[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Bedding in childcare centers (CCCs) can hold house dust mite (HDM) allergens. This study examined whether HDM allergen levels can be reduced through the distribution of an educational newsletter on bedding control to parents of CCC children in Korea.
All 38 CCCs were measured for Der 1 (sum of Der f 1 and Der p 1) concentrations on classroom floors and bedding before the intervention. Educational newsletters on children's bedding control were sent to 21 CCCs by mail, and teachers were asked to distribute the newsletters to the parents of the children (intervention group). The remaining 17 CCCs were not sent newsletters (control group). The measurement of Der 1 concentrations in 38 CCCs was repeated after the intervention. Dust samples were collected with a vacuum cleaner and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.
The Der 1 concentrations on the bedding were significantly higher than those on the floors in 38 CCCs at baseline (p<0.05). Although changes of the Der 1 concentrations for the control group (n=17) were not significant, Der 1 concentrations for the intervention group (n=21) decreased significantly from 2077.9 ng/g dust to 963.5 ng/g dust on the floors and from 3683.9 ng/g dust to 610.4 ng/g dust on bedding (p<0.05).
The distribution of educational newsletters on bedding control to parents may be an effective means of controlling HDMs in CCCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial chemicals are used in a variety of household and personal care products. Exposure to antimicrobial household products has been hypothesized to lead to allergic diseases in children.
We investigated antimicrobial household product exposure and allergic symptoms in Korean children. An antimicrobial exposure (AE) score was derived. To examine the symptoms of allergic diseases (current wheeze, current rhinitis, and current eczema) in the past 12 months, we used a questionnaire based on the core module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Complete data for the analysis were available for 25,805 of the 35,590 (72.5%) children.
The prevalence of current allergic diseases was as follows: wheeze, 5.6%; allergic rhinitis, 32.6%; and eczema, 17.7%. The mean (standard deviation) AE score was 14.3 (9.3) (range: 0-40). Compared with subjects with a low AE score (reference), subjects with a high AE score (fourth quartile) were more likely to have symptoms of wheezing and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for wheezing 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.45, p for trend=0.24; aOR for allergic rhinitis 1.30, 95% CI, 1.20-1.40, p<0.01).
These findings suggest that frequent use of antimicrobial household products was associated with current wheeze and current allergic rhinitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopic disease remains controversial. This study is an investigation of the effect of breast-feeding on current atopic dermatitis (AD) among Korean children. This cross-sectional study of children's histories of current AD and environmental factors was completed by the subjects' parents. The subjects included 10,383 children aged 0-13 years in Seoul, Korea, in 2008. The diagnostic criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were applied in this study. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, maternal education, smoking in the household, relocation to a new house within 1 year of birth, and parental history of atopic disease. After adjustment for confounders, age and duration of maternal education were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of AD. Among subjects aged ≤5 years, the prevalence of AD was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant association between AD and breast-feeding among children >5 years of age. Regardless of parental history of atopic diseases, breast-feeding >12 months was a significant risk factor for AD. The effect of breast-feeding differed by age group. Prolonged breast-feeding increased the risk of AD in children <5 years of age, regardless of parental history of atopic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of literature has linked vitamin D deficiency with allergic diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the association between serum vitamin D status and the clinical manifestation of AD. We also developed an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).
This study included 157 patients (79 males and 78 females) with AD, aged 4 months to 56 years. We evaluated disease severity using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were determined by LC coupled with MS/MS. Total IgE and specific IgE levels were assayed using the immunoCAP system. ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation.
We found mild, moderate, and severe AD in 30 (11.1%), 87 (55.4%), and 40 (25.5%) patients, respectively. There was no significant correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and AD severity. However, among the 36 patients with food sensitization, the mean±SD serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) in patients with mild disease (21.2±5.18 ng/mL) compared with the levels in patients with moderate (17.9±4.02 ng/mL) or severe AD (13.3±5.11 ng/mL) disease.
These results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is related to the severity of AD associated with food sensitization. Thus, these data suggest a role for vitamin D in a select group of AD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Since 1995, epidemiologic studies of atopic disorders using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire have been performed in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. The prevalence, burden and risk factors of atopic dermatitis were surveyed in these studies, which helped to enhance their comparability among different areas and age groups, as well as to clarify the nature of atopic dermatitis and other atopic disorders.
