A B Begovich

Celera, Alameda, California, United States

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Publications (137)1037.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim Recent data show that DP matching plays an important role in hematopoietic cell transplantation. Our previous work demonstrated that in European Americans haplotypic associations for the DP heterodimer are determined by near complete linkage disequilibrium between amino acid motifs on DPA1 (pos 31) and DPB1 (pos 85–87). We aimed to generate motif and allele-level haplotype frequencies (HF) for four race groups to extend these insights to minorities. Methods We calculated DPA1∼DPB1 HF at allele and motif level from 16,802 Be the Match Registry® members typed by DNA methods, resolving phase, allelic and motif ambiguity using expectation maximization. Motif frequencies were calculated for position 31 on DPA1 and positions 85–87 on DPB1, which play a critical role in the P1 pocket of the peptide binding region. Normalized linkage disequilibrium (LD) was calculated on each haplotype (D′) and globally (Wn) for each population. Results The top three allele-level haplotypes in all populations account for over 66% of the HF, with DPA1∗01:03∼∼DPB1∗04:01 most common in the Caucasian (CAU), Asian Pacific Islander (API) and Hispanic (HIS) populations and DPA1∗02:02∼∼DPB1∗01:01 in the African American (AFA) population. Wn for DPA1∼DPB1 allele associations for CAU, HIS, API, and AFA populations was .55, .45, .49, and .52 respectively. At the motif level there were only four possible haplotypes. M∼∼GPM and Q∼∼EAV were the two most common in every population. M∼∼ GPM was the most common in CAU, HIS and API with frequencies 69%, 68% and 56% respectively, with D′ = 0.97 for CAU (complete LD). The most common haplotype for AFA was Q∼∼ EAV, at 48% and D′ = .99. Conclusions Low global LD was observed at the allele level for all populations. However, at the motif level haplotypes were in near complete LD suggesting that for the DPA1∼∼DPB1 heterodimer the unit of selection for all populations is the combined amino acid motif rather than the allele, as previously observed in European Americans.
    Human Immunology. 01/2014; 75(6):491.
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    ABSTRACT: To gain further insight into the genetic architecture of psoriasis, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 2 independent data sets genotyped on the Immunochip, including 10,588 cases and 22,806 controls. We identified 15 new susceptibility loci, increasing to 36 the number associated with psoriasis in European individuals. We also identified, using conditional analyses, five independent signals within previously known loci. The newly identified loci shared with other autoimmune diseases include candidate genes with roles in regulating T-cell function (such as RUNX3, TAGAP and STAT3). Notably, they included candidate genes whose products are involved in innate host defense, including interferon-mediated antiviral responses (DDX58), macrophage activation (ZC3H12C) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling (CARD14 and CARM1). These results portend a better understanding of shared and distinctive genetic determinants of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and emphasize the importance of the skin in innate and acquired host defense.
    Nature Genetics 11/2012; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The increased risk of thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may be partially explained by interrelated genetic pathways for thrombosis and SLE. We investigated whether 33 established and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 20 genes involved in hemostasis pathways that have been associated with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the general population were risk factors for SLE among Asians. METHODS: Patients in the discovery cohort were enrolled in one of two North American SLE cohorts. Patients in the replication cohort were enrolled in one of four Asian or two North American cohorts. We first genotyped 263 Asian SLE and 357 healthy Asian control individuals for 33 SNPs in the discovery phase, and then genotyped 5 SNPs in up to an additional 1496 cases and 993 controls in the replication phase. Patients were compared to controls for bivariate association with minor alleles. Principal components analysis was used to control for intra-Asian ancestry in the replication cohort. RESULTS: Two genetic variants in the gene VKORC1 were highly significant in both the discovery and replication cohorts: rs9934438 OR((disc)) 2.45 (p=2x10(-9) ), OR((rep)) 1.54 (p=4x10(-6) ) and rs9923231 OR((disc)) 2.40 (p=6x10(-9) ), OR((rep)) 1.53, (p=5x10(-6) ). These associations were significant in the replication cohort after adjustment for intra-Asian ancestry: rs9934438 OR((adj)) 1.34 (p=0.0029) and rs9923231 OR((adj)) 1.34 (p=0.0032). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants in VKORC1, involved in vitamin K reduction and associated with DVT, are associated with SLE development in Asians. These results suggest intersecting genetic pathways for the development of SLE and thrombosis. © 2012 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2012; · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY). We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and number of affected joints (joint count, JC). METHODS: PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC) in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. RESULTS: Combining Pearson and t test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF) of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF). Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF) subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with differences in clinically appreciated target organs. The limited numbers of ESR-related SJIA genes that also are associated with elevations of ESR in POLY-JIA implies that the SJIA associations are specific for SJIA, at least to some degree. The distinct pathways associated with arthritis in early and late SJIA raise the possibility that different immunobiology underlies arthritis over the course of SJIA.
