[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of glucagon, adrenalin or rapamycin on glycogen autophagy in the liver and heart of newborn rats were studied using biochemical determinations and electron microscopy. Glucagon or adrenalin increased autophagic activity in the hepatocytes and myocardiocytes, glycogen-hydrolyzing acid glucosidase activity in the liver and heart and degradation of glycogen inside the autophagic vacuoles. Glucagon or adrenalin also increased the maltose-hydrolyzing acid glucosidase activity in the liver, but not in the heart. Similar effects were produced in the newborn heart by rapamycin. These observations support previous studies suggesting that the cellular machinery which controls glycogen autophagy in the liver and heart of newborn animals, is regulated by the cyclic AMP and the mTOR pathways.
Histology and histopathology 08/2005; 20(3):689-96. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The localization of acid mannose 6-phosphatase activity in newborn rat hepatocytes was demonstrated at the electron microscopic level by using a histochemical method based on the work of Robinson and Karnovsky. Reaction product was virtually restricted to the lysosomes. Most of them exhibited various grades of reactivity. Some were devoid of activity. Our observations suggested that this histochemical method could be used to differentiate distinct subpopulations of lysosomes on the basis of their acid mannose 6-phosphatase activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of rapamycin on glycogen autophagy in the newborn rat liver were studied using biochemical determinations, electron microscopy, and morphometric analysis. Rapamycin increased the fractional volume of hepatocytic autophagic vacuoles, the liver lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing activity of acid glucosidase, the degradation of glycogen inside the autophagic vacuoles, and decreased the activity of acid mannose 6-phosphatase. These findings suggest that rapamycin, a known inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, induces glycogen autophagy in the newborn rat hepatocytes. mTOR may participate in the regulation of this process.
Microscopy Research and Technique 03/2004; 63(4):215-9. DOI:10.1002/jemt.20032 · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of propranolol on the glycogen autophagy in newborn rat hepatocytes were studied by using biochemical determinations, electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Propranolol lowered the liver cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity. It also decreased the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-inhibitable Ca2+-ATPase activity including lysosomal calcium uptake pump. The normal postnatal increase in the volume of autophagic vacuoles and the activity of acid glycogen-hydrolyzing alpha glucosidase were inhibited. Also, the degradation of glycogen inside the autophagic vacuoles was apparently inhibited. The activity of acid mannose 6-phosphatase was increased. These findings indicate that propranolol influences several steps in the sequence of events leading to the breakdown of glycogen in the autophagic vacuoles of newborn rat hepatocytes. This supports our previous studies suggesting that cyclic AMP regulates glycogen autophagy.
Histology and histopathology 08/2003; 18(3):811-8. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of agents that could manipulate the lysosomal calcium such as phorbol myristate acetate, ionophore A23187, and phentolamine on the lysosomal glycogen degradation were studied by electron microscopy, morphometric analysis, and biochemical assays in newborn rat hepatocytes. Phorbol myristate acetate, which promotes the input of calcium to lysosomes, increased the total volume of autophagic vacuoles and the activity of lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing acid alpha 1,4 glucosidase and decreased the fractional volume of undigested glycogen inside the autophagic vacuoles and also decreased the activity of acid mannose 6-phosphatase. Ionophore A23187, which releases lysosomal calcium, produced opposite results in these enzyme activities. Phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent which interferes with the generation of phosphoinositides and may activate the lysosomal calcium uptake pump, increased the total volume of autophagic vacuoles and the activity of lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing acid glucosidase and decreased the fractional volume of undigested glycogen inside the autophagic vacuoles. The results of this study constitute evidence that changes in lysosomal calcium may influence certain aspects of autophagy, including the degradation of glycogen inside the autophagic vacuoles. They also support our previous postulate [Kalamidas and Kotoulas (2000a,b) Histol Histopathol 15:29-35, 1011-1018] that stimulation of autophagic mechanisms in newborn rat hepatocytes may be associated with acid mannose 6-phosphatase activity-deficient lysosomes.
Microscopy Research and Technique 06/2002; 57(6):507-11. DOI:10.1002/jemt.10104 · 1.15 Impact Factor