in all patients.ConclusionVAC system with high negative pressure is safe, effective, and is a well-tolerated therapy in newborns with complex sternal wounds.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 11/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1111/jocs.12463 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Children undergoing Ross operation were expected to have longer autograft, but shorter homograft durability compared with adults. In order to define the outcome in the second decade after Ross operation in children, a nationwide review of 23 years of experience was undertaken. Methods 305 children underwent Ross operation in 11 paediatric units between 1990 and 2012. Age at surgery was 9.4±5.7 years, indication aortic stenosis in 103 patients, regurgitation in 109 and mixed lesion in 93. 116 (38%) patients had prior procedures. Root replacement was performed in 201 patients, inclusion cylinder in 14, subcoronary grafting in 17 and Ross–Konno in 73. Results There were 10 (3.3%) hospital and 12 late deaths (median follow-up 8.7 years). Survival was 93±2% and 89±3% and freedom from any reoperation was 76±3% and 67±6% at 10 and 15 years. 34 children had autograft 37 reoperations (25 replacement, 12 repair): three required transplantation after reoperation. Freedom from autograft reoperation was 86±3% and 75±6% at 10 and 15 years. 32 children had right heart redo procedures, and only 25 (78%) conduit replacements (15-year freedom from replacement, 89±4%). Prior operation (p=0.031), subcoronary implant (p=0.025) and concomitant surgical procedure (p=0.004) were risk factors for left heart reoperation, while infant age (p=0.015) was for right heart. The majority (87%) of late survivors were in NYHA class I, 68% free from medication and six women had pregnancies. Conclusions Despite low hospital risk and satisfactory late survival, paediatric Ross operation bears substantial valve-related morbidity in the first two decades. Contrary to expectation, autograft reoperation is more common than homograft.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 07/2014; 100(24). DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305873 · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Gianluca Brancaccio · Fabrizio Gandolfo · Adriano Carotti ·

    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 07/2014; 148(1):363-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.03.029 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeOur aim is to compare new non-invasive imaging modalities in the evaluation of vascular ring (VR) and pulmonary artery sling (PAS) and to understand the role of bronchoscopy in comparison with them in assessing tracheobronchial tree.Methods We have retrospectively analyzed the data from 41 patients with a VR or a PAS diagnosed at Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome, between 2008 and 2012. Age, gender, presenting symptoms, clinical history, comorbidities, imaging modalities used for diagnosis (cardiac magnetic resonance [CMR], computed tomography [CT], tracheobronchoscopy [TB]) and surgical treatment were recorded.ResultsThe vascular anatomy was completely defined in all patients, whether evaluated by CMR or CT, with a diagnostic accuracy of 100% based on surgical observation. All CT exams were performed without sedation with a mean dose-length product (DLP32) of 29 ± 9 and an effective dose of 1.56 ± 0.6 mSv, range 0.5–2.5 mSv. CMR required general anesthesia in all patients but involved no exposure to ionizing radiation. CT performed better than CMR in assessing tracheal stenosis when compared to TB. It detected complete tracheal cartilage rings in 2/3 patients with PAS, besides tracheomalacia and/or bronchomalacia in 54% of patients.Conclusions Both cross-sectional imaging modalities (CT and CMR) can reliably and accurately diagnose these congenital vascular anomalies. While CT involves exposure to ionizing radiation, it avoids the risks related to anesthesia needed for CMR, and provides a more accurate assessment of tracheobronchial anatomy. TB remains a fundamental tool in tracheomalacia diagnosis in VR symptomatic patients and PAS. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 06/2014; 50(8). DOI:10.1002/ppul.23075 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haemolysis is known to occur during surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to be responsible for kidney injury. The aim of this study was to assess, in a cohort of infants, the reference levels of free haemoglobin (fHb) and their change over time postoperatively; the predicting variables of haemolysis in the intraoperative phase; and the association between fHb and renal function. A retrospective analysis in infants undergoing surgery on CPB was conducted. Children with preoperative renal dysfunction and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support were excluded. fHb was sampled before and after CPB and on the first 2 postoperative days (POD). Twenty-two patients with a median (interquartile) age of 111 (63-184) days and Aristotle score of 8 (6.4-9) were enrolled. fHb had a baseline value of 29 (24-41) mg/dl, peaked to 75 (65-109) mg/dl at CPB weaning and returned to 35 (30-55) mg/dl on POD 2 (P <0.0001). The median normalized index of haemolysis was 0.15 (0.09-0.19) g of fHb per 100 l of pumped blood. A multivariable regression model showed that, at CPB weaning, fHb levels were independently associated with left atrial venting flow (P = 0.02), and that CPB time remained the only independent variable (P = 0.034), when left atrial venting was excluded from the analysis. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 10 patients (45%). fHb levels in the 48 post-CPB hours were not significantly different between AKI and non-AKI patients: However, a significant correlation was present between creatinine on POD1 and CPBw-fHb (r = 0.48; P = 0.045); and between cystatin C on POD1 and CPBw-fHb (r = 0.58; P = 0.02). A high rate of fHb is released during paediatric surgery with CPB in infants. fHb mainly depends on the left atrial venting flow rate and CPB duration. However, such peaks of fHb levels were not associated with renal dysfunction.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 05/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu129 · 1.16 Impact Factor

  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 05/2014; 15:125. DOI:10.1097/01.pcc.0000449275.46876.5d · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical manifestations at diagnosis and during follow-up in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome to better define the natural history of the disease. A retrospective and prospective multicenter study was conducted with 228 patients in the context of the Italian Network for Primary Immunodeficiencies. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by cytogenetic or molecular analysis. The cohort consisted of 112 males and 116 females; median age at diagnosis was 4 months (range 0 to 36 years 10 months). The diagnosis was made before 2 years of age in 71% of patients, predominantly related to the presence of heart anomalies and neonatal hypocalcemia. In patients diagnosed after 2 years of age, clinical features such as speech and language impairment, developmental delay, minor cardiac defects, recurrent infections, and facial features were the main elements leading to diagnosis. During follow-up (available for 172 patients), the frequency of autoimmune manifestations (P = .015) and speech disorders (P = .002) increased. After a median follow-up of 43 months, the survival probability was 0.92 at 15 years from diagnosis. Our data show a delay in the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with noncardiac symptoms. This study provides guidelines for pediatricians and specialists for early identification of cases that can be confirmed by genetic testing, which would permit the provision of appropriate clinical management.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2014; 164(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.01.056 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Enrico Cetrano · Angelo Polito · Adriano Carotti ·
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    ABSTRACT: An intrapericardial vacuolated mass compressing and displacing the heart was diagnosed by echocardiography in a foetus of 22 weeks gestation. The birth was induced for early signs of foetal distress at 29 weeks and, after two initial pericardial evacuation procedures, the tumour was resected radically 7 days after birth at a weight of 1.55 kg. Mass histology showed teratoma associated with yolk sac tumour. We comment on the overall approach adopted after foetal diagnosis and the histopathological features of the tumour, and try to draw conclusions on patient outcome data.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2014; 25(01):1-3. DOI:10.1017/S1047951113002187 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2014; 16(Suppl 1):P125. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-16-S1-P125 · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • G. Perri · A. Polito · S. Albanese · E. Cetrano · A. Toscano · A. Carotti ·

    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 09/2013; 17(suppl 2):S145-S145. DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivt372.311 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bleeding during and after cardiac surgery is a major issue in pediatric patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a commercially available prothrombin complex (Confidex) administered in cardiac surgery after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass of infants with nonsurgical bleeding. In this study, 14 patients younger than 1 year received a Confidex bolus and were matched with 11 patients of a similar age who did not receive the drug. The preoperative coagulation profile was similar in the two groups. No side effects, including anaphylaxis or thrombotic events, were observed. The numbers of units of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma administered both intra- and postoperatively were similar. The postoperative coagulation examination results and thromboelastographic parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, the Confidex patients bled significantly less than the control subjects during the first 24 postoperative hours. The median volume of drained blood was 0.0 ml/kg h (range 0-1.9 ml/kg h) compared with 1.9 ml/kg h (range 1-3 ml/kg h) (p = 0.009). At least one unit of packed red blood cells in the postoperative phase was required by 2 patients (14 %) in the Confidex group and six patients (54 %) in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.9; p = 0.03). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (range 2-4 days) in the Confidex group and 4 days (range 0-8 days) in the control group (p = 0.66). The median stay in the intensive care unit was 6 days (range 5-9 days) in the Confidex group and 7 days (range 4-12 days) in the control group (p = 0.88). The use of Confidex for infants undergoing cardiac surgery was safe and effective. It reduced postoperative bleeding and allowed fewer units of packed red blood cells to be infused in the postoperative phase without major side effects.
    Pediatric Cardiology 07/2013; 35(2). DOI:10.1007/s00246-013-0760-y · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of right aortic arch with aberrant left brachiocephalic artery and aortic coarctation is very rare. Here, we report the case of a 3.1-kg neonate with multiple malformations who received detailed preoperative anatomical definition by chest computed tomography (CT) scan and eventually underwent one-stage repair at the age of 17 days. The surgical technique included left brachiocephalic artery detachment and its end-to-end anastomosis to the branch of a monofurcated pulmonary homograft used to treat the aortic arch coarctation simultaneously. Postoperative control chest CT scan performed 3 months postoperatively revealed optimal repair. Considerations on imaging and surgical technique are reported.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 05/2013; 17(2). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivt213 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Modified ultrafiltration is commonly used in pediatric cardiac surgery. Although its clinical benefits are currently debated, modified ultrafiltration has proved to improve mean arterial pressure in the first postoperative hours. Aim of our study was to measure cardiac index, stroke volume index, and mean arterial pressure modification before and after modified ultrafiltration by means of Pressure Recording Analytical Method. DESIGN:: Single-center prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:: Pediatric cardiac surgery operating room. PATIENTS:: Children below 20 kg that are included in the "pediatric" mode of Pressure Recording Analytical Method. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Forty patients were enrolled in this study. Median age, weight, and body surface area at surgery were 3 months (interquartile range, 10 days to 3.5 years), 5.6 (3.1-15) kg, and 0.31 (0.21-0.56), respectively. During the modified ultrafiltration procedure, a median volume of 17 mL/kg (11-25) was ultrafiltered and a median volume of 11 mL/kg (6-17) was reinfused with a median final modified ultrafiltration balance of -0.15 mL/kg (-4.0 to 0.1). By univariate analyses, there was a 10% increase in postmodified ultrafiltration mean, systolic and diastolic pressures (p = 0.01), stroke volume index (p = 0.02), and cardiac index (p = 0.001) without significant changes in heart rate, central (left and right) venous pressures, stroke volume variation, and inotropic score. By multivariate analysis, when controlling for cardiopulmonary bypass time and age at surgery, cardiac index variation was independently associated with lower preoperative body surface area (beta coefficient -5.5, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:: According to Pressure Recording Analytical Method assessment, modified ultrafiltration acutely improves myocardial function, as shown by a 10% increase of systemic arterial pressure, stroke volume index, and cardiac index. This effect is more pronounced in smaller sized patients.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 04/2013; DOI:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31828a7113 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Fabrizio Gandolfo · Sergio Filippelli · Enrico Cetrano · Adriano Carotti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Injury of structures, leading to a major bleeding during chest opening, is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication, especially in redo cardiac surgery, both in adults and children. In three paediatric redo operations performed via midline sternotomy, we managed this complication successfully and uneventfully by using an inflated Fogarty catheter to plug the blood leak from the injured vessel before repairing the lesion under direct vision in a bloodless surgical field. Herein we report in detail the technique used and a comment on our experience.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 03/2013; 17(1). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivt084 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To analyse the factors associated with in-hospital mortality and mid-term significant neoaortic valve regurgitation (AR) after truncal valve (TV) repair.METHODS Eleven children underwent TV repair at our institution from July 1999 to March 2012. All children presented significant preoperative TV regurgitation. Valve anatomy was quadricuspid in 7 (64%) patients and tricuspid in 4 (36%). The median age and weight at surgery were 29.6 (range 0.3-173.2) months and 12 (range 2.2-49) kg, respectively. Repair included bicuspidalization through the approximation of two leaflets associated with triangular resection of the opposite one (n = 2, 18%), or either bicuspidalization or tricuspidalization of the TV through excision of one leaflet and related sinus of Valsalva (n = 9, 82%). In 3 patients, repair was associated with coronary detachment before cusp removal, followed by coronary reimplantation.RESULTSIn-hospital death occurred in 2 (18%) patients. Factors associated with hospital mortality were age <1year (P = 0.05), weight <3 kg (P = 0.02) and longer cross-clamping time (P = 0.008). Follow-up was complete for all patients [median follow-up time: 52.2 (range 132.2-2.5) months]. Mid-term significant AR occurred in 4 patients (45%, moderate in 2 and severe in 2). One with severe AR underwent successful valve replacement 4 months postoperatively, leading to freedom from reintervention of 91%. Freedom from significant AR was 76.2 (33.2-93.5) and 60.9 (20.2-85.6) at 1 and 2 years, respectively. There was a trend towards longer freedom from mid-term significant AR for patients who underwent cusp removal compared with those who did not (P = 0.07).CONCLUSIONTV repair in children can be performed safely with fairly good and durable results. Cusp removal might decrease the rate of severe AR on mid-term follow-up.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 03/2013; 16(6). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivt098 · 1.16 Impact Factor