[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemically and biologically modified nanoparticles are increasingly considered as viable and multifunctional tools to be used in cancer theranostics. Herein, we demonstrate that coordination of alizarin blue black B (ABBB) to the TiO(2) nanoparticle surface enhances the resulting nanoparticles by (1) creating distinct fluorescence emission spectra that differentiate smaller TiO(2) nanoparticles from larger TiO(2) nanoparticle aggregates (both in vitro and intracellular) and (2) enhancing visible light activation of TiO(2) nanoparticles above previously described methods to induce in vitro and intracellular damage to DNA and other targets. ABBB-TiO(2) nanoparticles are characterized through sedimentation, spectral absorbance, and gel electrophoresis. The possible coordination modes of ABBB to the TiO(2) nanoparticle surface are modeled by computational methods. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy studies indicate that ABBB coordination on TiO(2) nanoparticles enables discernment between nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates both in vitro and intracellular through fluorescence confocal microscopy. Visible light activated ABBB-TiO(2) nanoparticles are capable of inflicting increased DNA cleavage through localized production of reactive oxygen species as visualized by plasmid DNA damage detected through gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Finally, visible light excited ABBB-TiO(2) nanoparticles are capable of inflicting damage upon HeLa (cervical cancer) cells by inducing alterations in DNA structure and membrane associated proteins. The multifunctional abilities of these ABBB-TiO(2) nanoparticles to visualize and monitor aggregation in real time, as well as inflict visible light triggered damage upon cancer targets will enhance the use of TiO(2) nanoparticles in cancer theranostics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologically and chemically modified nanoparticles are gaining much attention as a new tool in cancer detection and treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that an alizarin red S (ARS) dye coating on TiO2 nanoparticles enables visible light activation of the nanoparticles leading to degradation of neighboring biological structures through localized production of reactive oxygen species. Successful coating of nanoparticles with dye is demonstrated through sedimentation, spectrophotometry, and gel electrophoresis techniques. Using gel electrophoresis, we demonstrate that visible light activation of dye-TiO2 nanoparticles leads to degradation of plasmid DNA in vitro. Alterations in integrity and distribution of nuclear membrane associated proteins were detected via fluorescence confocal microscopy in HeLa cells exposed to perinuclear localized ARS-TiO2 nanoparticles that were photoactivated with visible light. This study expands upon previous studies that indicated dye coatings on TiO2 nanoparticles can serve to enhance imaging, by clearly showing that dye coatings on TiO2 nanoparticles can also enhance the photoreactivity of TiO2 nanoparticles by allowing visible light activation. The findings of our study suggest a therapeutic application of dye-coated TiO2 nanoparticles in cancer research; however, at the same time they may reveal limitations on the use of dye assisted visualization of TiO2 nanoparticles in live-cell imaging.
Microscopy and Microanalysis 01/2012; 18(1):134-42. DOI:10.1017/S1431927611012414 · 1.88 Impact Factor