    BMC Medicine 10/2012; 10(1):125. · 7.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombosis is a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated whether genetic variants implicated in thrombosis pathways are associated with thrombosis among 2 ethnically diverse SLE cohorts. Our discovery cohort consisted of 1698 patients with SLE enrolled in the University of California, San Francisco, Lupus Genetics Project and our replication cohort included 1361 patients with SLE enrolled in the PROFILE cohort. Patients fulfilled American College of Rheumatology SLE criteria, and data relevant to thrombosis were available. Thirty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously shown to be associated with risk of deep venous thrombosis in the general population or implicated in thrombosis pathways were genotyped and tested for association with thrombosis in bivariate allelic analyses. SNP with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analyses were further tested in multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, disease duration, antiphospholipid antibody status, smoking, nephritis, and medications. In the discovery cohort, 23% of patients with SLE experienced a thrombotic event. SNP in the following genes demonstrated association with thrombosis risk overall in the discovery or replication cohorts and were assessed using metaanalytic methods: factor V Leiden (FVL) rs6025 (OR 1.85, p = 0.02) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133 (OR 0.75, p = 0.04) in whites, and fibrinogen gamma (FGG) rs2066865 (OR 1.91, p = 0.01) in Hispanic Americans. SNP in these genes showed association with venous thrombosis risk in whites: MTHFR rs1801131 (OR 1.51, p = 0.01), MTHFR rs1801133 (OR 0.70, p = 0.04), FVL rs6025 (OR 2.69, p = 0.002), and FGG rs2066865 (OR 1.49, p = 0.02) in whites. A SNP in FGG rs2066865 (OR 2.19, p = 0.003) demonstrated association with arterial thrombosis risk in Hispanics. Our results implicate specific genetic risk factors for thrombosis in patients with SLE and suggest that genetic risk for thrombosis differs across ethnic groups.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 06/2012; 39(8):1603-10. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we present results for DPA1 and DPB1 four-digit allele-level typing in a large (n = 5,944) sample of unrelated European American stem cell donors previously characterized for other class I and class II loci. Examination of genetic data for both chains of the DP heterodimer in the largest cohort to date, at the amino acid epitope, allele, genotype, and haplotype level, allows new insights into the functional units of selection and association for the DP heterodimer. The data in this study suggest that for the DPA1-DPB1 heterodimer, the unit of selection is the combined amino acid epitope contributed by both the DPA1 and DPB1 genes, rather than the allele, and that patterns of LD are driven primarily by dimer stability and conformation of the P1 pocket. This may help explain the differential pattern of allele frequency distribution observed for this locus relative to the other class II loci. These findings further support the notion that allele-level associations in disease and transplantation may not be the most important unit of analysis, and that they should be considered instead in the molecular context.
    Immunogenetics 04/2012; 64(8):559-69. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease affecting the joints. A heterogeneous response to available therapies demonstrates the need to identify those patients likely to benefit from a particular therapy. Our objective was to identify genetic factors associated with response to tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor, recently approved for treating RA. We report the first genome-wide association study on the response to tocilizumab in 1683 subjects with RA from six clinical studies. Putative associations were identified with eight loci, previously unrecognized as linked to the IL-6 pathway or associated with RA risk. This study suggests that it is unlikely that a major genetic determinant of response exists, and it illustrates the complexity of performing genome-wide association scans in clinical trials.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 10 April 2012; doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.8.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 04/2012; · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is a chronic autoinflammatory condition. The association with macrophage activation syndrome, and the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting monocyte-derived cytokines, has implicated these cells in SJIA pathogenesis. To characterize the activation state (classical/M1 vs. alternative/M2) of SJIA monocytes, we immunophenotyped monocytes using several approaches. Monocyte transcripts were analyzed by microarray and quantitative PCR. Surface proteins were measured at the single cell level using flow cytometry. Cytokine production was evaluated by intracellular staining and ELISA. CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subsets are activated in SJIA. A mixed M1/M2 activation phenotype is apparent at the single cell level, especially during flare. Consistent with an M2 phenotype, SJIA monocytes produce IL-1β after LPS exposure, but do not secrete it. Despite the inflammatory nature of active SJIA, circulating monocytes demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory features. The persistence of some of these phenotypes during clinically inactive disease argues that this state reflects compensated inflammation.
    Clinical Immunology 03/2012; 142(3):362-72. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testing of ∼25,000 putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the human genome in a genetic association study has identified three psoriasis genes, IL12B, IL23R, and IL13. We now report evidence for the association of psoriasis risk with missense SNPs in the interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 gene (IFIH1). The rare alleles of two independent SNPs were associated with decreased risk of psoriasis--rs35667974 (Ile923Val): odds ratio (OR) for minor allele carriers is 0.43, P=2.36 × 10(-5) (2,098 cases vs. 1,748 controls); and rs10930046 (His460Arg): OR for minor allele carriers is 0.51, P=6.47 × 10(-4) (2,098 cases vs. 1,744 controls). Compared to noncarriers, carriers of the 923Val and/or 460Arg variants were protected from psoriasis (OR=0.46, P=5.56 × 10(-8)). To our knowledge, these results suggest that IFIH1 is a previously unreported psoriasis gene.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2010; 130(12):2768-72. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify new genetic risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis, we conducted a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 5,539 autoantibody-positive individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) and 20,169 controls of European descent, followed by replication in an independent set of 6,768 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 8,806 controls. Of 34 SNPs selected for replication, 7 new rheumatoid arthritis risk alleles were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)) in an analysis of all 41,282 samples. The associated SNPs are near genes of known immune function, including IL6ST, SPRED2, RBPJ, CCR6, IRF5 and PXK. We also refined associations at two established rheumatoid arthritis risk loci (IL2RA and CCL21) and confirmed the association at AFF3. These new associations bring the total number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis risk loci to 31 among individuals of European ancestry. An additional 11 SNPs replicated at P < 0.05, many of which are validated autoimmune risk alleles, suggesting that most represent genuine rheumatoid arthritis risk alleles.
    Nature Genetics 06/2010; 42(6):508-14. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether circulating monocytes from patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) are resistant to apoptosis and which apoptotic pathway(s) may mediate this resistance. A microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of SJIA samples and RT-PCR analysis of isolated monocytes showed that monocytes from active SJIA patients express transcripts that imply resistance to apoptosis. SJIA monocytes incubated in low serum show reduced annexin binding and diminished FasL up-regulation compared to controls. SJIA monocytes are less susceptible to anti-Fas-induced apoptosis and, upon activation of the mitochondrial pathway with staurosporine, show diminished Bid cleavage and Bcl-w down-regulation compared to controls. Exposure to SJIA plasma reduces responses to apoptotic triggers in normal monocytes. Thus, SJIA monocytes are resistant to apoptosis due to alterations in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and circulating factors associated with active SJIA may confer this phenotype.
    Clinical Immunology 05/2010; 136(2):257-68. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2010; 135.
  • Annals of the rheumatic diseases 11/2009; 68(11):1789-90. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To discover new rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk loci, we systematically examined 370 SNPs from 179 independent loci with P < 0.001 in a published meta-analysis of RA genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 3,393 cases and 12,462 controls. We used Gene Relationships Across Implicated Loci (GRAIL), a computational method that applies statistical text mining to PubMed abstracts, to score these 179 loci for functional relationships to genes in 16 established RA disease loci. We identified 22 loci with a significant degree of functional connectivity. We genotyped 22 representative SNPs in an independent set of 7,957 cases and 11,958 matched controls. Three were convincingly validated: CD2-CD58 (rs11586238, P = 1 x 10(-6) replication, P = 1 x 10(-9) overall), CD28 (rs1980422, P = 5 x 10(-6) replication, P = 1 x 10(-9) overall) and PRDM1 (rs548234, P = 1 x 10(-5) replication, P = 2 x 10(-8) overall). An additional four were replicated (P < 0.0023): TAGAP (rs394581, P = 0.0002 replication, P = 4 x 10(-7) overall), PTPRC (rs10919563, P = 0.0003 replication, P = 7 x 10(-7) overall), TRAF6-RAG1 (rs540386, P = 0.0008 replication, P = 4 x 10(-6) overall) and FCGR2A (rs12746613, P = 0.0022 replication, P = 2 x 10(-5) overall). Many of these loci are also associated to other immunologic diseases.
    Nature Genetics 11/2009; 41(12):1313-8. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by thickened scaly red plaques. Previously we have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on psoriasis with 1,359 cases and 1,400 controls, which were genotyped for 447,249 SNPs. The most significant finding was for SNP rs12191877, which is in tight linkage disequilibrium with HLA-Cw*0602, the consensus risk allele for psoriasis. However, it is not known whether there are other psoriasis loci within the MHC in addition to HLA-C. In the present study, we searched for additional susceptibility loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region through in-depth analyses of the GWAS data; then, we followed up our findings in an independent Han Chinese 1,139 psoriasis cases and 1,132 controls. Using the phased CEPH dataset as a reference, we imputed the HLA-Cw*0602 in all samples with high accuracy. The association of the imputed HLA-Cw*0602 dosage with disease was much stronger than that of the most significantly associated SNP, rs12191877. Adjusting for HLA-Cw*0602, there were two remaining association signals: one demonstrated by rs2073048 (p = 2 x 10(-6), OR = 0.66), located within c6orf10, a potential downstream effecter of TNF-alpha, and one indicated by rs13437088 (p = 9 x 10(-6), OR = 1.3), located 30 kb centromeric of HLA-B and 16 kb telomeric of MICA. When HLA-Cw*0602, rs2073048, and rs13437088 were all included in a logistic regression model, each of them was significantly associated with disease (p = 3 x 10(-47), 6 x 10(-8), and 3 x 10(-7), respectively). Both putative loci were also significantly associated in the Han Chinese samples after controlling for the imputed HLA-Cw*0602. A detailed analysis of HLA-B in both populations demonstrated that HLA-B*57 was associated with an increased risk of psoriasis and HLA-B*40 a decreased risk, independently of HLA-Cw*0602 and the C6orf10 locus, suggesting the potential pathogenic involvement of HLA-B. These results demonstrate that there are at least two additional loci within the MHC conferring risk of psoriasis.
    PLoS Genetics 09/2009; 5(8):e1000606. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • PLoS Genetics 08/2009; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severity of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is highly variable from patient to patient and is influenced by genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have enormously boosted the field of the genetics of RA susceptibility, but risk loci for RA severity remain poorly defined. A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identified 6 genetic regions for susceptibility to autoantibody-positive RA: CD40, KIF5A/PIP4K2C, CDK6, CCL21, PRKCQ, and MMEL1/TNFRSF14. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these newly described genetic regions are associated with the rate of joint destruction. RA patients enrolled in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic were studied (n=563). Yearly radiographs were scored using the Sharp/van der Heijde method (median followup 5 years; maximum followup 9 years). The rate of joint destruction between genotype groups was compared using a linear mixed model, correcting for age, sex, and treatment strategies. A total of 393 anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA patients from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) who had radiographic data available were used for the replication study. The TT and CC/CG genotypes of 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs4810485 (CD40) and rs42041 (CDK6), respectively, were associated with a higher rate of joint destruction in ACPA-positive RA patients (P=0.003 and P=0.012, respectively), with rs4810485 being significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The association of the CD40 minor allele with the rate of radiographic progression was replicated in the NARAC cohort (P=0.021). A polymorphism in the CD40 locus is associated with the rate of joint destruction in patients with ACPA-positive RA. Our findings provide one of the first non-HLA-related genetic severity factors that has been replicated.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 08/2009; 60(8):2242-7. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a genome-wide association study of rheumatoid arthritis in 2,418 cases and 4,504 controls from North America and identified an association at the REL locus, encoding c-Rel, on chromosome 2p13 (rs13031237, P = 6.01 x 10(-10)). Replication in independent case-control datasets comprising 2,604 cases and 2,882 controls confirmed this association, yielding an allelic OR = 1.25 (P = 3.08 x 10(-14)) for marker rs13031237 and an allelic OR = 1.21 (P = 2.60 x 10(-11)) for marker rs13017599 in the combined dataset. The combined dataset also provides definitive support for associations at both CTLA4 (rs231735; OR = 0.85; P = 6.25 x 10(-9)) and BLK (rs2736340; OR = 1.19; P = 5.69 x 10(-9)). c-Rel is an NF-kappaB family member with distinct functional properties in hematopoietic cells, and its association with rheumatoid arthritis suggests disease pathways that involve other recently identified rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility genes including CD40, TRAF1, TNFAIP3 and PRKCQ.
    Nature Genetics 08/2009; 41(7):820-3. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the association between the factor V Leiden polymorphism (FVL) and thrombosis among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity. Included studies recruited patients based on SLE or aPL-positive status, confirmed subjects' SLE diagnosis as defined by the American College of Rheumatology, and documented thrombotic events. Excluded studies were non-English or considered only arterial thrombosis. Individual patient data, available from 5 studies, together with unpublished data from 1210 European-American SLE patients from the UCSF Lupus Genetics Collection genotyped for FVL, were further analyzed. Seventeen studies (n=2090 subjects) were included in the initial meta-analysis. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated to assess association of FVL with thrombosis. The OR for association of thrombosis with FVL was 2.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-4.20). In the secondary analysis with our individual patient dataset (n=1447 European-derived individuals), SLE subjects with the FVL polymorphism still had more than two times the odds of thrombosis compared to subjects without this polymorphism, even when adjusting for covariates such as gender, age and aPL status. SLE and/or aPL-positive patients with the FVL variant have more than two times the odds of thrombosis compared to those without this polymorphism.
    Genes and immunity 06/2009; 10(5):495-502. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disorder that affects the skin, nails and joints. To identify psoriasis susceptibility loci, we genotyped 438,670 SNPs in 1,409 psoriasis cases and 1,436 controls of European ancestry. We followed up 21 promising SNPs in 5,048 psoriasis cases and 5,041 controls. Our results provide strong support for the association of at least seven genetic loci and psoriasis (each with combined
    Nature Genetics 01/2009; 41(2):199-204. · 35.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,037.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • Celera
      Alameda, California, United States
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Rheumatology
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • Roche
      • • Roche Tissue Diagnostics
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1985–2012
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences
      • • Department of Neurobiology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2008
    • Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
      • Program in Medical and Population Genetics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 1997–2008
    • Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
      Oakland, California, United States
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
      • Robert S. Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics comprises
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      • Department of Neurology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2001
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 1994–1997
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Integrative Biology
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 1996
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine
      • Department of Molecular Medicine
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany