T. Kruehler

University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (280)339.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the HII regions in the galaxy NGC 6754 from a two pointing mosaic comprising 197,637 individual spectra, using Integral Field Spectrocopy (IFS) recently acquired with the MUSE instrument during its Science Verification program. The data cover the entire galaxy out to ~2 effective radii (re ), sampling its morphological structures with unprecedented spatial resolution for a wide-field IFU. A complete census of the H ii regions limited by the atmospheric seeing conditions was derived, comprising 396 individual ionized sources. This is one of the largest and most complete catalogue of H ii regions with spectroscopic information in a single galaxy. We use this catalogue to derive the radial abundance gradient in this SBb galaxy, finding a negative gradient with a slope consistent with the characteristic value for disk galaxies recently reported. The large number of H ii regions allow us to estimate the typical mixing scale-length (rmix ~0.4 re ), which sets strong constraints on the proposed mechanisms for metal mixing in disk galaxies, like radial movements associated with bars and spiral arms, when comparing with simulations. We found evidence for an azimuthal variation of the oxygen abundance, that may be related with the radial migration. These results illustrate the unique capabilities of MUSE for the study of the enrichment mechanisms in Local Universe galaxies.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a survey of nearby core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion sites using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) technique, which is an extension of the work described in Kuncarayakti et al. (2013, AJ, 146, 30/31) . The project aims to constrain the SN progenitor properties based on the study of the SN immediate environment. The stellar populations present at the SN explosion sites are studied by means of integral field spectroscopy, which enables the acquisition of both spatial and spectral information of the object simultaneously. The spectrum of the SN parent stellar population gives the estimate of its age and metallicity. With this information, the initial mass and metallicity of the once coeval SN progenitor star are derived. While the survey is mostly done in optical, additionally the utilization of near-infrared integral field spectroscopy assisted with adaptive optics (AO) enables us to examine the explosion sites in high spatial details, down to a few parsecs. This work is being carried out using multiple 2-8 m class telescopes equipped with integral field spectrographs in Chile and Hawaii.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) were only discovered recently due to their preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES (SUSHIES), focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe-II (hydrogen-rich) occur in more massive, more metal-rich galaxies with softer radiation fields. Therefore, if SLSNe-II constitute a uniform class, their progenitor systems must be different from those of H-poor SLSNe. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are, on average, not found in as extreme environments as H-poor SLSNe. We propose that H-poor SLSNe result from the very first stars exploding in a starburst, even earlier than GRBs. This might indicate a bottom-light initial mass function in these systems. SLSNe present a novel method of selecting candidate EELGs independent of their luminosity.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: LGRBs are associated with massive stars and are therefore linked to star formation. The conditions necessary to produce LGRBs can affect the relation between the LGRB rate and star formation. By using the power of a complete LGRB sample, our aim is to understand whether such a bias exists and, if it does, what is its origin. In this first paper, we build the SED of the z<1 host galaxies of the BAT6 LGRB sample, and determine their stellar masses from SED fitting. We compare the resulting stellar mass distribution (i) with star-forming galaxies observed in deep surveys (UltraVISTA); (ii) with semi-analitical models of the z<1 star forming galaxy population and (iii) with numerical simulations of LGRB hosts having different metallicity thresholds for the progenitor star environment. We find that at z<1 LGRBs tend to avoid massive galaxies and are powerful in selecting faint low-mass star-forming galaxies. The stellar mass distribution of the hosts is not consistent with that of the UltraVISTA star-forming galaxies weighted for their SFR. This implies that, at least at z<1, LGRBs are not unbiased tracers of star formation. To make the two distributions consistent, a much steeper faint-end of the mass function would be required, or a very shallow SFR-Mass relation for the low mass galaxy population. GRB host galaxy simulations indicates that, to reproduce the stellar mass distribution, a metallicity threshold of the order of Z_th=0.3-0.5Z_sun is necessary. Models without a metallicity threshold or with an extreme threshold of Z_th = 0.1Z_sun are excluded at z<1. The use of the BAT6 complete sample makes this result not affected by possible biases which could have influenced past results based on incomplete samples. The preference for low metallicities (Z<~0.5Z_sun) can be a consequence of the particular conditions needed for the progenitor star to produce a GRB. (Abridged)
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first reported case of the simultaneous metallicity determination of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy, from both afterglow absorption lines as well as strong emission-line diagnostics. Using spectroscopic and imaging observations of the afterglow and host of the long-duration GRB121024A at z = 2.30, we give one of the most complete views of a GRB host/environment to date. We observe a strong damped Ly-alpha absorber (DLA) with a hydrogen column density of log N(HI) = 21.80+/-0.15, H_2 absorption in the Lyman-Werner bands (molecular fraction of log(f) ~ -1.4; fourth solid detection of molecular hydrogen in a GRB-DLA), the nebular emission lines H-alpha, H-beta, [OII], [OIII] and [NII], as well as a large variety of metal absorption lines. We find a GRB host galaxy that is highly star-forming (SFR ~ 40 Msolar/yr), with a dust-corrected metallicity along the line of sight of [Zn/H]corr = -0.5+/-0.2 ([O/H] ~ -0.3 from emission lines), and a depletion factor of refractory elements of [Zn/Fe] = 0.85+/-0.04. The molecular gas is separated by 400 km/s from the gas that is excited by the GRB (implying a fairly massive host, in agreement with the derived stellar mass of log(Mstellar/Msolar) = 9.9+/-0.2). Including emission line analysis, we isolate and characterise three different gas-phases within the star-forming host galaxy. Our main result is that the metallicity determinations from both absorption and emission lines are consistent, which is encouraging for the comparison of GRB host metallicities at different redshifts.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRBs) afterglows probe sightlines to star-forming regions in distant star-forming galaxies. Here we present a study of the peculiar afterglow spectrum of the z = 0.889 Swift GRB 140506A. Aims. Our aim is to understand the origin of the very unusual properties of the absorption along the line-of-sight. Methods. We analyse spectroscopic observations obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the ESO/VLT at two epochs 8.8 h and 33 h after the burst as well as imaging from the GROND instrument. We also present imaging and spectroscopy of the host galaxy obtained with the Magellan telescope. Results. The underlying afterglow appears to be a typical afterglow of a long-duration GRB. However, the material along the line-of- sight has imprinted very unusual features on the spectrum. Firstly, there is a very broad and strong flux drop below 8000 AA (4000 AA in the rest frame), which seems to be variable between the two spectroscopic epochs. We can reproduce the flux-drops both as a giant 2175 AA extinction bump and as an effect of multiple scattering on dust grains in a dense environment. Secondly, we detect absorption lines from excited H i and He i. We also detect molecular absorption from CH+ . Conclusions. We interpret the unusual properties of these spectra as reflecting the presence of three distinct regions along the line-of-sight: the excited He i absorption originates from an H ii-region, whereas the Balmer absorption must originate from an associated photodissociation region. The strong metal line and molecular absorption and the dust extinction must originate from a third, cooler region along the line-of-sight. The presence of (at least) three separate regions is reflected in the fact that the different absorption components have different velocities relative to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The reionisation of the universe is thought to have ended around z~6, as inferred from spectroscopy of distant bright background sources such as quasars (QSO) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Furthermore, spectroscopy of a GRB afterglow provides insight in its host galaxy, which is often too dim and distant to study otherwise. We present the high S/N VLT/X-shooter spectrum of GRB130606A at z=5.913. We aim to measure the degree of ionisation of the IGM between 5.02<z<5.84, and to study the chemical abundance pattern and dust content of its host galaxy. We measure the flux decrement due to IGM absorption at Ly$\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ wavelength regions. The hydrogen and metal absorption lines formed in the host galaxy are fitted with Voigt profiles to obtain column densities. Our measurements of the Ly$\alpha$-forest optical depth are consistent with previous measurements of QSOs, but have smaller uncertainty than these. The Ly$\alpha$ red-damping-wing analysis yields a neutral fraction $x_{HI}<0.03$ (3$\sigma$). We obtain column density measurements of several elements. The ionisation corrections due to the GRB is estimated to be negligible (<0.03 dex), but larger corrections may apply due to pre-existing radiation field (up to 0.3 dex based on sub-DLA studies). Our measurements confirm that the Universe is already predominantly ionised over the redshift range probed in this work, but was slightly more neutral at z>5.6. GRBs are useful probes of the IGM ionisation state of the early Universe, but because of internal scatter we need a larger statistical sample to draw robust conclusions. The high [Si/Fe] in the host can be due to dust depletion, alpha-element enhancement or a combination. The very high value of [Al/Fe]=2.40+/-0.78 might be connected to the stellar population history. We estimate the host metallicity to be -1.5<[M/H]<-1.2 (3%-6% of solar). [truncated]
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first observations of the Frontier Fields Cluster Abell S1063, taken with the newly commissioned Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. Because of the relatively large field of view (1 arcmin^2), MUSE is ideal to simultaneously target multiple galaxies in blank and cluster fields over the full optical spectrum. We analysed the four hours of data obtained in the Science Verification phase on this cluster and measured redshifts for 60 objects. We confirm the redshift of five cluster galaxies, and determine the redshift of 28 other cluster members. Behind the cluster, we find 16 galaxies at higher redshift, including three previously unknown Lyman-alpha emitters at z>3, and five multiply-lensed galaxies. We report the detection of a new z=4.113 multiply lensed galaxy, with images that are consistent with lensing model predictions derived for the Fronter Fields. We detect CIII], C IV and He II emission in a multiply lensed galaxy at z=3.116, suggesting the likely presence of an AGN. We also created narrow-band images from the MUSE datacube to automatically search for further line emitters corresponding to high-redshift candidates, but we could not identify any significant detections other than those found by visual inspection. With the new redshifts, it will become possible to obtain an accurate mass reconstruction in the core of Abell S1063 through refined strong lensing modelling. Overall, our results illustrate the breadth of scientific topics that can be addressed with a single MUSE pointing. We conclude that MUSE is a very efficient instrument to observe galaxy clusters, enabling their mass modelling, as well as to perform a blind search for high-redshift galaxies.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are indisputably related to star formation, and their vast luminosity in gamma rays pin-points regions of star formation independent of galaxy mass. As such, GRBs provide a unique tool for studying star forming galaxies out to high-z independent of luminosity. Most of our understanding of the properties of GRB hosts (GRBHs) comes from optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up observations, and we therefore have relatively little knowledge of the fraction of dust-enshrouded star formation that resides within GRBHs. Currently ~20% of GRBs show evidence of significant amounts of dust along the line of sight to the afterglow through the host galaxy, and these GRBs tend to reside within redder and more massive galaxies than GRBs with optically bright afterglows. In this paper we present Herschel observations of five GRBHs with evidence of being dust-rich, targeted to understand the dust attenuation properties within GRBs better. Despite the sensitivity of our Herschel observations, only one galaxy in our sample was detected (GRBH 070306), for which we measure a total star formation rate (SFR) of ~100Mstar/yr, and which had a relatively high stellar mass (log[Mstar]=10.34+0.09/-0.04). Nevertheless, when considering a larger sample of GRBHs observed with Herschel, it is clear that stellar mass is not the only factor contributing to a Herschel detection, and significant dust extinction along the GRB sightline (A_{V,GRB}>1.5~mag) appears to be a considerably better tracer of GRBHs with high dust mass. This suggests that the extinguishing dust along the GRB line of sight lies predominantly within the host galaxy ISM, and thus those GRBs with A_{V,GRB}>1~mag but with no host galaxy Herschel detections are likely to have been predominantly extinguished by dust within an intervening dense cloud.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and the frequency of GRBs in these systems provides an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst rate and that of overall cosmic star-formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 31 uniformly-selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the Universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star-formation rates ranging between 50-300 Msun/yr. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically-obscured "dark" bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 5-25% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S_3GHz > 10 uJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 Msun/yr at z~1 or > 250 Msun/yr at z~2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10-30% of all cosmic star-formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate which is not strongly biased with respect to the total star-formation rate of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have modest stellar masses (~few x 10^10 Msun), significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that GRBs may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently are enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy star-formation rate.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Prompt or early optical emission in gamma-ray bursts is notoriously difficult to measure, and observations of the dozen cases show a large variety of properties. Yet, such early emission promises to help us achieve a better understanding of the GRB emission process(es). We performed dedicated observations of the ultra-long duration (T90 about 7000 s) GRB 130925A in the optical/near-infrared with the 7-channel "Gamma-Ray Burst Optical and Near-infrared Detector" (GROND) at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope. We detect an optical/NIR flare with an amplitude of nearly 2 mag which is delayed with respect to the keV--MeV prompt emission by about 300--400 s. The decay time of this flare is shorter than the duration of the flare (500 s) or its delay. While we cannot offer a straightforward explanation, we discuss the implications of the flare properties and suggest ways toward understanding it.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; 568. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A long and intense gamma-ray burst (GRB) was detected by INTEGRAL on July 11 2012 with a duration of ~115s and fluence of 2.8x10^-4 erg cm^-2 in the 20 keV-8 MeV energy range. GRB 120711A was at z~1.405 and produced soft gamma-ray emission (>20 keV) for at least ~10 ks after the trigger. The GRB was observed by several ground-based telescopes that detected a powerful optical flash peaking at an R-band brightness of ~11.5 mag at ~126 s after the trigger. We present a comprehensive temporal and spectral analysis of the long-lasting soft gamma-ray emission detected in the 20-200 keV band with INTEGRAL, the Fermi/LAT post-GRB detection above 100 MeV, the soft X-ray afterglow from XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift and the optical/NIR detections from Watcher, Skynet, GROND, and REM. We modelled the long-lasting soft gamma-ray emission using the standard afterglow scenario, which indicates a forward shock origin. The combination of data extending from the NIR to GeV energies suggest that the emission is produced by a broken power-law spectrum consistent with synchrotron radiation. The afterglow is well modelled using a stratified wind-like environment with a density profile k~1.2, suggesting a massive star progenitor (i.e. Wolf-Rayet). The analysis of the reverse and forward shock emission reveals an initial Lorentz factor of ~120-340, a jet half-opening angle of ~2deg-5deg, and a baryon load of ~10^-5-10^-6 Msun consistent with the expectations of the fireball model when the emission is highly relativistic. Long-lasting soft gamma-ray emission from other INTEGRAL GRBs with high peak fluxes, such as GRB 041219A, was not detected, suggesting that a combination of high Lorentz factor, emission above 100 MeV, and possibly a powerful reverse shock are required. Similar long-lasting soft gamma-ray emission has recently been observed from the nearby and extremely bright Fermi/LAT burst GRB 130427A.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Following the photometric observations of the counterpart of GRB 140512A (Pagani et al. GCN 16249) from the 2.5 m NOT (+ALFOSC) reported by de Ugarte Postigo et al. (GCN 16253) we obtained spectroscopic data. Observations consisted in 2x1800s exposures using Grism #4, which covers the range from 3800 to 9100. The mean observing epoch was May 13, 3:18:50 UT (7.78 hrs after the burst). The spectrum presents absorption features consistent with FeII and MgII at a common redshift of z=0.725, which we consider the most probable redshift for this event. http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/gcn/gcn3/16310.gcn3
    GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 16310. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed the field of GRB 140512A (Pagani et al. GCN 16249) with the AlFOSC instrument on the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma, Spain), as part of the Stockholm remote observing school. Observations consisted of 3x300s imaging in R, starting at 02:10 UT (6.65 hrs after the burst). Observations were performed under variable seeing conditions of 2.0-2.5". Preliminary photometry, based on the USNO-B1.0 catalogue yields R~19.5 mag. Spectroscopic observations are ongoing. http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/gcn/gcn3/16253.gcn3
    GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 16253. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GRB host galaxy at z = 5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyα absorber with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of and a metallicity of [S/H] = –1.70 ± 0.10. It is the highest-redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence of fine-structure lines confirms the z = 5.0 system as the GRB host galaxy and makes this the highest redshift where Fe II fine-structure lines have been detected. The afterglow is mildly reddened with AV = 0.11 ± 0.04 mag, and the host galaxy has a DTM that is consistent with being equal to or lower than typical values in the Local Group.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 785(2):150. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At low redshift, a handful of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been discovered with peak luminosities ($L_{\rm iso} < 10^{48.5}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}$) substantially lower than the average of the more distant ones ($L_{\rm iso} > 10^{49.5}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}$). The properties of several low-luminosity (low-$L$) GRBs indicate that they can be due to shock break-out, as opposed to the emission from ultrarelativistic jets. Owing to this, it is highly debated how both populations are connected, and whether there is a continuum between them. The burst at redshift $z=0.283$ from 2012 April 22 is one of the very few examples of intermediate-$L$ GRBs with a $\gamma$-ray luminosity of $L\sim10^{48.9}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}$ that have been detected up to now. Together with the robust detection of its accompanying supernova SN 2012bz, it has the potential to answer important questions on the origin of low- and high-$L$ GRBs and the GRB-SN connection. We carried out a spectroscopy campaign using medium- and low-resolution spectrographs at 6--10-m class telescopes, covering the time span of 37.3 days, and a multi-wavelength imaging campaign from radio to X-ray energies over a duration of $\sim270$ days. Furthermore, we used a tuneable filter centred at H$\alpha$ to map star formation in the host galaxy and the surrounding galaxies. We used these data to extract and model the properties of different radiation components and incorporate spectral-energy-distribution fitting techniques to extract the properties of the host galaxy. Modelling the light curve and spectral energy distribution from the radio to the X-rays revealed the blast-wave to expand with an initial Lorentz factor of $\Gamma_0\sim60$, low for a high-$L$ GRB, and that the afterglow had an exceptional low peak luminosity-density of $\lesssim2\times10^{30}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}\,\rm{Hz}^{-1}$ in the sub-mm. [Abridged]
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The extinction curves of interstellar dust in the local Universe show significant diversity along different sightlines and between different galaxies, in particular with regards to the presence (and relative strength) of the 2175 Angstrom bump feature. These locally-derived extinction curves are often used to correct for the effects of dust in the SEDs of galaxies at high redshift (z>1), but this process is quite uncertain. We use a large sample of high-z GRBs with well-studied afterglows permitting measurement of the extinction curve (including the presence/absence and relative strength of the 2175 Angstrom feature) along the burst sightline to explore the connection between extinction and bulk galaxy properties at high redshift. While host properties are strongly correlated the amount of dust seen along the GRB sightline (more obscured GRBs are located within more massive hosts), the nature of the dust does not show strong correlations with the host's overall properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the 2175 Angstrom feature can survive in galaxies with very high specific star-formation rate (and therefore a strong UV radiation field) in some cases, as well as within more quiescently star-forming galaxies. This suggests that dust properties within high-redshift galaxies may be influenced more by local phenomena than global ones and that, as in the Milky Way, extinction curves may differ substantially along different sightlines within high-z galaxies as well as between different galaxies.