From 21 facilities, 8,750 children were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The data were collected via the Internet using a questionnaire based on the Korean-language version of the ISAAC study format.
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis over the previous 12 months was 14.4%. The prevalence in preschool children was significantly higher than in elementary school children. Family history of atopic diseases, diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis and diagnosis of food allergy were positively associated with atopic dermatitis in both preschool and elementary school children. In addition, raising pets was positively associated with atopic dermatitis in preschool children. In elementary school children, female gender, secondhand smoking, breastfeeding, changing the parents' house to a newly built one during the first year of life, diagnosis of asthma and diagnosis of allergic rhinitis were positively associated with atopic dermatitis.
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in preschool and elementary school children in Korea is similar to that of children in other developing countries. The risk factors for atopic dermatitis are different in preschool and elementary school children. More detailed strategies will be necessary to reduce atopic dermatitis in both age groups.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 06/2013; 162(1):79-85. DOI:10.1159/000351403 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma symptoms.
A total of 6,919 elementary school children in Seoul were enrolled in the study. Data were obtained from a web-based questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood core module. The prevalence of wheeze in the past 12 months and severe asthma symptoms were obtained. The potential risk factors for asthma symptoms included household income and the number of siblings. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk factors of asthma symptoms.
The prevalence of current wheeze (wheeze in the past 12 months) was 5.2%. Household income and asthma symptoms were inversely associated after adjusting for other potential risk factors (p for trend=0.03). This association was modified by the number of siblings. With two or more siblings, the effect of household income on asthma symptoms was not significant. However, low household income was still a significant variable for patients with fewer than two siblings (OR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.81).
It appears that childhood asthma disparity is dependent on household income. Therefore, policies to improve childhood health inequities should be emphasized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood allergic diseases are a major concern because they lead to a heavy economic burden and poor quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and the comorbidity of allergic diseases in Seoul, Korea.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May and October 2010 to evaluate the prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis, using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood group. Each questionnaire was completed by the parent or guardian of a child.
In the 31,201 children studied, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis symptoms in the past 12 months was 19.3% in children 0 to 3 years of age, 19.7% in children 4 to 6 years of age, 16.7% in children 7 to 9 years of age, and 14.5% in children 10 to 13 years of age (p for trend < 0.001). The prevalence of asthma in these age groups was 16.5%, 9.8%, 6.5%, and 5.4%, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these age groups was 28.5%, 38.0%, 38.5%, and 35.9%, respectively (p for trend = 0.043). The percentage of subjects with both atopic dermatitis and asthma, both asthma and allergic rhinitis, or both atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was 2.5%, 4.7%, and 8.7%, respectively. The prevalence of comorbid allergic diseases decreased with age (p for trend < 0.001).
Our study revealed that the prevalence of some allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, was relatively high in very young children and that all of the principal allergic diseases in children often co-exist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food allergies can affect the growth and nutritional status of children with atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was conducted to determine the association between the number of sensitized food allergens and the growth and nutritional status of infants and young children with AD.
We studied 165 children with AD, aged 5 to 47 months, and who visited the Atopy Clinic of the Seoul Medical Center. We recorded the birth weight, time at which food weaning began, scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, eosinophil counts in peripheral blood, and total serum IgE and specific IgE to six major allergens (egg white, cow's milk, soybean, peanut, wheat, and fish). The height and weight for age and weight for height were converted to z-scores to evaluate their effects on growth and nutritional status. Specific IgE levels ≥0.7 kUA/L, measured via the CAP assay, were considered positive.
As the number of sensitized food allergens increased, the mean z-scores of weight and height for age decreased (P=0.006 and 0.018, respectively). The number directly correlated with the SCORAD index (r=0.308), time at which food weaning began (r=0.332), eosinophil counts in peripheral blood (r=0.266), and total serum IgE (r=0.394). Inverse correlations were observed with the z-scores of weight for age (r=-0.358), height for age (r=-0.278), and weight for height (r=-0.224).
A higher number of sensitized food allergens was associated with negative effects on the growth and nutritional status of infants and young children with AD. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of both growth and nutritional status, combined with adequate patient management, is crucial in pediatric AD patients presenting with numerous sensitized food allergies.