[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An open-labeled randomized trial with parallel groups was carried out to study the effects of Dif1stat (Monascus purpureus-Linear aliphatic alcohols-Niacin) in the treatment of primary moderate hypercholesterolemia. The trial lasted 8 months. The patients, males and females, were assigned to two groups: A (#130), treated with diet, and B (#110) submitted to diet + Dif1stat. After 4 months, group A did not show significant changes in Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDLC), HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) or non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDLC). The same group, showed a reduction in TC (-22%), LDLC (-30%) and non-HDLC (-27%) after 8 months (P < or = 0.001). After 4 months, TC (-21.3%), LDLC (-29%), and non-HDLC (-26%) were significantly lowered in group B (P < or = 0.001). In group B, TC, LDLC and non-HDLC showed a further reduction after 8 months: -29.4, -38 and -37%, respectively (P < or = 0.001). Even triglycerides (TG) decreased significantly (-33%) (P < or = 0.001). After 8 months, group B showed a significant reduction of TG (-33%) (P < or = 0.001), when compared to group A. Some safety parameters were significantly reduced in both groups: AST and gamma-GT in group A after 4 and 8 months, as well as ALT, AST and gamma-GT in group B after 8 months (P < or = 0.001). Dif1stat, given with a suitable diet, was well tolerated in the long-term and induced an anti-atherogenic plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile, in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the favorable effects of reduction of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease, many patients treated with lipid-lowering HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) do not achieve goal LDL-C levels. This may be due to high doses of statins prescribed that could potentially induce adverse effects and compromise patient safety and compliance with considerable expense in the long-term. We compared the actions of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin, administered at the low dosages of 10 and 20 mg/day, respectively, in reducing plasma LDL-C levels and their effects on other components of the atherogenic lipid profile in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia.
In this randomized, parallel group, open-label clinical study, 106 patients with LDL-C >200 mg/dL were treated with rosuvastatin 10 mg/day (group A; n = 52), or atorvastatin 20 mg/day (group B; n = 54) for 48 weeks.
At 48 weeks, rosuvastatin 10 mg/day was associated with a significantly greater reduction in plasma LDL-C levels compared with atorvastatin 20 mg/day (-44.32% vs -30%; p < 0.005). Compared with atorvastatin, rosuvastatin also produced a greater reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels (p < 0.005). Plasma HDL-C levels were not affected significantly, independent of the drug used.
In high-risk patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, rosuvastatin 10 mg/day was more efficacious than atorvastatin 20 mg/day in reducing plasma LDL-C levels, enabling goal LDL-C levels to be achieved and improving other lipid parameters. Both treatments were well tolerated over 48 weeks.
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 01/2008; 8(4):265-70. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the long-term (12 months) efficacy and safety of fenofibrate administered with simvastatin in the treatment of primary mixed hyperlipidaemia, we conducted a study that compared increasing dosages of these drugs in subgroups of men and women belonging to a clinical sample of out-patients.
This was an open study carried out in patients with primary mixed hyperlipidaemia (lipoprotein phenotype IIb) who needed a combined therapeutic approach because of their poor response to a single-drug regimen with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (simvastatin). Thus, a fibrate (fenofibrate) was added to the therapy. The study lasted 12 months.
Forty-five patients (mean age: 58.9 +/- 11.3 years) with primary mixed hyperlipidaemia who showed a poor response to the single-drug hypolipidaemic treatment were enrolled. Their average plasma triglyceride level was consistently above 300 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was over 160 mg/dL after at least 6 months of a single hypolipidaemic drug (simvastatin) regimen plus antiatherogenic dietary treatment.
Five patients received simvastatin 10mg once daily in addition to fenofibrate 200mg; 26 patients received simvastatin 20mg once daily plus fenofibrate 200mg; 11 patients received simvastatin 20mg once daily plus fenofibrate 300mg; and three patients received simvastatin 30mg once daily plus fenofibrate 200mg. The patients were allocated to treatment groups on the basis of their relative response to the therapy. Those making up the progressively higher agent/dose groups were the individuals at higher cardiovascular risk according to the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values.
The double-drug regimen given for 12 months to four different groups, according to the different combined dosages of simvastatin and fenofibrate, resulted in a reduction in total cholesterol of 18% (p </= 0.05) to 39% (p </= 0.05), in LDL-C of 21% (not significant) to 39% (p </= 0.05) and in triglycerides of 35% (p </= 0.05) to 56% (p </= 0.01), and an increase in HDL-C of 8% (p </= 0.05) to 30% (not significant). The cardiovascular risk ratio (total cholesterol/HDL-C) at the end of the study was reduced by 33-60%, whereas the non-HDL-C decreased by 25-38%. No serious adverse effects were reported by the patients. Neither liver biochemistry nor creatine kinase serum concentration were significantly changed. Discontinuation of treatment, if necessary, in case of the occurrence of clinically subjective or objective evidence of adverse effects was assured.
The results confirmed the efficacy of the combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin. The combined therapeutic approach was shown to be safe for the treatment of primary mixed hyperlipidaemia, at least in patients with normal hepatic and renal function.
Clinical Drug Investigation 02/2004; 24(8):465-77. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this short-term open label clinical pilot study, conducted at one center, the immune complex dextran sulphate adsorber (Selesorb) was used to treat four female patients aged 59-69 with HCV-related cryoglobulinaemia, vasculitis and/or neuropathy. The primary trial objective was to assess the clinical efficacy of the immunoadsorber. The secondary objective of the trial was to determine the safety of the adsorber and to investigate the adsorption capacity, measured as the adsorption of cryoglobulin-related immune complexes and the resulting influence on plasma components of the immune system. The patients have been submitted to treatment with the immunoadsorber, at approximately 1-3 days intervals, completing six sessions. The follow-up was one month. In the patients treated with Selesorb, we observed a statistically significant decrease in plasma of all classes of immunoglobulins (IgA: 5-28%; IgG: 14-44%; IgM: 8-38%). In two patients with peripheral neuropathy secondary to cryoglobulinemia, the symptomatology was improved. In a third patient the neurological involvement was substantially unchanged, and the same unsuccessful outcome was observed for Sjögren syndrome is concerned. Nevertheless, the two patients with lower extremity vasculitis showed an appreciable improvement. We failed to observe significant side effects directly related to the use of this immunoadsorbent.
Transfusion and Apheresis Science 07/2003; 28(3):207-14. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although white coat hypertension has been widely studied in the last years, its risk profile is not yet completely clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating homocysteine levels, an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, in subjects with white coat and sustained hypertension. We selected 31 sustained hypertensive subjects, 31 white coat hypertensive subjects and 31 normotensive subjects matched for age, gender, body mass index and occupation. Women were also matched for menopausal status. Subjects with smoking habit, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. White coat hypertension was defined as clinical hypertension and daytime ambulatory blood pressure <135/85 mmHg. Blood samples were drawn after a fasting period of 12 h for routine laboratory tests and homocysteine determination. Homocysteine levels were evaluated by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Creatinine, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were not different among the groups. White coat hypertensive subjects had significantly lower homocysteine levels than sustained hypertensive patients (8.2+/-2.0 vs 12.6+/-3.9 micromol/l, P=0.0003). No significant difference was observed between white coat hypertensive and normotensive subjects regarding this parameter (8.2+/-2.0 vs 7.6+/-1.9 micromol/l, P=0.9). In conclusion, our data show that middle-aged white coat hypertensive subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors have lower circulating homocysteine levels than sustained hypertensive patients suggesting that they are at lower cardiovascular risk.
Journal of Human Hypertension 03/2003; 17(3):165-70. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the dietary intake of extra virgin olive oil on the oxidative susceptibility of low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from the plasma of hyperlipidemic patients. Ten patients with combined hyperlipidemia (mean plasma cholesterol 281 mg/dL, triglycerides 283 mg/dL) consumed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, with olive oil (20 g/d) as the only added fat, with no drug or vitamin supplementation for 6 wk. Then they were asked to replace the olive oil they usually consumed with extra virgin olive oil for 4 wk. LDL were isolated at the beginning, and after the 4 wk of dietary treatment. LDL susceptibility to CuSO4-mediated oxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation. We also determined fatty acid composition and vitamin E in plasma and LDL and plasma phenolic content. Extra virgin olive oil intake did not affect fatty acid composition of LDL but significantly reduced the copper-induced formation of LDL hydroperoxides and lipoperoxidation end products as well as the depletion of LDL linoleic and arachidonic acid. A significant increase in the lag phase of conjugated diene formation was observed after dietary treatment. These differences are statistically correlated with the increase in plasma phenolic content observed at the end of the treatment with extra virgin olive oil; they are not correlated with LDL fatty acid composition or vitamin E content, which both remained unmodified after the added fat change. This report suggests that the daily intake of extra virgin olive oil in hyperlipidemic patients could reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, not only because of its high monounsaturated fatty acid content but probably also because of the antioxidative activity of its phenolic compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of consumption of a yoghurt-based drink enriched with 1-2 g plant sterols/d on serum lipids, transaminases, vitamins and hormone status in patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a low-fat low-lactose yoghurt-based drink enriched with 1 g plant sterol extracted from soyabean/d v. a low-fat low-lactose yoghurt, for a period of 4 weeks. After a 2-week wash-out period, patients were crossed over for an additional 4-week period. Second, after a 4-week wash-out period, eleven patients were treated with 2 g plant sterols/d in a second open part of the study for a period of 8 weeks. The yoghurt enriched with plant sterols significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P<0.001), whereas no changes were observed in HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, either in the first or the second part of the study. There were only slight, not statistically significant, differences in serum transaminase, vitamin and hormone levels. To conclude, a low-fat yoghurt-based drink moderately enriched with plant sterols may lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol effectively in patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolaemia.
British Journal Of Nutrition 09/2001; 86(2):233-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the relationships among circulating levels of an endogenous ouabain-like factor (EO) and systemic hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) geometry in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. We selected 92 never-treated patients with essential hypertension. Blood samples were drawn for estimation of plasma EO (radioimmunoassay) and subjects underwent echocardiographic examination to evaluate LV end-systolic and end-diastolic wall thickness and internal dimensions. LV volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, LV mass, and relative wall thickness were calculated, and all except the last parameter were indexed by body surface area. LV mass also was indexed by height. On the basis of the values of LV mass index (body surface area or height) and relative wall thickness, subjects were divided into groups with either normal geometry, concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy, or eccentric nondilated hypertrophy. In the study population as a whole, circulating EO levels were significantly and directly correlated with mean blood pressure (r = 0.21, P = .048), relative wall thickness (r = 0.34, P = .001), and total peripheral resistance index (r = 0.37, P = .0003). Plasma EO also was significantly and inversely correlated with LV end-diastolic volume index (r = -0.32, P = .002), stroke index (r = -0.34, P = .0009), and cardiac index (r = -0.35, P = .0007). In multiple regression analysis, plasma EO was an independent correlate of total peripheral resistance index, cardiac index, and relative wall thickness. Regardless of the indexation method used for LV mass, plasma EO was higher in patients with concentric remodeling than in those with either normal geometry or concentric hypertrophy. Plasma EO tended to be higher (indexation by body surface area) or was significantly higher (indexation by height) in subjects with concentric remodeling than in those with eccentric nondilated hypertrophy. Patients with concentric remodeling showed the highest total peripheral resistance index and the lowest cardiac index. Our data suggest that EO plays a role in regulating systemic hemodynamics and LV geometry in patients with essential hypertension.
American Journal of Hypertension 02/2001; 14(1):44-50. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether "white coat" hypertension, also known as isolated clinic hypertension, shares similarities in pathophysiologic background with sustained hypertension. Therefore we evaluated 24-hour autonomic nervous function in sustained and white coat hypertension.
We selected 12 patients with sustained hypertension (clinic blood pressure >/=140/90 mm Hg and daytime blood pressure >135/85 mm Hg) and 12 patients with white coat hypertension (clinic blood pressure >/=140/90 mm Hg and daytime blood pressure <135/85 mm Hg) from patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 12 normotensives for study inclusion. Groups were matched for age, sex, and body mass index and had similar dietary pattern and occupational status (civil servants with sedentary jobs). Subjects underwent noninvasive 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure, R-R interval of the electrocardiogram, body position, activity rate, and ambient temperature. Power spectral analysis of R-R intervals was performed with an autoregressive model to obtain the low-frequency component, the high-frequency component, and their ratio. Subjects also collected 24-hour urine samples for examination of norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Work and sleep time, body position, ambient temperature, and activity were not different among the groups. Daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour low-frequency/high-frequency ratios were significantly higher in patients with sustained hypertension than in patients with white coat hypertension (3.4 +/- 0.45 vs 2.65 +/- 0.45, 2.35 +/- 0.60 vs 1. 82 +/- 0.45, and 3.04 +/- 0.45 vs 2.4 +/- 0.35, respectively, P <. 05). Urinary norepinephrine excretion (53 +/- 12 microg vs 29.5 +/- 6 microg; P <.05) and vanillylmandelic acid excretion (4.45 +/- 0.6 mg vs 3.1 +/- 0.55 mg; P <.05) during the 24 hours were significantly higher in patients with sustained hypertension than in those with white coat hypertension. There was no difference between those with white coat hypertension and normotensives concerning the aforementioned parameters.
Our findings indicate whole-day sympathetic overactivity in sustained hypertension but not in white coat hypertension, suggesting that these conditions show some differences in pathophysiologic background.
American heart journal 10/2000; 140(4):672-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate heart rate (HR) in hypertensive patients treated with ace-inhibitors (AI) and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (CA). We selected 232 hypertensives treated with AI and 135 hypertensives treated with CA who underwent clinic BP and HR recording and noninvasive ambulatory BP and HR monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207) at baseline and during treatment. Groups were balanced for gender (105 men and 127 women vs 63 men and 72 women), age (58 ± 10 yrs vs 57 ± 9 yrs), body mass index (27.7 ± 3.8 kg/m2 vs 27.8 ± 3.5 kg/m2) and baseline BP values and had a similar occupational status. Smokers were excluded from the study. Work, home and sleep time were not different among the groups as well as coffee consumption and body position at the time of recording (as reported by the subjects). Main data are shown in the table:AI and CA had a similar effect on BP values. HR was reduced in patients treated with AI and was not modified in those treated with CA. Accumulating evidence indicates that HR is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, our data suggest that AI could have a better impact on the global risk profile of hypertensive patients. Dihydropyridine CA, however, do not increase HR during treatment.
Journal of Hypertension 01/2000; 13(4). · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate heart rate (HR) in sustained and white coat hypertension. We selected 205 sustained hypertensives (SHs, clinic BP≥140 and/or 90 mmHg and daytime BP>135 and/or 85 mmHg), 205 white coat hypertensives (WCHs, clinic BP≥140 and/or 90 mmHg and daytime BP
American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/2000; 13(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether left ventricular concentric remodeling (CR) is a homogeneous pattern in patients with essential hypertension. We selected 174 normal subjects (87 men and 87 women, age 50 ± 15 yrs) who had been submitted to echocardiographic examination and generated scatter plots by regressing body surface area (BSA) on left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDD) and combined wall thickness (CWT, IVST + PWT) for each gender. The 95% prediction interval of LVDD and CWT for individuals for a given value of BSA was calculated. Among our patients who had been submitted to echocardiographic examination we selected 346 hypertensives with CR. Left ventricular CR was defined as relative wall thickness (RWT, CWT/LVDD) > 45% and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) < 125 g/m2 in men and < 110 g/m2 in women. Patients with CWT values above the 95% prediction interval of normal subjects were considered to have increased CWT and those with LVDD values below the 95% prediction interval (5th percentile) were considered to have reduced LVDD. Thus, among patients with CR we identified three groups: those with normal CWT and reduced LVDD (A), those with increased CWT and reduced LVDD (B) and those with increased CWT and normal LVDD (C). Main data are reported in the table:The present data show that CR is not a homogeneous geometric pattern being the result of different aspects of CWT and LVDD. LVMI which is an important risk marker was significantly different among the groups and LVMI values were on an average 30 g/m2 higher in group C than in group A. Thus, our findings also suggest that prognosis could be different among patients with CR.
American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/2000; 13(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant vitamins E and C were investigated in dipper (nocturnal blood pressure fall > 10%) and nondipper (nocturnal blood pressure fall < 10%) hypertensives. We studied 40 dippers and 28 nondippers balanced for gender, age, and body mass index. Blood samples were drawn for lipid profile determination, assessment of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and fluorescent products of lipid peroxidation in native low-density lipoprotein, evaluation of susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro (lag phase and propagation rate), and determination of low-density lipoprotein vitamin E and plasma vitamins E and C contents. Compared with dippers, nondippers had significantly higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and fluorescent products of lipid peroxidation (0.63 +/- 0.1 v 0.77 +/- 0.08 nmol malondialdehyde/mg low-density lipoprotein protein, and 14.5 +/- 6 v 17.9 +/- 4 units of relative fluorescence/mg low-density lipoprotein protein, respectively, both P < .05), shorter lag phase (56 +/- 13 v 49 +/- 9 min, P < .05), and lower plasma vitamin C content (42 +/- 9 v 35 +/- 10 micromol/L, P < .05). When gender was taken into account, differences were not significant between dipper and nondipper men, whereas, compared with dipper women, nondipper women showed significantly higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and fluorescent products of lipid peroxidation (0.56 +/- 0.1 v 0.77 +/- 0.07 nmol malondialdehyde/mg low-density lipoprotein protein, and 12.5 +/- 4 v 17.5 +/- 4.6 units of relative fluorescence/mg low-density lipoprotein protein, respectively, both P < .05), shorter lag phase (62.5 +/- 11 v 49 +/- 9.5 min, P < .05), and lower plasma vitamin C content (44.9 +/- 10 v 34.7 +/- 10.8 micromol/L, P < .05). Given the role of low-density lipoprotein oxidation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and that of vitamin C in protecting against it, our data suggest that nondippers, especially among women, show higher atherogenic risk than dippers.
American Journal of Hypertension 04/1999; 12(4 Pt 1):356-63. · 3.67 Impact Factor