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Since the advent of the Swift satellite it has been possible to obtain precise localisations of GRB positions of sub-arcsec accuracy within seconds, facilitating ground-based robotic telescopes to automatically slew to the target within seconds. This has yielded a plethora of observational data for the afterglow phase of the GRB, but the quantity of data (<2 keV) covering the initial prompt emission still remains small. Only in a handful of cases has it been possible obtain simultaneous coverage of the prompt emission in a multi-wavelength regime (gamma-ray to optical), as a result of: observing the field by chance prior to the GRB (e.g. 080319B/naked-eye burst), long-prompt emission (e.g., 080928, 110205A) or triggered on a pre-cursor (e.g., 041219A, 050820A, 061121). This small selection of bursts have shown both correlated and uncorrelated gamma-ray and optical light curve behaviour, and the multi-wavelength emission mechanism remains far from resolved (i.e. single population synchrotron self-Component, electron distributions, additional neutron components or residual collisions). Such multi-wavelength observations during the GRB prompt phase are pivotal in providing further insight on the poorly understood prompt emission mechanism. We add to this small sample the Swift burst 121217A that had two distinct periods of prompt emission separated by ~700 s, observed by Swift/BAT, Swift/XRT and Fermi/GBM. As a result of the time delay of the second emission, it enabled optical imaging (from 3 to 7 bands) to be taken with the GROND instrument to a resolution as fine as 10s. This multi-wavelength data will hopefully allow us to shed more light on the current picture of prompt emission physics.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism that causes the prompt-emission episode of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still widely debated despite there being thousands of prompt detections. The favoured internal shock model relates this emission to synchrotron radiation. However, it does not always explain the spectral indices of the shape of the spectrum, often fit with empirical functions. Multi-wavelength observations are therefore required to help investigate the possible underlying mechanisms that causes the prompt emission. We present GRB 121217A, for which we were able to observe its near-infrared (NIR) emission during a secondary prompt-emission episode with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-infrared Detector (GROND) in combination with the Swift and Fermi satellites, covering an energy range of 0.001 keV to 100 keV. We determine a photometric redshift of z=3.1+/-0.1 with a line-of-sight extinction of A_V~0 mag, utilising the optical/NIR SED. From the afterglow, we determine a bulk Lorentz factor of Gamma~250 and an emission radius of R<10^18 cm. The prompt-emission broadband spectral energy distribution is well fit with a broken power law with b1=-0.3+/-0.1, b2=0.6+/-0.1 that has a break at E=6.6+/-0.9 keV, which can be interpreted as the maximum injection frequency. Self-absorption by the electron population below energies of E_a<6 keV suggest a magnetic field strength of B~10^5 G. However, all the best fit models underpredict the flux observed in the NIR wavelengths, which also only rebrightens by a factor of ~2 during the second prompt emission episode, in stark contrast to the X-ray emission, which rebrightens by a factor of ~100, suggesting an afterglow component is dominating the emission. We present GRB 121217A one of the few GRBs for which there are multi-wavelength observations of the prompt-emission period and show that it can be understood with a synchrotron radiation model.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few years the number of well-sampled optical to NIR light curves of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) has greatly increased particularly due to simultaneous multi-band imagers such as GROND. Combining these densely sampled ground-based data sets with the Swift UVOT and XRT space observations unveils a much more complex afterglow evolution than what was predicted by the most commonly invoked theoretical models. GRB 100814A represents a remarkable example of these interesting well-sampled events, showing a prominent late-time rebrightening in the optical to NIR bands and a complex spectral evolution. This represents a unique laboratory to test the different afterglow emission models. Here we study the nature of the complex afterglow emission of GRB 100814A in the framework of different theoretical models. Moreover, we compare the late-time chromatic rebrightening with those observed in other well-sampled long GRBs. We analysed the optical and NIR observations obtained with the seven-channel Gamma-Ray burst Optical and Near-infrared Detector at the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope together with the X-ray and UV data detected by the instruments onboard the Swift observatory. The broad-band afterglow evolution, achieved by constructing multi-instrument light curves and spectral energy distributions, will be discussed in the framework of different theoretical models. We find that the standard models that describe the broad-band afterglow emission within the external shock scenario fail to describe the complex evolution of GRB 100814A, and therefore more complex scenarios must be invoked. [abridged]
    12/2013;

Publication Stats

615 Citations
339.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Dark Cosmology Centre (DARK)
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2012
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008–2012
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany