[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical assessment and management of sleep disturbances in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia has important clinical and social implications. Poor sleep results in an increased risk of morbidities and mortality in demented patients and is a source of stress for caregivers. Sleep disturbances show high prevalence in mild cognitive impairment and dementia patients and they are often associated one to another in the same patient. A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of individuals with cognitive decline. The Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) reviewed evidence from original research articles, meta-analyses and systematic reviews published up to December 2013. The evidence was classified in quality levels (I, II, III) and strength of recommendations (A, B, C, D, E). Where there was a lack of evidence, but clear consensus, good practice points were provided. These recommendations may not be appropriate for all circumstances and should therefore be adopted only after a patient's individual characteristics have been carefully evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported a genetic association between the 73 G/A polymorphism within exon 1 of the cystatin C gene and Alzheimer's disease (AD) with conflicting results. To further investigate the proposed association and to clarify the role of CST3 as risk factor for AD, we analyzed the genotype and allele frequency distribution of CST3 G73A and apolipoprotein (ApoE) gene polymorphisms in 243 Italian patients with AD and 186 controls. Patients with AD were consecutively collected among the outpatients from the Neurology Department at the University of Florence. All 429 subjects were genotyped for CST3 and ApoE polymorphisms. After stratification according to age, the GG frequency resulted slightly higher in younger (<65 years) cases, but far from statistically significant. There was also no evidence of a statistical interaction between CST3 and ApoE polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data suggest that the CST3 genetic variant is not a susceptibility factor in AD, nor mitigate the effect of the ApoE varepsilon4 allele in the risk of developing AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent study has shown that a genetic variation in the Cathepsin D (catD) gene is a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CatD is an intracellular aspartyl protease involved in neurodegeneration. A C-->T (Ala-->Val) transition at position 224 has been associated with altered intracellular maturation. Recently, a significant overrepresentation of the T allele of the catD gene in AD patients compared with controls was reported. However, this finding has not yet been confirmed. We analyzed the distribution of catD and apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in Italian patients with sporadic and familial AD (FAD). Our studies revealed that the distribution of catD polymorphism did not differ in AD and FAD patients and controls. Thus, our data do not support a role for the catD gene as a genetic risk factor in the development of AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to analyze the segregation of the 102T/C polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene in patients affected by sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) with and without psychotic symptoms.
The polymorphism was analyzed in 275 subjects. A semistructured interview was used to obtain information about delusions, hallucinations, and other specific behavioral signs occurring during the disease.
Fifty-two percent of AD patients with psychotic symptoms were homozygous for the C102 allele, as compared with 6.9% of AD patients without psychosis. Similarly, the C102/C102 genotype was significantly more frequent in FAD patients with psychosis than in FAD patients without (46.5% vs. 7.8%).
Our data strongly confirm and extend to FAD previous studies suggesting that the genetic variation at this locus is associated with prominent psychotic features in AD and that the 102C allele could play an important role in late-onset AD.