[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reproductive characteristics and seminal carnitine and acetylcarnitine content as well as carnitine acetyltransferase activity of young Maremmano stallions (n=25) are reported. The stallions were subjected to semen collection in November and January; in each trial two ejaculates were collected 1h apart. The total motile morphologically normal spermatozoa (TMMNS) and the progressively motile spermatozoa at collection and during storage at +4 degrees C were evaluated. Seminal L-carnitine (LC), acetylcarnitine (AC), pyruvate and lactate were measured using spectrophotometric methods, whereas carnitine acetyltransferase activity was measured by radioenzymatic methods. Since there were no major significant differences in seminal and biochemical characteristics between the November and January trials, data were also pooled for the first and second ejaculates. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed between the first and second ejaculates for sperm count (0.249+/-0.025 versus 0.133+/-0.014x10(9)/ml), total number spermatozoa by ejaculate (12.81+/-1.23 versus 6.36+/-0.77x10(9)), progressively motile spermatozoa (48.6+/-3.0 versus 52.6+/-3.0%) and TMMNS (3.35+/-0.50 versus 2.02+/-0.37x10(9)). In the raw semen the LC and AC were significantly higher in the first ejaculate than in the second (P<0.001), whereas, pyruvate and pyruvate/lactate ratio were higher in the second ejaculate (P<0.05). Seminal plasma AC and LC concentrations resulted higher in the first ejaculate (P<0.001). The pyruvate/lactate ratio was higher in the second ejaculate (P<0.05). Both raw semen and seminal plasma LC and AC concentrations were positively correlated with spermatozoa concentration (P<0.01); in raw semen AC was also correlated to TMMNS (P<0.01). Lactate levels of raw semen was correlated to progressively motile spermatozoa after storage (P<0.01). In the second ejaculate, significant correlations were also observed among AC/LC ratio in raw semen and progressively motile spermatozoa after 48 and 72h of refrigeration. Furthermore, AC levels were correlated to lactate concentration. The positive correlation between LC, AC and spermatozoa concentration, and between AC and TMMNS indicated carnitine as potential semen quality marker. Moreover, the correlation between AC/LC ratio and progressive spermatozoa motility after refrigeration, suggests that carnitine may contribute towards improving the maintenance of spermatozoa viability during in vitro storage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marked reduction in the contents of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine has been reported in peripheral nerves of rats with experimental diabetes. Since these substances have been claimed to improve a number of signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy in controlled clinical trials, this study was aimed at assessing whether nerves from diabetic subjects would also reveal similar decrease in the concentration of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-caritine. To this end, these substances were measured in nerves obtained from 11 patients with diabetic neuropathy, 13 patients with ischemic non-diabetic neuropathy, and 12 normal controls. Nerves from patients with either diabetic neuropathy and ischemic non-diabetic neuropathy showed levels of both carnitines lower than those from normal controls. However, differences among the three groups were not statistically significant, indicating that a reduction in these amino acids probably represents only a co-factor in the development of the variegated clinical picture of human diabetic neuropathy.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 02/1996; 1(2):157-63. · 2.57 Impact Factor