Panu Mentula

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (42)99.07 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that immediate laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal abscess would result in faster recovery than conservative treatment. On the basis of the retrospective studies, conservative management of appendiceal abscess is recommended as a first line treatment, but some controversy exists. Sixty adult patients diagnosed with appendiceal abscess were randomly assigned to either laparoscopic surgery (n = 30) or conservative treatment (n = 30). Hospital stay, recurrences, additional interventions, and complications within 60 days from randomization were recorded. There was no difference in hospital stay: 4 days (interquartile range: 3-5 days) in the laparoscopy group versus 5 days (3-8) in the conservative group, P = 0.105. Patients in the laparoscopy group had 10% risk for bowel resection and 13% risk for incomplete appendectomy. There were significantly fewer patients with unplanned readmissions in the laparoscopy group: 1 (3%) versus 8 (27%), P = 0.026. Additional interventions were required in 2 (7%) patients in the laparoscopy group (percutaneous drainage) and in 9 (30%) patients in the conservative group (surgery), P = 0.042. Recurrent abscesses and failure to respond to conservative treatment were the main reasons for additional interventions. Open surgery was required in 3 (10%) patients in the laparoscopy group and in 4 (13%) patients in the conservative group. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients in laparoscopic group versus 2 patients in the conservative group. The rate of uneventful recovery was 90% in the laparoscopy group versus 50% in the conservative group, P = 0.002. Laparoscopic surgery in experienced hands is safe and feasible first-line treatment for appendiceal abscess. It is associated with fewer readmissions and fewer additional interventions than conservative treatment with comparable hospital stay.
  • Annals of Surgery 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001202 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute diverticulitis is a broad spectrum of diseases with highly varying mortality and need for surgery. The aim of this study was to create an accurate staging of diverticulitis, which could be used both preoperatively and intraoperatively to predict outcome and guide treatment. This was a retrospective study of patients treated for diverticulitis in a secondary and tertiary referral center. Multivariate analysis was performed on several clinical, radiologic, and physiologic parameters to find predictors of mortality, need for surgery, need for intensive care, and length of stay. A total of 631 patients were analyzed. Organ dysfunction, peritonitis, and abscess size greater than 6 cm were identified as independent predictors of poor outcome. Pericolic air or no extraluminal air predicted better outcome. Based on these factors, a five-grade staging was created as follows: Stage 1, uncomplicated diverticulitis; Stage 2, complicated diverticulitis with small abscess (<6 cm); Stage 3, complicated diverticulitis with large abscess (≥6 cm) or distant intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal air; Stage 4, Generalized peritonitis without organ dysfunction; Stage 5, generalized peritonitis with organ dysfunction. Mortality was 0, 1%, 3%, 4%, and 32%; need for surgery was 1%, 5%, 46%, 98%, and 100%; and need for intensive care was 0%, 0%, 8%, 11%, and 50%, in Stages 1 to 5, respectively. New staging showed better predictive ability of outcomes compared with earlier classifications in receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The proposed staging can be used on all patients both preoperatively and intraoperatively. It takes into account organ dysfunction, which has major influence on survival. The new staging may be easily implemented in daily clinical practice and incorporated in clinical trials. Diagnostic study, level II.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 03/2015; 78(3):543-51. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000540 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrence of acute diverticulitis is common, and-especially complicated recurrence-causes significant morbidity. To prevent recurrence, selected patients have been offered prophylactic sigmoid resection. However, as there is no tool to predict whose diverticulitis will recur and, in particular, who will have complicated recurrence, the indications for sigmoid resections have been variable. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors predicting recurrence of acute diverticulitis.This is a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with computed tomography-confirmed acute diverticulitis and treated nonresectionally during 2006 to 2010. Risk factors for recurrence were identified using uni- and multivariate Cox regression.A total of 512 patients were included. History of diverticulitis was an independent risk factor predicting uncomplicated recurrence of diverticulitis (1-2 earlier diverticulitis HR 1.6, 3 or more-HR 3.2). History of diverticulitis (HR 3.3), abscess (HR 6.2), and corticosteroid medication (HR 16.1) were independent risk factors for complicated recurrence. Based on regression coefficients, risk scoring was created: 1 point for history of diverticulitis, 2 points for abscess, and 3 points for corticosteroid medication. The risk score was unable to predict uncomplicated recurrence (AUC 0.48), but was able to predict complicated recurrence (AUC 0.80). Patients were further divided into low-risk (0-2 points) and high-risk (>2 points) groups. Low-risk and high-risk groups had 3% and 43% 5-year complicated recurrence rates, respectively.Risk for complicated recurrence of acute diverticulitis can be assessed using risk scoring. The risk for uncomplicated recurrence increases along with increasing number of previous diverticulitis.
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    ABSTRACT: Debate on the effect of in-hospital delay on the risk of perforation in appendicitis persists, and the results from previous studies are controversial. The aims of this study were to present the effect of in-hospital delay on the risk of perforation in appendicitis and to assess the utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement in detecting the patients with complicated appendicitis. Prospectively collected data of 389 adult patients who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis were analyzed in order to find the most accurate method for recognizing the pre-hospital perforations. The effect of in-hospital delay on the further risk of perforation in patients with not yet perforated acute appendicitis was then analyzed. Out of 389 patients with appendicitis, 91 patients (23.4 %) had complicated appendicitis, 23 with abscess, and 68 with free perforation. Admission CRP level of 99 mg/l or higher was 90.3 % specific for complicated appendicitis. In patients with admission CRP less than 99 mg/l, the incidence of perforation doubled from 9.5 to 18.9 % when the in-hospital delay increased from less than 6 h to more than 12 h. Complicated appendicitis can be identified with a high CRP level on admission. Delaying surgery can increase the risk of perforation.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 01/2015; 400(2). DOI:10.1007/s00423-014-1271-x · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Surgery 11/2014; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000995 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is emerging as an alternative for open surgery in adhesive small bowel obstruction. Retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic approach shortens hospital stay and reduces complications in these patients. However, no prospective, randomized, controlled trials comparing laparoscopy to open surgery have been published. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, open label, randomized, controlled trial comparing laparoscopic adhesiolysis to open surgery in patients with computed-tomography diagnosed adhesive small bowel obstruction that is not resolving with conservative management. The primary study endpoint is the length of postoperative hospital stay in days. Sample size was estimated based on preliminary retrospective cohort, which suggested that 102 patients would provide 80% power to detect a difference of 2.5 days in the length of postoperative hospital stay with significance level of 0.05. Secondary endpoints include passage of stool, commencement of enteral nutrition, 30-day mortality, complications, postoperative pain, and the length of sick leave. Tertiary endpoints consist of the rate of ventral hernia and the recurrence of small bowel obstruction during long-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up by letter or telephone interview will take place at 1, 5, and 10 years. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this trial is the first one aiming to provide level Ib evidence to assess the use of laparoscopy in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01867528. Date of registration May 26th 2013.
    BMC Surgery 10/2014; 14(1):77. DOI:10.1186/1471-2482-14-77 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New biomarkers are needed to better predict the severity of acute pancreatitis. CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase is an enzyme that generates adenosine, which dampens inflammation and improves vascular barrier function in several disease models. CD73 also circulates in a soluble form in the blood. We studied whether levels of soluble form of CD73 predict the development of organ failure in acute pancreatitis.
    Critical Care Medicine 08/2014; DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000550 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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    Panu J Mentula, Ari K Leppäniemi
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing emergency surgery have a high risk for surgical complications and death. The Clavien-Dindo classification has been developed and validated in elective general surgical patients, but has not been validated in emergency surgical patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications in emergency surgical patients and to study preoperative factors for risk stratification that should be included into a database of surgical complications.
    Patient Safety in Surgery 07/2014; 8:31. DOI:10.1186/1754-9493-8-31
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for diverticulitis with extraluminal air is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of nonoperative treatment of acute diverticulitis with extraluminal air. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at an academic teaching hospital functioning as both a tertiary and secondary care referral center. PATIENTS: All of the patients with CT-diagnosed acute perforated diverticulitis with extraluminal air from 2006 through 2010 were included in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Nonoperative treatment composed of intravenous antibiotics, bowel rest, and percutaneous drainage were the included interventions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The need for operative management and mortality were measured. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients underwent nonoperative treatment, whereas 48 patients were primarily operated on. Patients treated nonoperatively were divided into 3 groups on the basis of identified factors that independently predicted risk for failure: 1) patients with pericolic air (n = 82) without abscess had a 99% success rate with 0% mortality. 2) Patients with distant intraperitoneal air (n = 29) had a 62% success ratewith 0% mortality. Abundant distant intraperitoneal air and fluid in the fossa Douglas were identified as risk factors for failure. Patients without these risk factors had an 86% success rate with nonoperative management. 3) Patients with distant retroperitoneal air (n = 14) had a 43% success rate with 7% mortality. LIMITATIONS: Comparison of nonoperative versus operative treatment cannot be made because of the study's retrospective nature. CONCLUSIONS: Nonoperative treatment of acute diverticulitis with extraluminal air is safe and effective in patients with a small amount of distant intraperitoneal air or pericolic air without clinical signs of peritonitis.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/2014; 57(7):875-881. DOI:10.1097/DCR.0000000000000083 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe aim of the study was to construct a new scoring system for more accurate diagnostics of acute appendicitis. Applying the new score into clinical practice could reduce the need of potentially harmful diagnostic imaging.MethodsThis prospective study enrolled 829 adults presenting with clinical suspicion of appendicitis, including 392 (47%) patients with appendicitis. The collected data included clinical findings and symptoms together with laboratory tests (white cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein), and the timing of the onset of symptoms. The score was constructed by logistic regression analysis using multiple imputations for missing values. Performance of the constructed score in patients with complete data (n = 725) was compared with Alvarado score and Appendicitis inflammatory response score.Results343 (47%) of patients with complete data had appendicitis. 199 (58%) patients with appendicitis had score value at least 16 and were classified as high probability group with 93% specificity.Patients with score below 11 were classified as low probability of appendicitis. Only 4% of patients with appendicitis had a score below 11, and none of them had complicated appendicitis. In contrast, 207 (54%) of non-appendicitis patients had score below 11. There were no cases with complicated appendicitis in the low probability group. The area under ROC curve was significantly larger with the new score 0.882 (95% CI 0.858 – 0.906) compared with AUC of Alvarado score 0.790 (0.758 – 0.823) and Appendicitis inflammatory response score 0.810 (0.779 – 0.840).ConclusionsThe new diagnostic score is fast and accurate in categorizing patients with suspected appendicitis, and roughly halves the need of diagnostic imaging.
    BMC Gastroenterology 06/2014; 14(1):114. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-114 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Pancreatology 06/2014; 14(3):S107. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2014.05.743 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early prediction of severe AP is needed to improve patient outcomes. The aim of the study was to find novel cytokines or combinations of cytokines for early identification of patients with AP at risk for severe disease.
    Critical care (London, England) 05/2014; 18(3):R104. DOI:10.1186/cc13885
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    Panu Mentula, Ari Leppäniemi
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    ABSTRACT: Severe acute pancreatitis has high mortality, but multiple and timely interventions can improve survival. Early in the course of the disease aggressive fluid resuscitation is needed for the prevention and treatment of shock. In conjunction with leaking capillaries this results in increased tissue edema, which may lead to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring is essential for optimizing fluid therapy while monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure is necessary for identification patients at risk of developing abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome develops usually within the first days after hospitalization. Conservative treatment modalities are useful in prevention but also in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome. If conservative management fails surgical decompression of abdomen may be needed. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and increased intra-abdominal pressure predispose patients with severe pancreatitis to secondary infections. Extrapancreatic infections predominate during the first week of the disease, whereas infection of pancreatic necrosis usually develops later. Early enteral nutrition reduces the risk of infections whereas advantage of prophylactic antibiotics is lacking evidence. Surgery for infected pancreatic necrosis is associated with high mortality when performed within the first two weeks of the disease. Therefore surgery should be postponed as late as possible, preferably later than four weeks after disease onset.
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery 02/2014; 9(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1749-7922-9-15 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing diverticulitis and for routine follow-up colonoscopy to rule out cancer. Scientific data to support routine colonoscopy after acute diverticulitis are scarce and conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of colon cancer mimicking diverticulitis, and hence the need for routine colonoscopy after CT-diagnosed acute diverticulitis. This study was a retrospective analysis of patients treated for acute diverticulitis in a single academic institution during 2006-2010. Data regarding age, sex, laboratory parameters, prior diverticulitis, surgical operations, pathology reports, and CT characteristics were collected. Risk factors for finding colon cancer after CT-diagnosed acute diverticulitis were identified by multivariate analysis. The study enrolled 633 patients with CT-diagnosed acute diverticulitis. Of these patients, 97 underwent emergency resection, whereas 536 were treated conservatively, 394 of whom underwent colonoscopy. The findings showed 17 cancers (2.7 %) in patients with an initial diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. As shown by CT, 16 cancer patients (94 %) had abscess, whereas one patient had pericolic extraluminal air but no abscess. Of the patients with abscess, 11.4 % had cancer mimicking acute diverticulitis. No cancer was found in the patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis. Besides abscess, other independent risk factors for cancer included suspicion of cancer by a radiologist, thickness of the bowel wall exceeding 15 mm, no diverticula observed, and previously undiagnosed metastases. Routine colonoscopy after CT-proven uncomplicated diverticulitis seems to be unnecessary, but colonoscopy should be performed for patients with a diagnosis of diverticular abscess.
    Surgical Endoscopy 11/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1007/s00464-013-3257-0 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Pancreatology 03/2013; 13(2):e60. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2012.12.266 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several temporary abdominal closure techniques have been used in the management of open abdomen. Failure to achieve delayed primary fascial closure results in a large ventral hernia. This retrospective analysis evaluated whether the use of vacuum-assisted closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VACM) as temporary abdominal closure improved the delayed primary fascial closure rate compared with non-traction methods. METHODS: Patients treated with an open abdomen between 2004 and 2010 were analysed. RESULTS: Among 50 patients treated with VACM and 54 using non-traction techniques (control group), the delayed primary fascial closure rate was 78 and 44 per cent respectively (P < 0·001); rates among those who survived to abdominal closure were 93 and 59 per cent respectively. Independent predictors of delayed primary fascial closure in multivariable logistic regression analysis were the use of VACM (odds ratio (OR) 4·43, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·64 to 11·99) and diagnosis other than peritonitis, severe acute pancreatitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR 3·45, 1·07 to 11·04), which represented the main diagnoses. Prophylactic open abdomen was used to inhibit the development of intra-abdominal hypertension more frequently in the VACM group (28 versus 7 per cent; P = 0·008). Twelve per cent of patients in the VACM group developed an enteroatmospheric fistula compared with 19 per cent of control patients. Among survivors, three of 31 treated with VACM and 17 of 36 controls were left with a planned ventral hernia (P = 0·001). CONCLUSION: The indication for open abdomen contributed to the probability of delayed primary fascial closure. VACM resulted in a higher fascial closure rate and lower planned hernia rate than methods that did not provide fascial traction. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    British Journal of Surgery 12/2012; 99(12). DOI:10.1002/bjs.8914 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to determine the effect of the activated protein C on the course of systemic inflammation in the APCAP (activated protein C in acute pancreatitis) trial where we randomized 32 patients with severe acute pancreatitis to receive either recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alfa activated) (n = 16) or placebo (n = 16) for 96 hours. In the present study, we present the time course of the patients' plasma or serum levels of soluble markers (IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sE-selectin, PCT) and monocyte and neutrophil cell surface (CD11b, CD14, CD62L, HLA-DR) markers of systemic inflammatory response during the first 14 days after the randomization. The results of the intervention and placebo groups were comparable showing that recombinant APC treatment did not alter the course of systemic inflammation in severe acute pancreatitis. Our finding is in accordance with the clinical findings in the APCAP trial indicating that the intervention did not affect evolution of multiple organ dysfunctions.
    01/2012; 2012:712739. DOI:10.1155/2012/712739
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    ABSTRACT: Being a central link between inflammation and coagulation, tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitor (TFPI) might be associated with the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the development of organ failure (OF). The study comprises 9 severe AP patients with OF and 24 reference patients (11 mild AP and 13 severe AP without OF). Plasma samples were collected on admission. TF-induced thrombin generation in plasma samples was studied using the thrombogram method. In vivo thrombin generation was estimated by prothrombin fragment F1+2. Free and total TFPI levels were measured. To evaluate coagulation status the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet count, D-dimer, fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT) 3 and protein C (PC) were determined. There was no significant difference in F1+2 levels between the patient groups. Patients with severe AP tended to show low platelet counts, PC and AT3 levels, and high D-dimer levels. In 11 patients the standard TF stimulation did not trigger thrombin generation in the thrombogram. All deaths occurred in these patients. Free TFPI levels and free/total TFPI ratios were significantly higher in these patients and in non-survivors. Failure of TF-initiated thrombin generation in the thrombogram assay explained by high levels of circulating free TFPI may be associated with OF and mortality in AP. and IAP.
    Pancreatology 12/2011; 11(6):557-66. DOI:10.1159/000333481 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of severe liver injuries has evolved to include the options for nonoperative management and damage control surgery. The present study analyzes the criteria for choosing between nonoperative management and early surgery, and definitive repair versus damage control strategy during early surgery. In a retrospective analysis of 144 patients with severe (AAST grade III-V) liver injuries (94% blunt trauma), early laparotomy was performed in 50 patients. Initial management was nonoperative in 94 blunt trauma patients with 8 failures. Uni- and multivariate analyses were used to calculate predictor odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Factors associated with early laparotomy in blunt trauma included shock on admission, associated grade IV-V splenic injury, grade IV-V head injury, and grade V liver injury. Only shock was an independent predictor (OR, 26.1; 95% CI, 8.9-77.1; P < 0.001). The presence of a grade IV-V splenic injury predicted damage control strategy (OR infinite; P = 0.021). Failed nonoperative management was associated with grade IV-V splenic injury (OR, 14.00; 95% CI, 1.67-117.55), and shock (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.49-31.29). The hospital mortality rate was 15%; 8 of 21 deaths were liver-related. Shock (OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 2.4-35.8; P = 0.001) and severe head injury (OR, 9.25; 95% CI, 3.0-28.9; P = 0.000) were independent predictors for mortality. In patients with severe liver injury, associated severe splenic injury favors early laparotomy and damage control strategy. Patients who arrive in shock or have an associated severe splenic injury should not be managed nonoperatively. In addition to severe head injury, uncontrollable bleeding from the liver injury is still a major cause of early death.
    World Journal of Surgery 12/2011; 35(12):2643-9. DOI:10.1007/s00268-011-1309-y · 2.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

362 Citations
99.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2003–2014
    • University of Helsinki
      • • IV Department of Surgery
      • • Second Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Bacteriology and Immunology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland